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J.  E.   TAYLOR,  Ph.D.,  F.L.S.,  F.G.S.,  F.R.G.S.I., 





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THE     necessity    to    pen    a    few    editorial     notes    to    our    friends 
reminds    us    that    SCIENCE-GOSSIP    has    been    in    existence    for 
twenty-two  years. 

We  are  happy  to  say  there  are  no  signs  of  failing  health — 
only  of  vigorous  manhood.  Our  columns  were  never  before  found  so 
strait  for  the  matter  sent  us  by  hosts  of  willing  and  enthusiastic 
contributors,  neither  has  the  number  or  universality  of  our  readers 
lessened  ;  for  Science-Gossip  is  known  all  over  the  globe.  This  is 
a  great  deal  to  say,  when  we  remember  the  number  of  popular 
Science  periodicals  which  have  competed  for  public  favour  since  our 
magazine  was  launched  twenty-two  years  ago. 

We  have  endeavoured,  as  far  as  lay  in  our  power,  to  cater  for 
every  class  of  our  readers — geologists,  astronomers,  botanists,  ento- 
mologists, ornithologists,  conchologists,  microscopists,  &c,  as  well  as 
that  large  and  undefined  host  of  readers  who  are  content  to  be  fond 
of  "  Natural  History."  Where  we  have  failed  to  please,  we  feel 
confident  it  has  not  been  for  want  of  good  intentions. 

In  the  present  volume  we  commenced  a  series  of  monthly  papers 
on  "Astronomy  and  Meteorology,"  which  we  were  fortunate  to  have 
written  for  our  pages  by  Mr.  John  Browning,  F.R.A.S.,  the  well- 
known  Astronomer  and  Optician. 

Science  is  always  increasing  the  number  of  its  Gateways. 
Openings  into  the  Unknown  are  familiarly  used  now  which  were 
never  thought  of  a  quarter  of  a  century  ago.  Not  the  least  inter- 
esting   and    suggestive   of    these    are   the    real    relationships    between 


Reason  and  Instinct,  in  animals  as  well  as  man.  We  do  not  refer 
to  the  old  cut-and-dried  and  unstudied  theories,  which  generally- 
passed  unchallenged  in  the  period  above  mentioned,  and  which 
many  people  still  hold  by  as  unchallenged  truths.  We  prefer  to 
include  all  such  mental  traits  under  the  term  of  "  Animal  Psy- 
chology," and  propose  to  commence  a  special  column  in  SciENCE- 
GOSSIP  next  year  for  the  record  and  discussion  of  authentically 
observed  anecdotes  of  animal  sagacity,  perversity,  &c. ;  in  short, 
anything  in  the  Animal  Kingdom  which  relates  to  "  The  World  of 
Mind."  We  feel  confident  that  this  will  open  out  a  new  field  of 
observation,  and  that  henceforth  our  knowledge  of  animals  will  not 
be  confined  merely  to  their  food,  habits,  colours,  breeding-times,  &c, 
but  that  something  can  and  will  be  noted  concerning  their  inner 
life.  We  invite  our  readers  to  contribute  their  own  observations  to 
this  department. 

It    only    remains    for    us    now    to    thank    our    host  of  friends   for 

abundant    help,    kindly   sympathy,   and    useful    advice.  Let    us   hope 

that  at  the  end  of  1887,  we  may  have  to  close  our  Preface,  as  we 
close  this,  by  wishing  them,  "  hands  all  round," 

A  Happy  New  Year  ! 


Abnormal  Trout,  19 

AZpophiltts  Bounairei,  56 

Aerating  Apparatus  applied  to  Live  Eel, 

Aerating  Apparatus,  80 
Amfilexus  coralloides,  221 
Animal  Parasites : — 

Chigoe,  132 

Colpocephalum  of  Rook,  200 

Dermaleiclvus   of  Chaffinch,  133 

Docophorus  of  Rook,  149 

Echiiiophthinius  of  Seal,  149 

Eureum  of  Swift,  201 

Flea  of  Bat,  132 

Flea  of  Bird,  133 

Flea  of  Dog,  132 

Flea  of  Mole,  132 

Flea  of  Squirrel,  133 

Flea  of  Flying  Fox,  109 

Goniodes  of  Impeyan  Pheasant,  176 

Goniodes  of  Peacock,  176 

Gyropus  of  Guinea  Pig,  201 

Harvest  Bug,  133 

Hccmatomyzus  of  Elephant,  149 

Hcematopinus  of  Horse,  148 

Head  of  Akidoprochis,  176 

Head  of  L&mobothrium  of  Kite,  200 

Head  of  Oruithobius  of  Swan,  176 

Head  of  Physostomum  of  Chaffinch, 

Hypopus  of  Fly,  133 

Lipopte>ia  of  Stag,  108 

Lipeurus  of  Tragopan,  176 

Listophorus  of  Hare,  133 

Mcnopon  of  Piliated  Jay,  200 

Nirmits  of  Oyster-catcher,  149 

Omithymia  of  Pigeon,  108 

Pediculus  of  Monkey,  148 

Trichodectes  of  Horse,  176 
Anthomyia  pluvialis,  100 
Anthomyia  pluvialis,  teeth  of,  100 
Apparatus  for  Microscopical  Drawing,  8 
Apparatus  for  placing  Unmounted  Objects 

on  S'age,  8 
Aquarium,  Cheaply  constructed,  12 
Aquarium,  posts  of,  12,  13 
Aquarium,  bottom  for,  12,  13 
Aquarium,  fastening  glass  in,  12,  13 
Ascus  of/.,  ampullasca,  77 
Astcracanthus  ornatissimus,  5 

Bank-vole,  157 

Blood  Corpuscles  of  Cobra,  269 

Corydalis  cava,  128 

Corydalis  lutea,  128 

Corydalis  solida,  128 

Cotton-Fibre  compared  with  Wool,  etc.,  38 

Encrinite,  Stem  of,  221 
Epidermis  from,  Lamina  of  Leaf,  20 
Erismacanthus  J  ojiesii,  5 
Euchlanis,  85 
Euomphalus  peutangHlatus,  220 

Fetiestella  plebeia,  220 

Fibres  of  American  Cotton,  9 

Grevillia  anceps,  61 

Lentomita  ampullasca,  76 
Lithostrotion  basaltiforme,  220 
Lizards,  group  of,  244,  245 
Lopkiotrema  angustilabrum,  36 
Lophiotrema   angustilabrum,    Sporidium 

of,  36 
Lophiotrema    angustilabrum,    Group    of 

sporidia  from  a  single  perithecium  of,  36 

Medland's  New  Portable  Cabinet, 

Mcyeria  Vectensis,  McCoy,  61 
Mirrors,  the  two,  248,  249,  250,  266,  267 
Musca  meridiana,  252,  253 
Murexide,  57 
Mydce  Urbani,  teeth  of,  272 

Nepeta  glechoma,  Lower  portion  of,  28 

Nepeta,  multicellular  hairs,  28 

N.  glechoma,  Flowers  of,  29 

N.  glechoma,  Gynoecium  of,  29 

N.  glechoma,  Tetragonal  stem  of,  29 

CEcidium  berberidis,  104 
(Ecidium-spore,  104,  105 

Pecten  quinquecostatus ,  61 
Perithecia,  two  adjacent,  77 
Perithecium,  a  single,  76 
Perithecium,  Apex  of  beak  of,  77 

Perithecium,  Hexagonal  cells  of,  77 
Perithecium,  Sycamore  Fungus  of,  7 
Petalomonas  carinata,  273 
Pleurotomaria  carinata,  221 
Productus giganteus,  220 
Productus  punctatus,  211 

Rhynchonclla  pleurodon,  220 
Rotifers,  a  group  of,  84,  85,  196,  197 

Samara  of  Sycamore,  180,  181 
Saw-flies,  Our  British,  204,  205 
Scaphites  tequalis,  60 
Sclcrostoma  duodeuale,  173 
Sphceria  macrostoma,  36 
Spharophrya,  Remarkable  shape  of,  32 
Studies  of  Common  Plants,  101,  224 
Stylonychia  sp.  Normal  cyst  of,  32 
Stylouychia,    attacked    by   Sphaerophrya, 

Stylouychia,  emerging  from  its  cyst,  32 
Stylouychia  tentacles  on,  32 
Stylonychia,  throwing  out  protoplasm,  32 
Stylouychia,    throwing     out    protoplasm, 

further  advanced,  32 
Surface-net,  Long  Section  of  Tube,  52 
Surface-net,  end  of,  with  Tube  fitted  ready 

for  use,  52 
Surface-net,  Outline  section  of,  and  Tube, 

Surface-net,  Suspended  from  Bowsprit  end 

of  Ship,  52 
Sycamore  leaves,  fungus  spots  on,  228 
Sycamore  leaf  of,  228 
Sycamore,  Mclasmia  aceriua,  228,  229 
Sycamore,  Rhytisma  acerinum,  229 

Tadpole,   Different  Stages  of,  124, 

Teeth  of  Flies,  272 
Terebralula  hastata,  220 
Thread-spinning  worm,  152 
Trilobite,  Head  and  Tail  of,  221 

Uric  Acid  Crystals,  57 
Verticillaster  inflorescence,  29 
Wasp's  Nest,  268 


By  G.    DAVIES. 

MUST  preface  these 
notes  by  saying  the 
following  has  no- 
thing new,  and  to 
a  botanist  or  horti- 
culturist they  are 
worthless.  Firstly, 
the  space  of  my 
available  garden 
ground  is  only  fifty 
square  yards.  So 
all  I  claim  is,  that 
I  have  taken  some 
pains  in  selecting 
suitable  shrubs  for 
the  soil  and  situa- 
tion ;  as  my  wish 
is  to  spread  among 
dwellers  in  towns, 
the  culture  of  these 
evergreens,  and  to 
induce  others  to  abandon  the  palling  monotony  of  the 
commonplace  plants  we  usually  see  in  such  gardens 
as  mine. 

My  conifers  of  the  Pinus  set  are  P.  Austriaca, 
P.  cembra,  P.  excelsa,  and  P.  insignis.  Here  P. 
Austriaca  succeeds  best,  then  P.  excelsa.  Next  the 
Abies,  the  silver  fir,  A.  Nordmanniana,  takes  more 
kindly  to  this  soil.  A.  pinsapo,  the  lovely  little  Spanish 
plant,  is  rather  slow  in  growth,  as  alsr,  A,  montana, 
lasiocarpa.  The  Cypress  set,  Cupressus  macrocarpa, 
C.  Laiusoniana,  and  C.  Nutkaensis,  developing  two 
or  three  feet  a  year. 

The  allies  Cryptomeria  elegans  and  Thuiopsis  dola- 
brata  both  luxuriate,  the  latter,  a  young  plant  three 
feet  high,  having  both  male  and  female  flowers. 
Next  comes  Retinospora  obtusa,  producing  a  few 
young  flowers  the  second  year.  The  dwarf  R,  ericoides 
fills  up  a  corner  gap. 

Juniperus  Japonica  flourishes   extremely,  but  the 
dwarf    J.     Chinensis    scarcely   repays   the    trouble. 
Araiuaria  imbricata  thrives  beautifully  if  well  syringed. 
No.  253.— January  1886. 

Biota  aurea,  male  and  female,  as  this  is  a  dioicous 
plant,  and  Thuja  occidentalis  are  very  popular  and 
easily  grown. 

The  sacred  tree  of  China,  the  Maidenhair  tree  as  it 
is  called,  Ginkgo  biloba  or  Salisburia  adiantifolia,  is  a 
great  ornament,  but  very  sensitive  ;  at  the  first  sharp 
autumn  frost,  say  early  October,  the  leaves  shed.  In 
the  Botanic  Garden  at  Geneva  are  two  trees,  one 
male,  and  one  female,  side  by  side,  each  thirty  feet 
high.  That  beautiful  plant,  the  umbrella  pine  of 
Japan  (Sciadopitys  verticillata),  planted  in  September 
1884,  is  now  in  beautiful  condition,  with  forty-eight 
new  branches  of  leaves. 

Of  the  yews  and  allies,  Saxegothaa  conspicua  is  a 
slow-growing  plant,  as  are  Podocarpus  chilinus, 
Prumnopitys  elegans,  and  Cephalotaxus  pedunculata, 
the  latter  alone  showing  flower  buds.  These  are 
interesting  as  exhibiting  the  South  American  forms 
of  this  family.  Taxodhtm  distichum  is  more  luxuriant  ; 
of  this  there  is  a  fine  tree  near  water  at  Horsted 
Keynes.  Taxodium  and  the  Ginkgo  are  interesting,  as 
they  are  said  to  have  been  found  in  a  fossil  state  in 
the  coal  formations  in  Scotland. 

The  most  luxuriant  and  easily-grown  shrub  in 
Brighton  is  Etwnymus  Japonica,  reminding  one  of  the 
orange  trees  on  the  Riviera.  Male  plants  are  met 
with  near  warm  walls.  Near  the  sea  it  runs  up  the 
seawall  30  feet  high.  Next  in  interest  is  the  Japanese 
Eleagnns  glaber,  having  more  beautiful  leaves. 

Skifnmia  Japonica,  Pittospornm  Tobira,  Arbutus 
Unedo,  Raphiolepis  ovata,  Phillyrea  ilicifolia,  Garrya 
elliptica,  Mabonia  Japonica,  Berberis  Darwiniana,  and 
Olearia  Haastii  are  more  or  less  pleasing,  but  Photinia 
sermlata,  a  Chinese  member  of  the  Pomaceae,  with  its 
gorgeous  shining  leaves,  is  a  great  ornament. 

Acanthus  candelabrum  is  a  beautiful  evergreen, 
with  root  leaves,  shining,  and  two  feet  from  point  to 
the  ground,  the  young  flower  stalk  is  approaching 
three  feet  high. 

Asphodelus  luteus,  last  year  luxuriant,  now  some- 
what languishes. 

In  the  open  Ptelea  trifoliata,  the  hop  tree,  or  North 


HA  R  D  WICKE '  S  S  CIE  NCE  -  G  O  SSIP. 

American  shrubby  trefoil,  has  had  a  mass  of  flowers. 
A  French  yellow  Magnolia  hybrid,  planted  two  months, 
suffered  from  the  sharp  May  frosts,  as  did  Chionan- 
thus  fragrans,  but  Chionanthus  Virginica  is  in  full 
beautiful  leaf,  as  is  a  bamboo,  B.  Simmonii :  it  is 
gratifying  to  find  it  grows  so  near  the  chalk  soil. 
The  Japanese  ribbon-grass  (Eulalia  Japonica)  is  in  a 
fine  state  of  development,  as  likewise  is  the  reed-like 
Eriantkus  Ravenna.  The  Edelweiss,  Gnaphalium 
leontopodinm,  in  full  flower,  and  eight  inches  high, 
makes  one  long  to  be  at  one  of  its  homes  at  the  head 
of  the  Valtellina.  The  popular  Tritoma  uvaria  does 
well,  if  well  watered,  but  flowers  later  ;  my  plant  last 
year  had  13  flower  spikes. 

On  walls,  Pyrus  Japonica,  Bridgesia  spicata, 
Escallonia  floribunda,  Bignonia  caprcolata,  Cratirgus 
pyracantlia,  Jlfespilus  microphylla,  and  two  jasmines  all 
do  well.  But  there  are  three  notable  plants,  the 
common  and  luxuriant  Wistaria  Sinensis,  the  beautiful 
spreading  Eccrcmocarpus  scaler,  for  which  latter  I  am 
indebted  to  my  friend  Mr.  C.  P.  Smith,  of  Clayton 
Park,  the  skilled  botanist,  who  has  given  me  much 
valuable  information.  The  third  plant  is  the  ornamental 
Aristolochia  sipho.  This  singular  plant,  which  flourishes 
so  beautifully  on  garden  walls  at  Reims,  sends  forth 
from  the  stem  nodes  at  the  same  time,  on  bursting, 
both  flower  and  leaves.  Mr.  Piggott,  of  Tunbridge 
Wells,  the  horticultural  author  and  discoverer  of 
,  Gr aphis  Ruiziana,  says  A.  sipho  is  named  from  its 
flower  "  the  Dutchman's  pipe."  Cohva  scandens  is 
another  useful  climber.  Last  year  I  planted  four  fig- 
trees,  two  white  and  two  black.  These  trees  as  a 
rule  flourish  at  Rottingdean,  Brighton,  Lancing,  and 
elsewhere  on  this  coast,  bearing  luscious  fruit  in  hot 
summers  ;  last  year  the  slugs  attacked  the  young 
bark  and  I  lost  two.  The  beautiful  foliaged  plant 
Ceanothus  {gloire  de  Versailles)  is  a  great  ornament  to 
walls.  My  plant  is  now  seven  feet  high,  the  stem-tops 
are  covered  with  clusters  of  young  flowers,  the  colour 
of  which  is  exquisite.  In  the  limited  space  of  ground 
it  is  singular  to  note  the  powerful  effect  of  the  sun. 
Many  of  us  have  noted  the  force  of  "actinism" 
as  it  is  called,  in  developing  the  brilliant  colours  of 
flowers  in  the  high  Alps,  that  is  from  7500  to  9000 
feet  above  the  sea.  But  here  the  shrubs  on  the  sides 
nearest  the  sun  have  finer  and  better  leaves,  and  my 
three  plants  of  Pi '11  us  Austriaca,  planted  to  mask  a  wall 
running  east  and  west,  have  a  progressive  development 
each  three  inches  higher  than  its  western  neighbour, 
and  all  were  planted  the  same  time,  and  were  then  of 
an  uniform  height.  Again  two  Siberian  crabs,  Pyrus 
prunifolia,  planted  for  convenience'  sake  against  a 
wall  facing  west,  the  more  southern  plant  has  finer 
leaves,  and  forty  set  fruits  ;  larger  than  those  of  its 
neighbour,  which,  getting  less  sun,  has  only  thirty- 
five  and  much  smaller. 

These  conifers  and  shrubs  are  better  developed 
than  in  the  surrounding  garden,  which  I  ascribe  to 
my  practice  of  daily  lateral  syringing,  particularly  in 

the  dry  months  of  the  year,  so  necessary  in  our  diy 
Brighton  air  ;  not  flooding  the  ground  as  generally 
done,  and  leaving  the  foliage  to  take  care  of  itself. 
These  are  an  amateur's  crude  notions.  It  is  possible 
another  year  I  may  jot  down  a  few  more  notes,  by 
which  time,  climate,  soil,  and  "  General  Frost"  will 
show  how  many  I  shall  have  to  add  to  the  list  of  "  our 


rllE  Poet's  Beasts,  by  Phil.  Robinson  (London 
Chatto  &  Windus).  This  author  has  imported 
a  fresh  interest  into  English  literature.  He  has  done 
for  the  poets  what  Frank  Buckland  did  for  the 
painters  when  he  criticised  their  natural  history  at  the 
Royal  Academy.  "  Phil  Robinson  "  is  a  marvellously 
wide  and  well  read  man,  and  it  is  surprising  how 
intimate  he  is  with  all  our  English  poets.  His 
style  is  plain,  incisive,  and  quaintly  humorous  — 
occasionally  delicately  satirical.  The  volume  before 
us  is  a  necessary  work  to  the  student  of  English 
literature,  and  the  general  reader  will  peruse  it  with 
keen  enjoyment. 

Wanderings  of  Plants  and  Animals,  by  Victor 
Helm,  edited  by  J.  S.  Stallybrass  (London  :  Swan 
Sonnenschein  &  Co.).  This  is  a  well-edited  transla- 
tion of  a  very  erudite  and  important  work.  The 
naturalist  will  be  deceived  if  he  thinks  it  deals  with 
the  geological  and  geographical  distribution  of  plants 
and  animals.  On  the  contrary,  Professor  Hehn 
thinks  the  naturalist  has  had  too  much  of  his  own 
way,  and  the  historian  too  little.  So,  in  the  lights  of 
philology  and  history,  he  endeavours  to  account  for 
the  wanderings  of  the  plants  and  animals  which  have 
proved  of  the  greatest  advantage  to  mankind.  Thus, 
he  holds  (and  probably  with  reason)  that  Europe 
owes- more  to  Asia  than  most  naturalists  imagine. 
Thus  he  takes  the  horse,  vine,  fig-tree,  olive,  ass, 
bear,  flax^  hemp,  rose,  domestic  fowl,  pigeon,  &c, 
&c,  as  the  subjects  of  his  chapters.  He  traces  their 
history,  developments,  modifications,  in  the  hands  of 
man.  Altogether  this  is  a  most  useful  book  to  the 
historian  as  well  as  the  naturalist.  There  is  no 
evident  method  in  the  arrangement  of  the  subject- 
matter.  We  jump  from  the  horse  to  the  vine,  and 
from  asses  and  goats  to  stone  architecture,  from 
cucurbitaceous  plants  to  the  domestic  fowl,  and  from 
hawking  to  the  plum-tree.  Moreover,  nothing  is 
said  about  the  vast  number  and  variety  of  fossil 
horses  in  America,  nor  even  of  its  modern  introduc- 
tion either  into  that  country  or  Australia,  in  both  of 
which  it  has  become  wild.  The  historical  introduction 
of  the  pig  into  New  Zealand,  and  of  the  rabbit,  hare, 
sparrow,  thistle,  &c,  into  the  Australian  colonies, 
might  also  have  been  included  with  advantage  in 
such  splendid  historical  monographs  as  this  valuable 
book  contains. 


From  Paris  to  Pekin  over  Siberian  Snows,  by  Victor 
Mignan.  Edited  from  the  French  by  William  Conu 
(London  :  W.  Swan  Sonnenschein  &  Co.).  This  is  a 
delightful  work  of  travel,  so  well  translated  that  not 
the  slightest  flavour  of  French  humour  is  lost.  The 
author  is  a  genuine  traveller,  not  a  mere  "  globe- 
trotter." He  has  an  observant  eye — for  scenery, 
politics,  men  and  women  (especially  the  latter).  And 
then  the  ground  traversed  is  so  little  known  to  the 
general  reader — Lake  Baikal,  the  deserts  of  Gobi, 
North  China,  &c.  The  work  cannot  fail  to  be 

Natural  History  and  Sport,  by  the  Rev.  G.  C. 
Green  (London  :  L.  Reeve  &  Co. ).  At  first  thought 
we  felt  there  was  more  sport  than  natural  history, 
more  killing  than  observation,  in  this  charming  little 
book.  We  mention  the  feeling  because  others  may 
think  so  too,  and  we  hasten  to  say  how  sorry  we 
afterwards  felt  for  having  unconsciously  libelled  a 
genuine  and  enthusiastic  naturalist  and  true  sports- 
man. Mr.  Green  sets  down  the  delightful  experiences, 
wanderings,  and  observations  of  such  a  happy  and 
contented  life,  that  we  wish  more  people  could  live 
it.  We  feel,  whilst  reading  Mr.  Green's  book, 
how  much  a  knowledge  of  natural  history  can  sweeten 
a  human  life. 

A  Manual  of  Health  Science,  by  Dr.  Andrew 
Wilson  (London  :  Longmans).  People,  as  they 
increase  in  intelligence,  feel  they  have  as  much  right 
to  look  after  their  bodies  as  their  souls,  and  not  to  be 
content  merely  with  entrusting  them  to  the  doctor 
and  the  parson.  In  what  may  be  called  the  revival 
of  public  interest  in  Health  matters,  Dr.  Andrew 
Wilson  has  taken  a  prominent  part.  The  little  book 
before  us  is  a  valuable  one,  and  it  sets  forth  clearly 
and  plainly  a  comprehensive  statement  of  the  leading 
facts  and  features  of  sanitary  laws. 

British  Zoophytes,  by  A.  S.  Pennington,  F.L.S. ,  Sec. 
(London  :  L.  Reeve  &  Co.).  This  is  a  valuable  and 
neatly  got  up  manual  on  the  hydroida,  actinozoa, 
and  polyzoa,  illustrated  with  abundant  lithographs. 
Mr.  Pennington  has  aimed  to  do  for  the  present 
generation  of  students  what  Dr.  Landsborough  did 
so  well  for  the  last.  Since  Landsborough's  time  the 
microscope  has  become  a  working  tool,  and  histology 
has  grown  up.  Mr.  Pennington  has  abundantly 
utilised  all  the  materials  at  his  service,  and  has  laid 
Hincks,  Busk,  Allman  and  others  under  contribution  ; 
all  of  which  he  honestly  and  frankly  admits.  In 
consequence  he  has  produced  a  valuable  and  handy 
student's  manual. 

Myths  and  Dreams,  by  Edward  Clodd  (London  : 
Chatto  &  Windus).  A  more  delightfully  written 
book  than  this  we  have  not  read  for  many  a  day. 
It  steers  clear  alike  of  the  Baconian  method  of 
mythological  explanation  and  the  Solar.  Although 
evolutionistic  Mr.  Clodd  does  not  even  accept  Herbert 
Spencer's  ideas.  For  clear  and  clever  and  attractive 
treatment  of  subjects  usually  deemed  dry  and  useless, 

we  know  of  none  which  can  compare  with  the  little 
volume  under  notice. 

Moon-Lore,  by  the  Rev.  Timothy  Harley  (London  : 
Swan  Sonnenschein  &  Co.).  Our  earth's  "  solitary 
companion,  the'  moon,"  has  left  its  mark  on  human 
character  and  literature.  In  mythology,  legend, 
folk-lore,  theology  even  —  poetry,  superstition — it 
would  be  difficult  to  find  another  natural  object  to 
excel  the  moon.  It  is  a  wonder  nobody  has  collected 
all  this  varied  matter  together  in  a  handy  and  read- 
able form.  At  length  it  has  been  done,  and,  from 
what  we  have  read,  done  well  ! 

Proceedings  of  the  Literary  and  Philosophical  Society 
of  Liverpool,  vol.  xxxviii.  (London  :  Longmans). 
We  are  always  pleased  to  receive  the  neatly  got  up 
annual  volume  of  this  well-known  society.  It  is  sure 
to  contain  papers  full  of  original  matter  as  well  as 
original  research.  Among  those  of  exceeding  interest 
in  vol.  xxxviii.,  are  the  following  :  "  Descriptions  of 
recent  additions  to  the  Liverpool  Museum,"  by  Mr. 
T.  J.  Moore;  "Mind  in  Man  and  the  Lower 
Animals,"  by  R.  Steel;  "Museums  of  Natural 
History,"  by  H.  H.  Higgins ;  "  The  Flora  and 
Fauna  of  Oceanic  Isles,"  by  R.  J.  H.  Gibson  ;  "  The 
Introduction  of  Peruvian  Bark  into  India,"  by  Dr. 
J.  B.  Nevini,  &c. 

Recherches  Anatomiques  snr  les  Organes  Vegetatifs 
de  FUrtica  Dioica,  par  A.  Gravis  (Bruxelles  :  Librairie 
Scientifique  de  A.  Manceaux).  In  this  original  work 
Dr.  Gravis  has  really  prepared  a  kind  of  botanical 
typical  basis  for  the  study  of  the  natural  order 
Urticaceie.  Every  detail,  histological,  physiological, 
and  morphological,  of  the  type-plant  is  elaborately 
dwelt  upon  ;  and  outsiders  would  little  imagine 
that  any  botanist  could  devote  260  quarto  pages, 
and  23  beautifully  got  up  plates,  full  of  structural 
details,  to  so  ordinary  a  plant  as  the  common 
nettle  ! 

The  World's  Lumler-Room,  by  Selina  Gaye  (Lon- 
don :  Cassell  &  Co).  This  is  an  unfortunate  and 
unattractive,  as  well  as  an  inexpressive  title  for  the 
nicely  got  up  book  before  us.  It  deals  with  every- 
thing it  is  possible  to  find  in  a  "lumber  room,"— 
dust,  beetles,  fossils,  corals,  &c.  &c. 

Short  Studies  from  Nature,  by  various  authors 
(London:  Cassell  &  Co.).  A  very  attractive  and 
readable  volume  on  natural  history  subjects  ;  the 
"various  authors  "are  all  men  of  mark,  and  skilful 
writers  withal,  such  as  Dallas,  Buchanan  White, 
Robert  Brown,  &c. 

Where  to  find  Ferns,  by  F.  G.  Heath  (London  : 
The  Society  for  Promoting  Christian  Knowledge). 
Mr.  Heath  is  the  Apostle  of  the  Gospel  of  Ferns, 
and  a  very  taking  one  too.  But  we  hope  he  won't 
tell  too  much  about  them — at  least  not  about  the 
rarest  and  prettiest— or  they  will  be  certainly  stolen. 
In  that  case  Mr.  Heath  would  reap  his  reward,  for 
by  the  process  of  natural  selection,  there  would  be  no 
ferns   for  him  to  write  about  so  agreeably.     In  the  . 

B  2 


little  volume  under  notice  there  is  a  special  chapter 
on  "The  Ferns  round  London,"  which  will  be  very 
useful  to  those  who  are  eager  to  grub  these  pretty 
plants  up. 

Ocean  Currents  and  the  System  of  the  World,  by 
W.  L.  Jordan  (London  :  Longmans).  The  author  is 
a  bold,  ingenious,  learned,  and  irrepressible  physical 
geographer — one  who  is  well  aware  his  confreres  do 
not  agree  with  him,  but  who  has  the  courage  of  his 
convictions,  and  the  fortunate  means  of  publishing 
them.  The  present  volume  is  chiefly  valuable  as 
containing  a  full  and  complete  outline  of  Mr.  Jordan's 

The  Naturalists1  World,  edited  by  Percy  Lund 
(London  :  Swan  Sonnenschein  &  Co.),  is  the  second 
volume  of  our  pleasant  and  friendly  contemporary, 
beautifully  got  up  in  every  way,  type,  binding,  and 
illustration,  so  that  it  will  make  an  acceptable  new 
year's  present. 

We  desire  to  recommend  the  following  little 
manuals  :  Lectures  on  Heat,  Sound  and  Light,  by 
Dr.  Richard  Wormell  (London  :  Thomas  Murby)  ; 
Chemical  Students'1  Manual,  for  the  lecture-room  and 
laboratory,  by  H.  L.  Buckeridge  (London  :  Thomas 

We  have  also  received  Longitude  by  Lunar  Dis- 
tances, by  Major  II.  W.  Clarke  (London:  W.  H. 
Allen  &  Co.),  a  work  of  enormous  labour ;  The 
Aryan  Maori,  by  Edmund  Tregear  (Wellington  : 
Geo.  Didsbury),  a  bold  and  ingenious  essay,  proving 
the  New  Zealanders  to  be  of  Aryan  origin.  If  the 
author's  conclusions  are  accepted,  he  will  have  the 
merit  of  securing  a  high  position  as  an  anthropologist. 

The  Open  Air,  by  Richard  Jefferies  (London : 
Chat  to  &  Windus).  This  handsomely  got  up  book  is 
a  collection  of  some  of  Mr.  Jefferies'  most  delightful 
essays,  reprinted  from  various  magazines  and  journals. 
The  author's  style  has  placed  his  books  among  our 
modern  classics,  and  there  are  few  which  will  be 
read  with  greater  pleasure  than  the  present  volume. 
The  titles  of  some  of  the  papers  alone  will  convey  to 
the  readers  who  have  enjoyed  Mr.  Jefferies'  other 
bcoks,  some  idea  of  their  attractive  character : 
"Sunny  Brighton,"  "The  Pine  Wood,"  "Nature 
on  the  Roof,"  "The  Haunt  of  the  Hare,"  Under 
the  Acorns,"  "  Downs,"  "Haunts  of  the  Lapwing," 
"  Beauty  in  the  Country,"  "  On  the  London  Road," 
&c.  <\c. 

GREEN  Flies.— Your  query  in  the  September 
number  reminds  me  of  the  following  which  I  came 
across  in  a  newspaper  about  the  middle  of  August, 
and  which,  perhaps,  may  be  useful.  There  was  a 
plague  of  small  green  flies  at  Peterborough  on 
Thursday.  For  an  hour  or  two  in  the  middle  of  the 
day  Narrow  Street  was  thick  with  them.     In  some 

places   they   fell   on   the   ground   an    inch    thick. 

A.  G.  S. 


By  Arthur  Smith  Woodward,  F.G.S. 



/I  CONDYLACANTHUS  is  a  slender  and  con- 
■*±  siderably  elongated  spine,  ornamented  with 
more  or  less  denticulated  longitudinal  ridges,  and 
having  posterior  denticles  ;  it  is  particularly  interest- 
ing from  the  fact  that  its  internal  cavity  opens  only 
at  the  base,  thus  perhaps  indicating  an  affinity  with 
the  Rays.  No  species  appear  to  have  been  hitherto 
recorded  from  the  upper  divisions  of  the  Carbon- 
iferous series,  but  Mr.  Davis  enumerates*  seven 
forms  from  the  lower  strata  of  Armagh  and  Bristol, 
and  several  others  occur  in  Americaf  ;  the  latter  first 
led  to  the  determination  of  the  genus,  Agassiz  not 
having  before  noted  its  distinctness  from  the  Mesozoic 
Leptacanthus,  and  McCoy  having  also  been  induced 
by  imperfect  specimens  to  unite  it  with  Ctenacanthus. 
LepraeanlhusX  is  a  little  richly-ornamented  ichthyo- 
dorulite  from  the  Coal  Measures  ;  and  Erismacanthus^ 
(=Cladacanthus,  Agassiz,  MS.)  is  a  peculiar  three- 
branched  type  (fig.  i)  from  the  Carboniferous  Lime- 
stone of  Armagh,  very  suggestive  of  the  cephalic 
spines  of  certain  Chimaeroids. 

Among  the  fossils  of  the  Permian  and  Trias,  there 
appear  to  be  no  fish-spines  of  an  altogether  problem- 
atical nature,  but  in  the  overlying  Rhaetic  Beds 
there  occurs  a  form  whose  relationships  are  still 
undetermined,  and  of  which  numerous  fragmentary 
remains  are  met  with  in  the  well-known  strata  of 
Aust  Cliff,  near  Bristol.  This  constitutes  the  genus 
Nemacanthus  (Agassiz),  and  is  readily  recognised  by 
its  laterally  compressed  shape  and  striated  external 
surface,  with  a  thick  longitudinal  ridge  of  enamel  in 
front,  a  row  of  denticles  behind,  and  a  few  scattered 
tubercles  of  the  same  hard  substance  on  each  side 
towards  the  upper  extremity.  Two  Rhsetic  species 
are  known,  the  larger,  N.  monilifer,  and  the  smaller, 
N.  f  lifer — both  from  Aust  Cliff— and  the  genus  is 
further  represented  in  the  Stonesfield  Slate  by  a  very 
short  form,  known  as  IV.  brevispinus. 

The  Lias  yields  another  interesting  ichthyodorulite 
that  has  received  the  name  of  Myriacanthus,  from  the 
thorn-like  shape  of  the  large  denticles  composing 
each  of  the  two  longitudinal  rows  with  which  its 
external  surface  is  characterised  in  addition  to  the 
scattered  small  tubercles  ;  judging  from  its  general 
shape,  and  the  fact  of  the  internal  cavity  opening  only 
at  the  base,  it  appears  to  have  belonged  to  an  extinct 
type  of  Ray,  and  the  original  fish  must  have  been  of 
some  considerable  size,  for  some  of  these  spines  are  as 

*  Davis,  toe.  cit.,  pp.  346-352. 

t  St.  John  and  Worthen,  "  Geol.  Surv.  of  Illinois  (Palaeonto 
logy),"  vol.  vi.  (1875),  p.  432. 

%  Owen,  "  Geological  Magazine,"  vol.  vi.  (1869),  p.  481. 
$  Sedgwick  and  McCoy,  "Pal.  Rocks  and  Foss.,"  p.  628. 


much  as  two  feet  in  length.  M.  paradoxus  and 
M.  retrorsus  are  the  larger  species,  and  M.  granulosus 
is  one  of  a  more  diminutive  kind.  All  occur  at  Lyme 

But  the  most  prominent  of  the  Mesozoic  ichthyo- 
dorulites  is  a  form  particularly  remarkable  for  its 
ornamentation  by  star-shaped  bosses  of  enamel,  and 
hence  termed  Astcracanthus  ;  so  striking,  indeed,  is 

from  Swanage,  and  of  A.  granulosus  from  Tilgate 
Forest.  The  ornamentation  is  much  finer  in  these 
Wealden  and  Purbeck  species  than  in  that  of  the 
Kimmeridge  Clay,  and  the  tubercles  more  closely 
crowded  together,  and  the  genus  seems  to  have 
completely  disappeared  before  the  commencement  of 
Cretaceous  times. 

It    is   curious    that   hitherto   there   have  been   no 

Fig.  i. — Erisiuacauthits  Joncsii (after  J.  W.  Davis). 













the  appearance   of    this    spine, 
that  it  was  one  of  the  earliest 
studied    of  fossil    bodies,  being 
described    and    figured    in   the 
Philosophical    Transactions     of 
the  Royal  Society  in  1753,  and 
quaintly  referred  to  "  the  head 
or  snout  of  some  animal  of  the 
fish  kind,  or   perhaps   of  some 
lizard,    alligator,   or  crocodile." 
The  genus  is  first  represented  by 
a  few  doubtful  fossils  in  the  Lias, 
but    Agassiz   has   definitely  de- 
termined species  from  several  of 
the    succeeding  Jurassic    beds, 
and  Sir  Philip  Egerton*  has  also 
made    known   the    presence    of 
others  in  the  Purbeck  and  Weal- 
den.     The  largest  and    typical 
species — sometimes   more    than 
twenty  inches  long— is  A.  orna- 
tissimus  (fig.  2),  from  the  Kim- 
meridge and  Oxford  Clays,  and 
exhibits  well  the  double  row  of 
posterior  denticles,  the  extensive 
inner  cavity,  and  the  long  base 
of  insertion.    Among  the  Lower 
Oolite  forms  are  A.  semisulcatus, 
occurring  in  the  Stonefield  Slate, 
near  Oxford,  and  A.  Stitchburii,  in  the  Forest  Marble 
of  Dorsetshire  ;  while  the  evidence  of  the  genus  in 
the    Purbeck   and   Wealden    consists    in   beautifully 
perfect  spines  of  A.  verrucosus  and  A.  semiverrucosus 

Fig.  2. — Astcracau- 
thus ornatissimus 
(half  nat.  size,  after 

*  Mem.  Geol.  Surv.,  Dec.  VIII.,  pi.  i.-iii. 

recorded  instances  of  the  discovery  of  Asteracanthus 
in  intimate  association  with  teeth  or  other  Selachian 
structures,  and  nearly  fifty  years  have  thus  passed 
without  our  advancing  beyond  the  mere  surmise 
of  Agassiz,  who  thought  that  Stropkodus  might 
eventually  prove  to  be  the  dentition  of  the  same 
cartilaginous  form  ;  Sir  Philip  Egerton,  however,  in 
describing  the  Purbeck  spines,  has  pointed  out  that 
such  an  idea  can  scarcely  be  probable  now,  since 
Stropkodus  is  quite  unknown  in  the  well-explored 
strata  of  Swanage,  and  more  complete  evidence  must 
yet  be  awaited  before  there  are  grounds  for  removing 
the  genus  from  its  present  provisional  place. 

We  have  now  reached  the  end  of  the  task  proposed 
in  our  programme  of  August,  1884,*  and  would 
venture  finally  to  express  the  hope  that  this  cursory 
glance  at  the  present  state  of  knowledge  in  regard  to 
the  past  history  of  Sharks  and  Rays  may  not  be 
without  the  result  of  contributing,  however  slightly, 
towards  its  advancement.  It  has  been  our  endeavour, 
as  far  as  possible,  to  indicate  where  present  infor- 
mation is  most  defective,  and  where  those  who  are 
the  fortunate  possessors  of  fine  specimens  and  yet 
have  not  access  to  the  more  abstruse  literature  of  the 
subject,  will  be  furthering  the  cause  of  biological 
science  by  making  them  known  ;  and  the  writer  will 
deem  it  a  favour  and  a  pleasure  to  be  informed  of  the 
existence  of  such  new  materials,  and  to  furnish  more 
precise  particulars  concerning  any  of  the  facts  or 
inferences  briefly  touched  upon  above. 

Appendix.- It  has  not  been  thought  necessary  to  give  de- 
tailed  references  to  the  great  work  of  the  founder  ot    Fossil 

*  The  articles  of  this  series  have  appeared  as  follows  : — 
1884— August,  October,  December;  1885— May,  July,  October, 


Ichthyology ;  wherever  the  name  of  Agassiz  has  been  men- 
tioned in  connection  with  nomenclature  or  observations,  his 
"Recherches  sur  les  Poissons  fossiles "  (Neuchatel,  1833-41) 
may  be  consulted ;  this  treatise  forms  the  basis  of  all  subse- 
quent research. 

Besides  those  in  Agassiz'  "  Rech.  Poiss.  Foss.,"  good  figures 
and  descriptions  of  the  teeth  of  fossil  Carchariidas,  Lammidas,  and 
Notanidae,  will  be  found  in  the  Journ.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.,  Phila- 
delphia, 1848-9  R.  W.  Gibbe's  "  Monograph  of  the  Fossil 
Squalidae  of  the  United  States,"  Parts  1.,  II.):  and  an  elabor- 
ate "  Studi  Comparativi  sui  Pessi  Fossili  coi  Viventi  dei  Generi 
Carcliarodon,  Oxyrhina,  e  Galeocerdo,"  by  R.  Lawley,  was 
published  at  Pisa,  four  years  ago. 

A  new  species  of  Carcluirodon  (C.  longidens,  Pillet),  from  beds 
in  Haute- Savoie,  supposed  to  be  equivalent  to  the  Maestricht 
Chalk,  was  described  and  figured  in  the  Mem.  Acad.  Sci. 
Savoie,  [3],  ix.,  1883,  p.  277. 

Since  our  remarks  on  Psephodus,  Dr.  Traquair  has  published 
an  important  contribution  to  the  subject,  noticed  in  the  present 
volume  of  Science-Gossip,  p.  193  ;  and  we  also  ought  to  men- 
tion particularly  the  valuable  -*  Illustrated  Guide  to  the  Fish, 
Amphibian,  Reptilian,  &c,  Remains  of  the  Northumberland 
Carboniferous  Strata,"  by  M.  T.  P.  Barkas,  F.G.S.  The  latter 
appeared  in  1873  (partly  reprinted  from  the  "  Colliery  Guar- 
dian," 1871),  and  was  followed  by  several  articles  from  the  pen 
of  Dr.  W.  J.  Barkas  in  the  "  Monthly  Review  of  Dental  Sur- 
gery "  for  1874-76— an  unfortunately  inaccessible  series,  said  to 
contain  much  information  regarding  the  microscopical  structure 
of  the  teeth  of  Coal  Measure  fishes.  Carboniferous  Selachians 
likewise  form  the  subject  of  a  new  volume  (1883)  of  the  Geol. 
Survey  of  Illinois  Reports,  in  which  Messrs.  St.  John  and 
Worthen  enter  into  a  detailed  study  of  the  Cochliodontidas  and 

By  W.  Mattieu  Williams,  F.R.A.S.,  F.C.S. 

SCIENCE  IN  JAPAN.— Those  who  imagine  that 
the  recent  awakening  and  progress  of  Japan  is 
merely  a  superficial  imitation  of  external  Western 
customs  should  study  the  records  of  the  Scientific 
Societies  of  that  country.  Important  researches  are 
continually  recorded.  I  have  already  referred,  both 
in  this  and  the  "Gentleman's  Magazine,"  to  the 
fact  that  Tokio  has  become  the  headquarters  of  the 
systematic  study  of  normal  every-day  earth-waves 
and  abnormal  movements  reaching  the  magnitude  of 
earthquakes.  These  are  systematically  observed  and 
registered  there  with  improved  instruments  of  great 
delicacy,  some  placed  on  the  ordinary  surface  of  the 
plains,  some  on  mountains  of  various  elevations,  and 
others  underground  in  coal-mines. 

In  the  utilisation  of  coal-mines  for  scientific 
research  the  Japanese  have  already  left  us  far  behind, 
in  spite  of  the  great  development  and  antiquity  of 
our  collieries.  Subterranean  electrical  currents  ;  mi- 
crophonic and  telephonic  examination  of  the  sounds 
produced  by  the  movements  of  solid  rock  ;  comparing 
seasonal  earth-waves  underground  with  those  they 
have  already  observed  on  the  surface  ;  the  action  of 
the  tides  upon  the  roof  of  workings  of  the  coal-mines 
under  the  sea,  and  measurement  of  the  delicate 
tremors  indicated  by  a  tromometer  devised  for  the 
purpose,  are  some  of  the  scientific  work  that  is  being 
carried  on  underground. 

It  is  rarely  that  a  monthly  number  of  the  "  Journal 
of  the  Chemical  Society  "  fails  to  contain  one  or  more 
interesting  communications  from  Japan,  such,  for 
example,  as  that  which  I  have  just  turned  up  in  the 
October  number,  entitled  "  A  Chemical  Examination 

of  the  Constituents  of  Camphor  Oil,  communicated 
from  the  Chemical  Society  of  Tokio  by  Hikoro- 
kurb  Yoshida,  Chemist  to  the  Imperial  Geological 
Survey."  It  is  a  research  supplying  much  new 
information,  and  quite  free  from  the  chemical 
pedantry  which  I  described  last  month.  I  dare  not 
venture  to  refer  to  details,  but  may  state  that  the  liquid 
distilled  out  in  preparing  solid  camphor  is  a  sort  of 
turpentine,  which  mixes  in  almost  every  proportion 
with  ether,  chloroform,  alcohol,  and  most  of  the 
essential  oils  ;  that  it  dissolves  several  resins,  such 
as  colophony,  gum  elemi,  mastic,  balsam  and 
asphalte,  and  therefore  is  suitable  for  the  preparation 
of  varnishes.  I  presume  that  it  may  also  be  used  as 
a  substitute  for  turpentine  in  diluting  the  linseed  oil 
medium  of  ordinary  oil  colours.  Its  aroma  being 
agreeable,  the  advantage  of  using  it  is  obvious. 
Being  a  bye  product  from  the  crude  material,  it  may 
probably  be  produced  at  little  cost  if  in  regular 

Electric  Fishes. — Professor  Du  Bois  Reymond 
has  communicated  to  the  Berlin  Academy  of  Sciences 
and  to  "  Naturforscher "  the  results  of  his  long 
researches  on  the  electric  organs  of  the  torpedo. 
One  of  the  most  remarkable  of  these  is  the  variation 
of  electrical  conductivity  of  this  organ  in  opposite 
directions.  If  a  current  is  passed  from  the  belly  of 
the  animal  to  the  back,  i.e.  in  the  same  direction  as 
the  animal  electricity  is  generated,  it  meets  with  less 
resistance  than  if  passed  in  the  opposite  direc- 
tion. The  first  of  these  is  styled  by  the  professor  a 
homodromous  current,  the  second  a  heterodromous 

The  deflections  of  a  galvanometer  needle  when  a 
current  from  an  induction  coil  was  passed  in  these 
opposite  directions,  was  100  for  the  heterodromous 
current,  to  224'  7  for  the  homodromous.  The  difference 
diminished  with  a  weaker  and  weaker  current,  until  it 
became  imperceptible.  The  longer  the  part  of  the 
organ  that  was  included  in  the  circuit,  the  greater 
the  difference  or  "  irreciprocity." 

The  electric  organ  of  the  torpedo  was  found  to 
conduct  twice  as  badly  in  a  homodromous  direction 
as  the  muscle  of  a  frog  in  the  direction  of  its  fibres, 
and  7"5  to  12  times  worse  than  the  water  of  a 
marine  aquarium.  In  the  heterodromous  direction  it 
conducted  20  to  58  times  worse  than  sea-water. 

I  took  a  shock  from  the  electrical  eel  that  was 
brought  to  London  and  exhibited  many  years  ago, 
and  remember  well  that  I  was  struck  before  my 
hands  actually  touched  the  animal ;  the  communi- 
cation took  place  through  the  water.  It  is  obvious 
that  in  order  for  this  to  occur,  the  electrical  organ  of 
the  fish  must  be  a  worse  conductor  in  the  hetero- 
dromous direction  than  the  sea-water,  or  the  current 
would  return  upon  itself  instead  of  passing  through 
the  water.  In  this  case  it  was  fresh  water,  which  is 
a  far  worse  conductor  than  sea-water. 


The  experiments  of  Du  Bois  Reymond  show  that 
this  resistance  to  conduction  and  its  irreciprocity  are 
vital  properties,  as  the  dead  structure  of  the  electrical 
organs  conducts  equally  in  both  directions,  and  more 
readily  than  a  saline  solution. 

The  irreciprocity  of  conduction  of  the  electric 
organ  of  the  torpedo  is  limited  to  currents  of  brief 
duration,  like  those  which  result  from  making  and 
breaking  contact  in  induction  coils.  It  does  not 
occur  to  continuous  direct  battery  currents.  This 
special  adaptation  to  the  requirements  of  the  animal 
is  very  interesting.  Its  own  electrical  efforts  are 
spasmodic.     It  supplies  no  continuous  current. 

Water  and  Chemical  Combination. —  A 
curious  chemical  fact  has  been  recently  demonstrated 
by  Dixon,  viz.  that  mixtures  of  perfectly  dry  carbonic 
oxide  and  perfectly  dry  oxygen  are  not  exploded  by 
the  passage  of  electric  sparks  through  them,  and  it 
appears  probable  that  even  a  mixture  of  hydrogen 
and  oxygen  is  similarly  inexplosive  without  the  help 
of  a  minute  quantity  of  already  combined  water 
vapour.  The  cause  of  this  is  still  under  discussion. 
Traube  connects  it  with  the  formation  of  peroxide  of 
hydrogen.  However  this  may  be,  it  is  a  curious 
paradox  that  water  which  we  use  for  the  extinction 
of  common  combustion,  i.e.  the  union  of  carbon  with 
oxygen  to  form  carbonic  acid  and  the  union  of 
hydrogen  with  oxygen,  should  be  necessary  to  effect 
this  same  combustion.  It  presents  us  with  a  chemical 
instance  of  "similia  similibus  curantur,"  but  in 
this  case  the  conflagration  mischief  is  promoted  by 
the  infinitesimal  dose,  and  the  cure  effected  by  very 
large  doses  of  the  same. 

Coal  in  the  Arctic  Regions. — Lieut.  Greely 
has  found  more  coal  in  the  bitterest  frozen  regions 
within  the  Arctic  circle,  besides  the  remarkable  seam 
of  Grinnell  Land.  Also  a  fossil  forest  near  Cape 
Baird  in  i°  30'  N.  latitude.  The  coal  seams  are 
displayed  in  outcrop  or  section  at  the  surface,  and 
thus  are  visible  to  the  mere  passer  by  without  any  of 
the  laborious  search  by  boring  and  sinking  which  are 
necessary  for  the  proving  of  our  coal  at  home.  If 
the  hidden  or  covered  coal  is  proportionally  abundant, 
Greenland  must  be  a  remarkably  rich  coal  bearing 

These  facts  suggest  much  speculation  :  the  first  that 
thrusts  itself  most  obviously  forth,  being  that  of  a 
shifting  of  the  earth's  axis  within  the  earth  itself,  but 
this  is  demolished  without  mercy  by  fundamental 
dynamic  law.  The  earth  is  a  spheroid  of  rotation 
and  such  a  spheroid  can  only  rotate  freely  on  its 
shortest  axis.  In  order  to  shift  the  present  axis  we 
must  either  build  up  a  mountain  13I  miles  high  at 
each  pole,  each  with  a  base  extending  about  halfway  to 
the  equator,  or  shave  off  a  corresponding  thickness 
from  the  equator  and  on  each  side  of  it,  or  do  half  of 
one  and  half  of  the  other,  in  order  to  make  the  earth  a 

sphere  that  shall  turn  indifferently  on  any  axis  within 
itself.  Even  after  this,  a  further  force  to  shift  to 
establish  direction  of  rotation  would  be  required. 

The  other  idea  that  has  been  much  discussed,  viz. 
a  tilting  of  the  whole  globe  as  it  continues  to  turn  on 
its  present  axis  so  as  to  present  it  differently  to  the 
sun,  presents  very  serious  dynamical  difficulties  which 
those  who  best  understand  the  subject  the  most  fully 

For  my  own  part,  I  am  not  by  any  means  satisfied 
with  the  prevailing  notion  which  demands  a  sub- 
tropical climate  for  the  formation  of  coal.  In 
"  Science  in  Short  Chapters  "  (pp.  90  to  93),  I  have 
described  the  deposition  of  coal  that  is  in  actual 
present  progress  in  the  Nordals  and  other  Norwegian 
fjords  within  four  degrees  of  the  Arctic  circle,  and  I 
have  no  doubt  that  similar  deposits  may  be  found 
much  further  north,  and  therefore  no  very  violent 
alteration  of  climate  is  demanded  to  explain  the 
Greenland  coal.  We  require  to  know  more  about 
the  kind  of  fossil  vegetation  with  which  it  is  associated, 
before  assuming  that  the  coal  itself  was  formed  by 
vegetation  demanding  a  climate  very  different  from 
that  which  supports  the  existing  Siberian  and 
Norwegian  forests. 

Natural  Gas  Fuel. — The  iron  trade  of  the 
United  States  is  in  a  state  of  considerable  excitement, 
on  account  of  the  successful  application  of  natural 
gas  to  smelting  and  forging.  "  The  Petroleum  Age  " 
tells  us  that  "  this  invention  seems  likely  to  revolu- 
tionize the  smelting  of  iron,  steel,  and  glass  in  the 
United  States."  Doubtless  it  will  if  the  supply 
continues  for  any  considerable  length  of  time,  but 
this  is  very  questionable,  as  the  natural  gas  is  but  the 
more  volatile  portion  of  the  petroleum  below,  and 
constitutes  only  a  small  percentage  of  it.  When  the 
explorers  first  "  strike  ile  "  in  a  particular  pocket  or 
subterranean  cavity,  the  vapour  previously  confined 
there  usually  rushes  up  the  bore-hole  with  great 
violence  ;  tales  are  told  of  boring  tools  being  thrown 
up  in  the  air,  &c.  &c.  These  may  be  accepted  with 
as  many  grains  of  salt  as  may  suit  the  reader's  taste. 
Certainly  the  force  of  uprush  is  great,  but  it  rapidly 
diminishes,  and  the  spouting  well  becomes  next  a 
flowing  well,  and  then  a  well  that  must  be  pumped 
in  order  to  obtain  the  liquid  petroleum.  There  are 
issues  of  natural  gas  which  have  continued  for  ages, 
but  these  are  small  in  volume,  sufficient  for  the  altars 
of  fire  worshippers,  but  not  for  forging  and  rolling 
thousands  of  tons  of  rails,  plates,  &c. 

The  gas  is  used  by  first  mixing  it  with  the  quantity 
of  air  which  is  necessary  for  its  complete  combustion, 
and  then  throwing  the  barely  visible  flame  thus 
obtained  directly  upon  the  |metal.  Such  a  flame  is 
not  like  that  of  a  candle  or  lamp  or  of  ordinary  gas 
burners,  all  of  which  are  hollow  shells  of  flame 
enclosing  gas  that  is  being  burned  only  on  the  outside. 
The  flames  used  in  the  furnaces  are  what  are  called 



"  solid  flames,"  an  awkward  name,  inasmuch  as  a 
gaseous  fluid  is  not  a  solid.  "  Solid,"  when  applied 
to  a  flame,  merely  means  not  hollow. 

Petroleum  Vapour  Fuel. — Another  kind  of  gas 
is  similarly  used.  This  is  the  vapour  of  a  volatile 
distillate  of  petroleum,  that  which  is  too  volatile  to 
be  safely  used  in  ordinary  lamps,  and  which  bears 
the  commercial  names  of  gasoline,  benzoline,  &c. 

The  vapour  is  obtained  by  simply  passing  air 
through  the  liquid,  the  air  thus  becomes  saturated 
with  the  vapour,  and  supplies  the  oxygen  necessary 
for  its  combustion.  As  the  volatile  liquid  the  "  pe- 
troleum spirit "  is  almost  a  waste  product,  has  at 
times  been  burned  in  the  open  air  to  get  rid  of  it, 
fuel  of  this  kind  is  cheap  enough  in  petroleum- 
yielding  regions,  such  as  Pennsylvania  and  Baku,  &c. 
The  steam  packets  of  the  Caspian  are  now  regularly 
supplied  with  petroleum  furnaces,  where  either  the 
vapour  is  burned  in  this  manner,  or  jets  of  the  liquid 
hydro-carbon  itself  are  mixed  with  air,  and  thrown  in 
blaze  upon  the  boilers.  Attempts  have  been  made  to 
introduce  it  in  this  country,  but  they  have  failed 
simply  because  here  it  costs  more  than  coal.  The 
cost  of  carriage  from  the  American  wells  is  about 

(part  of  a  cigar  box),  a  little  larger  than  an  ordinary 
slide,  and  made  a  hole  three-quarters  of  an  inch 
square  in  the  middle  of  it.  About  half  an  inch  from 
either  end,  on  what  I  intended  to  be  the  lower  side,  I 
cut  a  narrower  transverse  groove,  and  then  slipptd  an 
indiarubber  band  over  each  end  until  it  reached  the 
groove.  I  then  took  the  slide  I  wanted  to  examine 
and  placed  it  on  the  wooden  one  under  the  elastic 
rings,  then,  by  inserting  a  wedge  between  the  wooden 
and  other  slide  at  the  proper  part,  the  object  can 
be  placed  as  desired.  This  little  device  is  also  useful 
in  enabling  one  to  see  portions  of  an  object  which 
one  would  not  otherwise  be  able  to  do. 

I  devised  a  very  simple  contrivance  for  placing  an 
unmounted  object  in  any  desired  position  on  the 
stage  of  a  microscope.  It  will  effect  more  when 
placed  on  a  rotating  stage  than  Messrs.  Beck's  little 
mechanism,  which  I  think  they  call  "  a  rotating  disc 

Fig.  3. — Apparatus  for  Microscopical  Drawing. 

Fig.  4.— Apparatus  for  placing  Unmounted  Objects  on  Stage. 

sixpence  per  gallon — or  £6  per  ton.  One  ton  of  oil 
does  the  work  of  about  i*  to  15  tons  of  coal.  Some 
have  claimed  double,  but  this  is  questionable. 

In  time  of  naval  war  it  may  possibly  supersede  coal 
for  some  purposes,  as  steam  may  be  got  up  more 
rapidly  with  a  petroleum  furnace  than  with  coal. 


IT  has  often  happened  to  me  (and  I  expect  many 
persons  have  experienced  the  same  difficulty), 
when  wishing  to  draw  a  mounted  object  under  the 
microscope  that  the  object  was  not  placed  exactly  in 
the  position  in  which  one  wishes  to  draw  it,  and  to 
so  place  it,  the  slide  requires  raising  at  one  end  or 
side.  I  knew  of  no  apparatus  for  effecting  this  when 
the  object  was  a  transparent  one,  and  lately,  when 
making  some  drawing  with  a  camera,  I  was  much 
bothered  by  some  of  the  objects  not  being  quite 
truly  placed.  After  a  little  consideration,  I  devised  a 
very  simple  little  piece  of  apparatus  which  effects  my 
purpose  admirably,  which  I  will  describe,  as  others 
may  also  find  it  useful.      I  cut  a  piece  of  thin  wood 

holder,"  and  at  only  a  quarter  of  the  price :  it  is 
difficult  to  describe  it  accurately,  but  the  figure 
shows  its  action.  By  turning  the  milled  head  the 
object  can  be  moved  in  a  direction  transverse  to  the 
apparatus,  and  by  moving  the  other  hand  in  or  out,  the 
object  can  be  moved  in  a  longitudinal  direction.  If  to 
these  movements  be  added  that  given  by  isolating 
stage,  the  object  can  be  viewed  in  any  aspect  without 
removing  it  from  the  instrument.  The  hole  in  the 
vertical  tube  can  be  fitted  with  a  cork  to  hold  pins  ;  a 
small  pair  of  forceps  or  a  piece  of  wax  can  be  used  to 
hold  a  geological  specimen.  Messrs.  Baker  &  Co., 
243  High  Holborn,  are  the  makers  of  this  object 
holder,  for  which  they  charge  $s-  x  have  used  this 
instrument  a  great  deal,  and  I  find  it  is  most  useful, 
and  that  it  works  in  a  very  satisfactory  manner. 

G.  S.  S. 
Tanbridge  Wells. 

Telephonic  communication  has  been  established 
between  Paris  and  Rheims,  a  distance  of  172  kilo- 
metres. The  ordinary  telegraph-wire  is  utilised  for 
the  purpose.  The  tariff  is  one  franc  for  five  minutes' 


By  Walter  Henshall. 


STRICTLY  speaking,  cotton  is  not  a  fibre,  though 
always  known  as  "cotton  fibre."  It  is  in 
reality  a  vegetable  hair,  found  covering  the  seeds  of 
the  cotton  plant  when  mature,  destined  by  nature  to 
serve  the  purpose  of  the  dispersion  of  the  seeds,  in 
the  same  way  as  the  pappus  of  the  dandelion  and  of 
the  thistle :  it  has  been  adapted  by  man  for  the 
greater  part  of  his  clothing,  and  it  will  be  seen  how 
suitable  it  is  for  such  a  purpose. 

The  cotton  plant  belongs   to  the  Nat.  Ord.  Mal- 
vaceae, Genus  Gossypium,  and   is   cultivated  in  the 
tropical  zone,  and  as  far  as  400  latitude.     We  have 
no  representative  of  this  genus  in    England, 
but  in  our   common  mallow  we  have   a  fair 
idea  of  what   the  cotton  plant  is  like.     The 
flowers  of  both  are  very  similar,  but  in  fruit 
a  great  difference  is  noticed.     The  seeds  of 
the  cotton  plant,  when  ripe,  are  found  to  be 
enveloped  in  a  mass  of  woolly  hairs.     These 
hairs  or  fibres  vary  in  length  as  to  the  class 
of  cotton,  from    three-quarters  to  about    two 
inches.     To  give  the  reader  an  idea  as  to  the 
minuteness  of  these  fibres,  it  has  been  calcu- 
lated  that    there   are    140,000,000  individual 
filaments  of  American  cotton  in  every  pound. 
The  histology  of  the  cotton  plant  has  been 
strangely  neglected   by  scientific  men    in  the 
past,  and  it    is   only  very    recently   that   the 
subject  has  been  studied.     One  consequence 
of  this  is  the  wide  difference  of  opinion  among 
botanists,  as  to  the  number  and  classification 
of  the  species  and  varieties  of  the  genus  Gos- 
sypium.    Linnaeus  divided  this  genus  into  five 
species.  Professor  Parlatore,  a  gentleman  who 
thoroughly  studied   the   Botanical  relations  of 
"the  cotton  plant,  came  to  the  conclusion  that 
there  were  seven  species.     De  Candolle  reck- 
oned thirteen  species.      Other  competent  botanists, 
however,   consider  that  there  are  only  four  distinct 
species  as  below,  all  besides  being  merely  sub-species 
or  varieties. 

Gossypium  Barbadense  produces  the  finest  cotton 
we  possess,  viz.  Sea  Island,  a  long  silky  cotton.  From 
the  variety  hirsutum  we  derive  the  North  American 
and  Egyptian  cottons,  which  form  the  greatest 
portion  of  our  supply.  It  is  a  shrubby  plant,  grow- 
ing to  the  height  of  about  six  feet. 

G.  Fcruvianiun,  as  its  name  implies,  is  a  native  of 
Peru.  It  is  indigenous  to  South  America,  and  grows 
to  the  height  of  about  ten  to  fifteen  feet.  The  cotton 
derived  from  this  species  is  generally  harsh  to  the 
feel,  like  wool,  and  is  known  as  Peruvian,  Brazilian, 

G.  herbaceum   is   the   native   cotton  of  India  and 

the  East.  It  is  the  smallest  of  the  cotton  plants, 
growing  to  the  height  of  four  to  six  feet.  It  produces 
the  Surat  cottons,  which  are  short  in  staple. 

G.  arboreum  is  a  tree-like  shrub,  growing  to  the 
height  of  fifteen  to  twenty  feet.  It  is  of  little 
importance  from  a  commercial  point  of  view,  as  the 
supply  is  small.     It  grows  in  India  and  China. 

Cotton  fibre,  when  viewed  under  the  microscope, 
has  a  twisted  appearance,  not  unlike  a  joiner's  auger, 
or  a  stick  of  barley-sugar.  It  is  this  twist  in  the 
fibre  that  enables  us  to  make  thread  out  of  cotton.  If 
cotton  were  cylindrical  like  flax,  it  could  not  possibly 
be  spun  into  yarn,  as  the  fibres  would  be  too  short, 
and  would  not  hold  together.  But  as  the  cotton 
fibre  is  twisted,  it  will  be  readily  seen  that  in  making 
yarn,  the  edges  of  the  fibres  will  fit  in  each  other.  I 
cannot  better  illustrate  this  than  in  the  case  of  rope- 

Fig.  5. — Fibres  of  American  Cotton.     X  225. 

making.  In  making  a  rope,  each  strand  must  be 
separately  twisted,  and  we  know  they  will  then  fit 
into  each  other.  And  besides,  these  edges  of  the 
cotton  fibre  are  corded,*  and,  as  when  the  fibres  are 
twisted  together,  they  lock  into  each  other.  This 
explains  why  we  can  make  strong  yarn  out  of  fibres 
so  short. 

Cotton  first  appears  as  a  downy  covering  on  the 
seed  shortly  after  fertilisation.  Springing  from  the 
cellular  tissue  below  the  epidermis,  they  displace  the 
cells  of  the  epidermis  and  form  a  large  cell,  from 
which  the  outward  growth  of  cells  commences.  Those 
of  my  readers  who  are  botanists  will  understand  the 
usual   growth  of  a  vegetable   hair,   but    I  must  ask 

*  These  corded  edges  can  be  seen  with  a  high  power,  say 
i-in.  obj. 


HARD  WICKE '  S  S  CIE  NCE  -  G  0  SSI  P. 

them  to  remember  that  the  cotton  hair  is  one  long 
cell,  1200-1500  times  as  long  as  broad.  The  method 
of  growth  is  by  the  successive  linear  development  of 
cells  at  the  apex  of  the  fibres,  the  cell-wall  at  the 
point  of  juncture  being  gradually  absorbed  until  an 
exceedingly  elongated  cell  isjproduced,  which  consti- 
tutes the  cotton  hair. 

Whilst  growth  is  progressing  the  fibre  preserves  a 
hollow  cylinder,  in  which  the  vital  fluids  of  the  plant 
circulate,  and  so  deposit  material  on  the  inner 
surface  of  the  cell-walls.  In  this  way  the  cell  walls 
increase  in  thickness.  When  maturity  comes,  the  sap 
is  gradually  withdrawn  into  the  seeds,  and  a  vacuum 
is  formed,  commencing  at  the  apex  of  the  fibre,  at 
which  point  it  begins  to  collapse,  following  the 
retreating  fluid  down  to  the  base  of  the  fibre.  The 
consequence  is  that  the  apex  of  the  cotton  fibre  is 
twisted  upon  its  own  axis  a  number  of  times.  Thus 
it  is  we  have  the  cotton  hair,  a  twisted  ribbon-like 
hair,  with  corded  edges  so  admirably  fitted  for  the 
purpose  for  which  it  has  been  adapted  by  man. 
These  corded  edges  are  caused  simply  by  the  binding 
of  the  cell  walls  upon  themselves  in  the  action  of 
collapsing,  and  are  found  on  every  perfectly  developed 

I  have  made  a  number  of  observations  to  see 
whether  these  twists  are  regular  in  the  same  class  of 
cotton,  and  also  to  find  the  average  number  of  twists 
per  inch.  As  to  the  former,  I  find  that  in  ripe 
cotton  the  twists  are  regular,  but  there  is  so  much 
cotton  received  in  England  that  is  unripe,  or  only 
half-ripe,  that  the  number  of  twists  vary  much  when 
taking  an  average  of  the  bulk  of  the  cotton.  Below 
I  give  the  number  of  twists  per  inch  in  several  kinds 
of  cotton : 


Sea  Islands   . 
Orleans  (America) 
Broach  (E.  India) 

No.  of  twists 
per  inch. 









It  has  been  thought  this  twist  was  the  result  of 
cultivation,  but  it  has  been  found  in  the  wild  cotton 
of  Africa,  though  very  irregular.  Cultivation  has, 
however,  much  improved  the  cotton  fibre,  both  in 
length,  strength,  and  regularity. 

{To  be  continued.') 

Mimulus  luteus.— In  August,  1884, 1  found  this 
plant  growing  abundantly  on  the  banks  of  the  river 
Marau  in  Hertfordshire.  The  Marau  is  a  stream 
which  runs  through  Penshanger  Park,  and  also  forms 
Tewin  Water,  and  in  several  spots  between  these 
two,  the  mimulus  was  flowering  freely  in  large 
golden  masses,  together  with  mint,  forget-me-not, 
&C. — A.  Warner,  Hoddesdon,  Herts. 


ONE  day,  some  little  time  ago,  as  I  was  turning 
over  a  pile  of  old  books  on  a  street  stall,  I 
came  upon  a  small  Latin  folio,  of  ancient  ap- 
pearance, containing  a  number  of  woodcuts  of 
insects.  It  bore  the  following  inscription  on  its 
title  page,  viz.  : — 'Tnsectorum  sive  Minimorum 
Animalium  Theatrum.  Olim  ab  Edvardo  Wottono, 
Conrado  Gesnero,  Thomaque  Pennio  inchoatum. 
Tandem  Tho.  Moufeti  Londinatis  opera  sumpti- 
busq.  Maximis  concinnatum,  auctum,  perfectum, 
etc.  etc.  Londini,  1634."  I  recognised  the  name 
of  Muffet  at  once,  and  proceeded  to  strike  a  bargain 
with  the  vendor,  the  result  of  which  was,  that  for  a 
trifling  sum,  I  became  the  owner  of  the  interesting- 
looking  volume.  Arrived  at  home,  I  made  a  minute 
inspection  of  my  purchase.  It  was,  as  above 
mentioned,  a  small  folio  in  Latin,  closely  printed, 
and  rather  profusely  illustrated,  wtth  crude,  but 
somewhat  striking,  woodcuts  of  the  various  species 
of  insects,  arranged  pretty  regularly,  according  to 
their  different  orders.  It  was  printed  in  London 
in  the  reign  of  Charles  I.,  A.D.  1634,  just  two 
centuries  and  a  half  ago.  Subsequent  investigations^ 
revealed  the  fact  that  I  had  come  into  the  possession, 
not  only  of  a  copy  of  an  early  work  on  Entomology, 
but  of  a  much  more  important  production,  and, 
indeed,  the  very  first  book  ever  published  on  all 
orders  of  insects  as  a  separate  volume.  Although  I 
call  it  the  first  important  book  on  Entomology,  it 
must  not  be  supposed  that  there  was  nothing  written 
about  insects  previously.  The  fact  is,  several  works 
prior  to  this  treated  of  them  amongst  other  things, 
but  were  not  devoted  wholly  to  them  ;  others,  again, 
were  published,  wholly  devoted  to  certain  species, 
such  as  hive  bees,  silkworms,  &c.  ;  but  this 
was  the  first  book  which  treated  of  Entomology 
exclusively,  and  which  also  described  all  orders  of 
insects.  The  unexpected  acquisition  of  this  inter- 
esting work  induced  me  to  devote  some  little  time  to 
"  hunting  up  "  the  early  literature  of  Entomology; 
and  I  now  propose  to  give  some  notes,  which  I 
have  collected  on  the  subject,  shewing  its  progress 
from  the  first  notices  we  find  of  insects  in  any 
writings,  till  the  science  arrived  at  the  dignity  of  a 
whole  Latin  folio  to  itself. 

Entomology  is,  comparatively  speaking,  a  young 
science,  and  was  not  esteemed  of  much  consequence 
till,  we  may  almost  say,  the  commencement  of  the 
present  century.  Botany,  no  doubt,  on  account  of 
its  close  connection  with  medicine  ;  and  mineralogy, 
linked  as  it  was  with  chemistry  (whose  great  theme 
was  to  find  out  the  far-famed  "philosopher's  stone," 
which  was  to  turn  everything  it  touched  into  gold) 
were  both  studied  all  through  the  middle  ages,  while 
hardly  anyone  took  any  notice  of  Natural  History*. 



including  Entomology ;  consequently  no  books 
treating  of  insects  are  to  be  found.  But  as  there  is 
an  exception  to  every  rule,  so  we  find  some  few  men 
turning  their  attention  to  Nature,  and  even  noticing 
insects  briefly  in  their  works,  though  their  ideas  were 
necessarily  very  vague,  and  many  of  their  opinions 
exceedingly  erroneous.  We  may  even  go  back  past  the 
middle  ages — past  the  Roman  era — to  that  great  age 
of  arts,  sciences,  and  literature — the  Grecian,  to  find 
the  first  notice  of  insects  recorded.  We  cannot  now 
tell  who  was  the  first  man  the  world  saw  who  con- 
descended to  observe  and  write  about  them  ;  but  this 
we  do  know,  that  Aristotle,  who  wrote  more  than 
three  centuries  before  the  Christian  era,  took  a  great 
deal  of  his  information  from  previous  observers, 
whose  names  have  perished,  but  some  of  whose 
observations  are  included  in  Aristotle's  works  ;  there- 
fore we  must  rest  content  to  know  that  some 
naturalists  did  exist  so  far  back  in  time,  but  we  can 
only  commence  our  list  of  names  with  Aristotle,  the 
tutor  of  Alexander  the  Great,  who  was  born  in 
•Greece,  B.C.  384.  This  great  philosopher  and 
naturalist  wrote,  among  many  other  works,  a 
*'  History  of  Animals,"  in  which  he  included  all  that 
was  then  known  relative  to  the  history  of  insects. 
He  is  reported  to  have  written  this  book  at  the 
express  desire  of  Alexander  the  Great,  who  en- 
couraged and  supported  him  in  a  truly  royal  manner  ; 
for  he  not  only  supplied  him  with  money  for  the 
undertaking  to  the  amount  of  800  talents,  but  in  his 
Asiatic  expedition  employed  above  1,000  men  to 
collect  animals,  which  were  carefully  transmitted  to 
the  philosopher  ! 

Aristotle,  in  his  "History,"  describes  the  habits  of 
those  species  of  insects  most  generally  known ; 
among  Lepidoptera  he  notices  the  various  kinds  of 
Tinea,  feeding  on  wool,  fur,  books,  &c,  and  one  on 
honeycomb — no  doubt  Gallcria  cerella  ;  and  he  also 
relates  how  butterflies  are  produced  from  caterpillars. 
Among  the  Hymenoptera  he  gives  the  mode  of  life 
and  economy  of  the  honey  bee,  the  wild  bee,  the 
humble  bee,  the  wasp,  the  hornet,  and  the  ant ; 
other  species  he  describes  are  the  grasshopper  and  the 
locust.  Aristotle  does  not  in  his  work  draw  up  in  a 
tabular  form  any  classification  of  insects,  but  from  his 
writings  we  are  enabled  to  gather  that  he  divided 
them  by  what  is  called  the  wing  system,  making  two 
primary  divisions,  the  winged  and  the  wingless,  and 
subdividing  the  former  into  six,  and  the  latter  into 
two  families.  From  all  this  it  will  be  seen  that 
Aristotle,  without  doubt,  paid  some  attention  to  the 
insect  world  ;  and  though  he  did  certainly  entertain 
some  very  curious  ideas  on  the  subject,  he  was  not  so 
ignorant  of  the  truth  as  is  generally  supposed.  We 
often  come  across  Aristotle's  theory  of  the  generation 
of  flies,  set  forth  as  a  sample  of  his  entomological 
knowledge.  He  says,  "Flies  spring  from  dead 
animals  of  their  own  accord  " — a  popular  error  even  at 
the  present  day,  though  more  than  2, 100  years  have   | 

passed  away  since  Aristotle  wrote  it ;  and  further 
that  "  the  flies  inherit  the  nature  of  the  animals  from 
which  they  spring  ;  "  thus  a  lion  will  produce  fierce 
flies  which  will  attack  and  sting,  while  inoffensive 
flies  spring  from  domesticated  and  peacefully  inclined 
animals  !  But  this  is  not  at  all  a  fair  example  to 
quote,  after  the  list  of  insects  I  have  given  above, 
whose  life  histories  he  sketches  fairly  correctly  ;  and 
I  think  that  Aristotle's  entomological  knowledge  has 
been  greatly  maligned. 

Passing  from  the  Greeks  to  the  Romans,  the  name 
of  Pliny  the  Elder  figures  as  the  great  naturalist 
historian.  He  was  a  very  ardent  student  of  Nature, 
and  wrote  several  books  on  the  subject,  one  of  which 
(No.  11)  is  divided  into  23  articles  devoted  to  insects, 
which  however  treat  chiefly  of  bees  ;  these  he  holds 
as  his  fixed  opinion  spring  from  certain  flowers. 
Pliny  met  with  his  death  during  the  eruption  of 
Mount  Vesuvius  which  destroyed  Pompeii,  A.D.  79. 

Virgil,  the  great  Latin  elegiac  poet,  also  wrote 
of  bees,  devoting  the  whole  of  the  fourth  book  of  the 
Georgics  to  their  economy.     Concerning  their  origin 

he  says  : 

"  From  herbs  and  fragrant  flowers 
They  cull  their  young." 

— an  idea  far  more  poetical  than  correct. 

Beyond   these   two   writers,    with    the    exception 

perhaps   of    Columella,    who   is    supposed   to   have 

lived  in  the  first  century,  and  who  in  his  work  on 

Agriculture  devoted  some  attention  to  bees,  no  further 

notice  was  taken  of  insects  during  the   Roman  era. 

After  the  decline  of  the  Roman  empire  all  literature 

fell    to   a   low    ebb    in   Europe,    and    excepting   by 

/Elian,  Natural  Science  was  unnoticed  and  unthought 

of  for  a  long  period.     /Elian,   a  doctor,  was  born 

in   Greece    in    the     twelfth    century,    and  wrote   a 

"  Natural    History   of   Animals,"    in    twenty-seven 

books,  containing  a  short  account  of  insects,  which 

however,    did  not  put  forth  anything  new,  merely 

quoting  the  opinions  of  Aristotle  and  Pliny.     Thus 

we   may  leap   over   a  very   long   period,  extending 

from  the  first  to  the  fifteenth  century — 1500  years — 

without   finding  anything   added   to  the   history  of 



(7o  be  continued.) 

The  town  of  Pittsburgh,  Pennsylvania,  makes 
large  uses  of  natural  gas.  The  wells  are  situated  at 
distances  from  the  town  of  about  twenty  miles  or 
more,  the  amount  supplied  for  use  is  25,000,000 
cubic  feet  per  day,  and  an  enlarged  supply  is  being 
arranged  for.  It  further  appears  from  an  article  on 
the  subject  in  "  Science  "  that  all  great  gas- wells  are 
found  on  anticlinal  axes,  and  that  though  it  has  a 
wide  range  through  the  geological  column,  natural 
gas  is  most  abundant  in  the  black  slates  of  the 




AS  no  doubt  most,  if  not  all,  of  my  fellow  readers 
are  more  or  less  interested  in  the  keeping  of 
an  aquarium,  and  thinking  that  possibly  a  great 
many  are  deterred  from  owning  one,  on  account  of 
the  cost  (as  a  good  aquarium  is  quite  an  expensive 
article),  I  forward  complete  and  simple  instructions 
for  making  a  good  and  reliable  aquarium,  which  I 
have  made  and  found  to  answer  each  and  every 
purpose  served  by  the  most  expensive  trade  arti< 

answer.  I  shall  give  the  size  that  I  have  made,  but 
this  matter  ought  to  be  left  to  the  readers,  as  one 
may  want  a  large  tank,  while  another  may  want  a 
small  one. 

To  make  the  bottom,  we  must  have  a  sound,  solid, 
and  well-seasoned  piece  of  black-walnut,  let  it  be  34 
inches  in  length,  iS  inches  in  width,  and  2  inches 
thick  ;  this  board  should  be  nicely  planed  on  the  top, 
and  then  accurately  squared,  as  shown  at  A  and  'VY . 
Then  cut  a  hole  one  inch  square  in  each  corner,  as  at 
B.     These  should  be  one  inch  and  a  half  deep,  and 

Fig.  6. — A  Cheaply-constructed  Aquarium. 

Fig.  8. — Posts  of  Aqi;arium. 

Fig.  7. — Bottom  for  Aquarium. 

I  must  here  admit  that  there  are  some  points  in 
the  work  which  require  some  very  delicate  "tool 
handling,"  but  as  I  myself  am  no  carpenter  nor 
joiner,  it  is  no  doubt  possible  that  any  young  man, 
with  a  slight  mechanical  turn,  can  do  likewise,  and 
bring  forth  quite  an  excellent  tank,  if  my  directions 
are  followed.  In  making  the  drawing  (although  no 
artist),  I  have  used  the  utmost  pains,  so  as  to  be  very 
plain,  and  strictly  reliable  in  every  particular. 

In  making  this  aquarium,  I  found  that  the  wood 
best  suited  for  the  purpose  is  well-seasoned  black- 
walnut,  although  almost  any  well-seasoned  wood  will 

be  sure  to  have  the  sides  of  the  holes  absolutely  per- 
pendicular, so  that  the  posts,  E,  will  each  be  at  right 
angles  to  the  bottom,  A.  The  one-inch  chisel  I  have 
found  to  be  the  best  tool  for  the  purpose  of  cutting 
out  the  holes.  In  order  to  find  the  exact  spots  to- 
cut  out,  make  a  set  of  lines  one  inch  and  a  half 
from,  and  parallel  with  the  four  sides,  as  at  CCCC, 
then  make  a  second  set  parallel  with  the  first  set,  but 
one  inch  from  them,  as  at  DDDD,  and  this  will  give 
the  four  squares,  lilJHB,  which  are  to  be  cut  out. 

The  next  step  is  to  cut  grooves  which  are  to  hold  the 
glass.     Draw  a  line  as  denoted  by  the  clotted  lines  in. 



the  illustration,  A  ;  they  are  to  be  midway  between 
the  lines,  CD  ;  these  grooves  should  be  about  one- 
eighth  of  an  inch  in  width,  and  about  one  quarter  of 
an  inch  in  depth.  Use  a  good  sharp  steel  chisel,  and 
cut  these  grooves  in  a  perfectly  straight  line  ;  after  this 
is  done  we  proceed  to  make  the  four  posts,  E. 

These  posts  should  be  sixteen  inches  and  a  half 
long,  and  one  inch  and  a  half  square,  the  end  for 
the  bottom  must  be  cut  to  fit  into  the  hole  tightly, 
a.-  at  F.  The  best  way  to  do  this  part  of  the  work 
is  to  saw  to  the  depth  of  one-quarter  of  an  inch  into 
the  four  sides  of  each  post,  at  the  right  distance  from 

nearest  wood-turner,  and  have  him  turn  off  the  end 
of  each  piece,  leaving  it  one  inch  and  a  quarter 
thick,  as  at  N,  and  then  with  a  carpenter's  brace, 
and  a  one  and  a  quarter-inch  bit,  we  can  bore  four 
circular  holes,  as  in  fig.  9,  instead  of  cutting  them 
square  ;  this  greatly  simplifies  the  work,  but  it  is  not 
as  strong  as  when  the  square  holes  are  used.  Get 
some  good  carpenter's  glue,  and,  after  putting  some 
in  the  holes,  while  still  hot,  drive  your  posts  well  in 
with  a  wooden  hammer,  and  fasten  them  through  the 
bottom  of  the  tank  with  a  one  and  a  half  inch  screw. 
The  pieces  now  being  all  in  place,  it  will  perhaps 

Fig.  9. — Bottom  of  Aquarium. 

Fig.  10. — Details 
of  Posts  of 

Fig.  13. — Ditto. 

Fig.  11. — Ditto. 

Fig.  12. — Details  of  Ditto. 

Fig.  14.— Method  of  fastening  Glass  in 

th&end,  and  then  cut  three  pieces  off  with  the  chisel, 
so  that  it  will  fit  tightly  in  the  holes.  Then  cut  two 
grooves  into  each  post,  running  the  entire  length,  as  at 
G,  so  that  they  will  run  directly  into  the  grooves  on 
the  bottom  board,  when  the  posts  are  placed  in 
their  respective  positions.  The  inside  corners  can 
now  be  planed  off  of  each  post,  as  at  G  ;  this  will 
greatly  improve  the  look  of  the  tank,  and  you  can 
then  proceed  to  fasten  each  permanently  into  the 

As  the  cutting  of  the  posts  is  a  very  delicate,  and, 
perhaps,  the  most  difficult  part  of  the  whole  work,  it 
would  perhaps  be  better  for  me  to  ask  the  less  skil- 
ful of  my  fellow-readers  to  take  their  four  posts  to  the 

be  best  to  put  them  aside  for  about  twelve  hours,  so- 
as  to  let  the  glue  thoroughly  harden,  and  then  the 
glass  should  be  obtained.  It  will  be  very  necessary 
to  be  careful  in  taking  the  measurements  for  the  glass, 
so  as  to  be  a  neat  fit ;  neither  too  tight,  as  this  would 
cause  them  to  crack,  nor  too  loose,  as  this  would 
cause  a  leakage.  When  inserting  the  glass  plates, 
carefully  lower  them  into  the  grooves  they  are  to 
occupy  ;  then  proceed  to  fasten  the  glass.  In  doing 
this,  I  here  give  a  recipe  for  making  a  watertight 
cement,  which  I  have  used  for  two  years  and  a  half, 
which  has  never  allowed  one  drop  of  water  to  escape, 
and  my  tank  has  never  been  repaired  in  all  this  time. 
Take  one  and  a  half  oz.  boiled  linseed  oil,    four 



oz.  of  black  tar,  one  oz.  best  tallow,  and  melt  by  a 
strong  heat,  then  add  to  this  mixture  one  lb.  resin  in 
small  lumps,  until  the  whole  becomes  a  thoroughly- 
liquid  mass,  and  after  filling  the  outside  of  the  groove 
with  putty,  fill  the  inside  of  the  groove  with  the  hot 
•cement,  as  at  H.  (fig.  14). 

After  the  cement  is  thoroughly  hardened,  which 
may  take  two  or  three  hours,  we  can  proceed  with 
the  next  step,  which  is  to  put  a  frame  on  the  top  of 
the  tank,  as  at  L. 

Get  two  pieces  of  walnut  thirty-one  inches  long, 
one  inch  and  a  half  wide,  and  half  an  inch  thick,  and 
two  pieces  fifteen  inches  long,  one  inch  and  a  half 
wide,  and  half  an  inch  thick  ;  proceed  to  cut  the  ends, 
-as  at  K  (fig.  12),  so  as  to  fit  neatly  and  tightly  to- 
gether, and,  after  boring  a  hole  through  each  end, 
fasten  them  with  a  one  and  a  half-inch  brass  screw,  to 
the  top  of  the  tank  posts,  and  after  cleaning  away 
any  superfluous  cement  which  may  have  made  its 
-appearance,  our  aquarium  is  complete,  and  ought  to 
present  quite  a  neat  and  attractive  appearance,  if  our 
work  has  been  neatly  done. 

An  iron  pipe  can  also  be  introduced  (covered  with 
rubber),  as  at  P  (fig.  6),  in  order  to  keep  the  water  at 
a  certain  level,  and  if  it  becomes  necessary  to  add 
fresh  water,  the  overflow  can  be  caught  with  a  basin 
at  R.  A  cork  should  always  be  kept  in  this  opening 
when  not  made  use  of,  so  as  to  keep  the  water  from 
dripping  on  to  the  floor. 

In  stocking,  and  keeping  this  aquarium  in  a 
healthy  condition,  I  can  do  no  better  than  recommend 
my  fellow-readers  to  consult  that  most  excellent 
book  "  The  Aquarium,  its  Inhabitants,  Structure  and 
Management  (The  Aquarium  as  a  Nursery  for  the 
Microscope),"  by  J.  E.  Taylor,  as  a  lengthy  discourse 
upon  this  subject  would  here  be  out  of  place. 

The  outside  of  the  tank  can  either  be  oiled  with 
linseed  oil,  or  else  coated  with  some  light-coloured 
paint  which  may  beautify  the  appearance.  For  my 
part,  I  have  always  sponged  the  outside  wood-work 
with  good  boiled  linseed  oil ;  this  is  all  I  ever  found 
it  necessary  to  do. 

Charles  Von  Eiff,  jun. 

New  York  City. 

By  John  Browning,  F.R.A.S. 

VENUS  will  be  an  evening  star  throughout  the 
month,  setting  about  8  o'clock  P.M.  on  the 
1st,  about  8.10  on  the  21st,  and  7.30  on  the  31st. 

Mercury  will  be  a  morning  star,  rising  about 
6.20  A.M.  on  the  1st,  and  at  times  varying  between 
6.18  A.M.  and  7.8  A.M.  on  the  31st. 

Mais  will  not  rise  until  10.15  P.M.  at  the  beginning 
of  the  month,  but  will  be  up  about  a  quarter  of  an 
hour  earlier  each  week,  rising  on  the  la  day  about 
8-3°  p-m. 

Jupiter  will  be  late  for  observation  this  month,  not 
rising  on  the  1st  until  after  11.30  p.m.,  but  getting  up 
earlier  throughout  the  month,  so  that  he  will  rise  on 
the  31st  soon  after  9.30  p.m. 

Saturn  will  set  throughout  the  month  between 
twenty  minutes  and  two  hours  before  sunrise. 

The  date  of  the  appearance  of  the  new  star  in 
Andromeda  is  now  approximately  known. 

During  the  first  week  in  August  the  Great  Nebula 
was  being  carefully  observed  at  the  Brussels  Observa- 
tory, and  the  star  was  not  then  visible,  but  it  is  said 
to  have  been  seen  by  Mr.  Isaac  Ward  on  the  19th  of 
August.  On  the  31st  of  August  it  was  clearly  seen  by 
Dr.  Hartwig  of  Dorpat,  and  Lord  Crawford  sent  out 
a  circular  from  Dun  Echt  announcing  its  visibility 
to  the  astronomical  world  on  the  2nd  of  September. 
About  three  months,  therefore,  would  seem  to  be  the 
period  which  elapsed  between  its  first  appearance  and 
its  dwindling  until  it  had  become  a  12th  magnitude. 

On  the  7th  of  September  it  was  measured  with  the 
wedge  photometer,  and  was  found  to  be  of  8.25 
magnitude,  this  was  probably  its  maximum. 

Two  new  comets  have  been  discovered  ;  one  on  the 
1st  of  December,  by  Mr.  Fabry,  of  the  Paris  Obser- 
vatory, R.A.,  9  hr.  47  min.  8  sec.  n.p.d.  68°  57'  35"  ; 
and  the  second,  on  the  3rd  of  December,  by  Mr. 
Barnard,  R.A.,  650  29'  n.p.d.  850  15'.  Both  are  faint 

After  the  display  of  falling  stars  on  the  27th  of 
November  Dr.  Reneger,  of  Riel,  was  requested  by 
Dr.  Weiss,  of  Vienna,  to  look  out  for  Biela's  Comet 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Theta  Centauri. 

At  the  time  of  writing,  information  has  not  reached 
me  whether  this  search  was  successful.  In  my  last 
article  I  omitted  to  mention  that  I  am  indebted  to 
my  esteemed  friend  W.  G.  Lettsom,  Esq.,  F.R.G.S., 
for  notices  from  the  "  Astronomische  Nachrichten." 
This  assistance  is  invaluable  to  me,  as  in  whatever 
language  the  notices  appear,  Mr.  Lettsom  translates 
them  with  equal  facility. 

The  meteor  shower  on  the  27th  of  November  was 
successfully  observed  in  many  places.  At  Greenwich 
the  number  of  meteors  which  fell  between  5  and  6 
o'clock  was  from  30  to  40  a  minute.  At  Oxford, 
Professor  Pritchard  reports  that  from  6  hrs.  34  mins. 
to  6  hrs.  39  mins.  they  fell  at  the  rate  of  50  a  minute, 
and  from  7  hrs.  14  mins.  to  7  hrs.  19  mins.  at  the  rate 
of  60  a  minute.  Mr.  G.  Symons  saw  5  in  about  one 
second  and  a  half,  just  before  7  o'clock,  which 
appears  to  have  been  the  richest  time  of  the  shower. 

At  Windsor,  between  6.15  and  6.40,  an  immense 
number  of  meteors  were  seen  to  fall.  At  Newcastle- 
on-Tyne  500  were  counted  in  an  hour,  and  at 
Camden  Square,  North  London,  they  were  seen  to 
fall  at  the  rate  of  5000  an  hour. 

The  mean  temperature  of  the  first  week  in  December 
was  about  3  degrees  above  the  average  for  20  years, 
but  in  the  second  week  a  severe  frost  occurred  which 
lasted  several  days,  the  thermometer  falling  at  nights 

HARD  WICKE '  5  S  CIE  NCE  -  G  O  SSI  P. 


to  from  o°  to  120  below  freezing.  Writing  on  the 
12th,  the  barometer,  which  had  on  the  nth  reached 
30.60,  is  falling  ;  the  wind  is  in  the  S.W.,  and  there  is 
every  symptom  of  the  frost  giving  way. 

In  the  fortnight  from  the  7th  of  November  to  the 
21st,  the  rainfall  was  only  between  one  and  two-tenths 
of  an  inch,  while  in  the  fortnight  from  the  22nd  of 
November  to  the  4th  of  December  rain  fell  to  the 
extent  of  i£  inches,  which  is  about  126  tons  to  the 

The  average  mean  temperature  for  London  in 
January  is  390  Fahrenheit,  and  it  is  the  coldest  month 
in  the  year.  On  the  south-coast,  between  Portsmouth 
and  Ramsgate,  it  is  about  410. 

The  average  rainfall  for  London  in  January  is 
about  2  inches,  on  the  south-coast  it  is  nearly  3 

Mr.  J.  Rand  Capron  has  just  completed,  in  the 
"  Meteorological  Magazine,"  a  valuable  paper  entitled 
"  The  Rain-Band  Vindicated."  The  majority  of 
persons  who  have  obtained  Rain-Band  Spectro- 
scopes, and  who  have  taken  the  trouble  persistently 
to  use  them,  have  found  them  of  considerable  value, 
but  a  large  number  taking  only  a  look  through  them 
from  time  to  time,  without  studying  the  matter,  think 
them  of  little  service.  To  all  such  persons  Mr.  Rand 
Capron's  paper  will  be  invaluable  ;  once  they  have 
the  proofs  of  good  results  placed  before  them  so 
plainly  and  logically,  they  will  certainly  give  further 
attention  to  the  matter.  Besides  these,  many  persons 
who  are  slow  to  take  up  any  new  method  of  observa- 
tion until  its  value  is  admitted,  will  be  now  induced 
to  give  the  Rain-Band  a  trial. 

I  am  indebted  to  Colonel  Michael  Foster  Ward  for 
an  account  of  a  most  destructive  storm  which  occurred 
at  Partenkirchen,  Bavaria,  on  the  15th  of  October. 
The  writer  says  the  storm  occurred  in  the  night ;  at 
daylight  a  strange  scene  presented  itself.  The  valley 
was  filled  with  people  collecting  the  fragments  of  their 
chalets,  many  of  which  had  been  carried  away  bodily. 
The  Government  Carving  School,  a  three-storied 
building,  had  been  stripped  of  its  iron  roof,  a  large 
fragment  of  which  was  carried  300  yards  away.  .  .  . 
The  Stangenwald,  a  wood,  clothing  the  precipitous 
side  of  the  Wachsenstein,  was  utterly  destroyed — 
259,000  trees  being  blown  down.  This  destruction 
was  effected  in  about  half-an-hour.  It  has  been 
ascertained  that  a  million  large  trees  are  down  in  this 
district  alone. 

The  Royal  Society  have  conferred  the  Copley 
Gold  Medal  on  Auguste  Kekule,  of  Bonn,  for  his 
researches  in  organic  chemistry.  Professors  D.  E. 
Plughes  and  E.  Ray  Lankester  have  both  received 
Royal  Medals,  the  former  for  his  researches  in 
electricity,  and  the  latter  for  his  labours  in  em- 
bryology and  animal  morphology. 


MUCH  has  been  said  of  late  on  this  subject,  and 
any  evidence  on  the  part  of  animals  or  birds, 
proving,  or  assisting  to  prove,  the  carrying  out  of  a 
pre-conceived  idea,  or  of  solving  a  somewhat  intricate 
problem  is  of  value  in  enabling  us  to  form  conclu- 
sions as  to  the  extent  to  which  animals  or  birds  are 
able  to  approach  man  in  this  direction.  Many  of  the 
clever  tricks  of  dogs,  cats,  parrots,  &c,  appear  to 
be  performed  in  a  mechanical,  blind  sort  of  way, 
especially  when  such  tricks  are  the  result  of  a  more 
or  less  cruel  course  of  training,  but  on  the  other  hand, 
cases  do  often  occur  in  which  there  appears  to  be  a 
direct  advantage  in  the  "  trick  "  performed,  and  the 
performance  itself  would  require  a  certain  amount, 
not  only  of  reasoning,  but  of  calculation  on  the  part 
of  the  performer.  As  I  am  as  yet  undecided 
myself  as  to  whether  I  consider  reason  or  instinct 
prompts  the  apparently  skilled  operations  of  the 
lower  orders  of  animals,  the  following  observation 
is  free  from  any  biased  exaggeration  in  favour  of 
either  ;  for  once  having  decided  upon  a  theory,  there 
is  often  a  tendency  to  mould  one's  observations  in  the 
direction  and  support  of  that  theory. 

I  have  a  common  grey  parrot  which  does  not  show 
any  marked  proficiency  in  what  is  termed  talking, 
but  no  doubt  is,  as  the  sailor  remarked  once,  "  A 
good  'un  to  think  !  "  The  first  point  in  its  character 
that  really  attracted  my  attention  was  this.  One  hot 
summer's  day  it  was  placed  in  its  cage  on  the  lawn, 
where  it  was  enjoying  itself  after  its  kind,  whilst  I 
was  engaged  in  washing  some  plants  with  a  garden 
syringe.  As  soon  as  the  parrot  saw  what  was  going 
on,  it  ruffled  its  feathers  and  whistled  a  series  of  rich 
mellow  notes  exactly  like  water  dripping  into  a  deep 
well.  I  certainly  never  heard  so  good  a  case  of 
mimicking  sounds,  or  rather  improving  them,  for 
the  music  of  a  garden  syringe  is  not  particularly 
mellow.  This  sound  was  kept  up  with  much  excite- 
ment till  I  sprinkled  the  bird  with  water,  which  was 
much  enjoyed.  After  this,  whenever  the  syringe  was 
brought  out,  the  same  volley  of  mellow  notes  was 
given,  but  never  on  any  other  occasion. 

The  next  performance  was  more  of  an  engineering 
character.  The  bird's  seed  tin  was  secured  to  the 
side  of  the  cage,  about  half  way  up,  by  means  of  a 
splinter  of  wood  outside  the  bars,  and  through  a  ring 
on  the  seed  tin. 

One  day  the  parrot  managed  to  pull  out  this  piece 
of  wood,  when  of  course  the  tin  fell  to  the  floor  of  the 
cage.  After  tearing  the  wood  to  fibres,  I  saw  the 
parrot  regard  the  fallen  tin  with  something  very  like 
calculation.  It  then  descended  from  its  perch,  seized 
the  tin  in  its  beak,  right  side  up  by  the  way, 
clambered  back  to  its  perch  and  tried  to  hook  the 
tin  in  its  usual  place.  This  of  course  could  not  be 
done,  so  after  several  unsuccessful  attempts  it  shuffled 
over  to  the  other  side  of  the  cage,  and  carefully  placed 



the  seed  tin  on  the  top  of  its  water  tin,  where  it  left 
this,  apparently  quite  satisfied  with  what  it  had  accom- 
plished. This  may  be  instinct,  or  it  may  be  reason, 
but  I  watched  the  whole  performance,  unseen  by  the 
bird,  and  it  appeared  to  be  carried  out  as  carefully 
as  if  executed    by  a  man  cognizant  of  the  laws   of 


Edward  Lovett. 


[It  is  our  desire  to  bring  out  a  Scientific  Directory  in  the 
monthly  pages  of  Science-Gossip,  feeling  certain  that  it  would 
be  very  useful  for  our  readers  to  know  what  scientific  societies 
had  been  formed  in  their  own  neighbourhoods.  We  shall  there- 
fore feel  very  much  obliged  if  Secretaries  of  any  kind  of 
Scientific  Society,  in  any  town  or  part  of  the  country,  will  send 
us  the  full  name  and  title  of  each  Society,  together  with  the 
names  of  the  President  and  Hon.  Secretary.] 

>Tr> HE  Royal  Society  :  President,  Professor  Stokes  : 
JL  Secretaries,  Professor  M.  Foster  and  Lord 
Rayleigh ;  Foreign  Secretary,  Professor  A.  W. 

The  Geographical  Society :  President,  The  Marquis 
of  Lome  ;  Secretaries,  Clement  R.  Markham&  D.  W. 
Freshfield  ;  Foreign  Secretary,  Lord  A.  Russell. 

The  Royal  Microscopical  Society  (founded  1839)  : 
President,  Rev.  Dr.  Dallinger,  F.R.S.  ;  Secretaries, 
Frank  Crisp,  LL.D,  and  Professor  F.  Jeffrey  Bell, 

Liniican  Society  of  London  :  President,  Sir  John 
Lubbock,  Bart.,  F.R.S. ;  Secretaries,  Messrs.  B.  D. 
Jackson,  and  W.  Percy  Sladen. 

Geological  Society  of  London  :  President,  Professor 
T.  G.  Bonney,  D.Sc.  ;  Secretaries,  Dr.  W.  T. 
Blanford,  F.R.S.  ;  Professor  Judd,  F.R.S.  ;  Foreign 
Secretary,  Warington  W.  Smyth,  F.R.S. 

Liverpool  Science  Students'  Association :  President, 
Mr.  A.  Norman  Tate,  F.I.C.  ;  Hon  Secretaries, 
Mr.  W.  H.  Read  and  Miss  Helen  Fryer. 

Hertfordshire  Natural  History  Society:  President, 
Dr.  John  Attfield,  F.R.S.,  Hon.  Secretaries,  Messrs. 
R.  B.  Croft,  F.L.S.,  and  F.  G.  Lloyd. 


Sir  Joseph  Hooker,  F.R.S.,  has  resigned  the 
Directorship  of  the  Kew  Botanical  Gardens,  after 
holding  the  post  for  twenty  years.  His  son-in-law, 
Professor  Thistleton  Dyer,  succeeds  him. 

A  NEW  edition  of  Mr.  H.  B.  Woodward's  impor- 
tant work  on  the  "  Geology  of  England  and  Wales  " 
is  announced. 

A  pension  of  .£300  per  annum  has  been  conferred 
on  Professor  Huxley  from  the  Civil  List  Fund,  on 
account  of  his  distinguished  services  to  science. 
This  is  as  it  should  be. 

We  are  pleased  to  see  that  Mr.  J.  H.  A.  Jenner 
has  republished  his  valuable  "List  of  the  Land 
and  Freshwater  Mollusca  of  East  Sussex,"  from  the 
Proceedings  of  the  Eastbourne  Natural  History 

A  capital  paper  on  "  Boulder  Glaciation,"  by 
Hugh  Miller,  F.G.S.,  appears  in  the  Transactions 
of  the  Tyneside  Field  Naturalists'  Club  ;  and  one 
on  "  River-Terracing  ;  its  Methods  and  its  Result," 
(by  the  same  author),  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Royal 
Physical  Society. 

It  is  stated  that  the  telephone  system  of  Paris, 
almost  entirely  subterranean,  numbered  at  the  end 
of  last  April  as  many  as  three  thousand  eight  hundred 

It  appears  that  the  specimen  of  Archreopteryx  in 
the  British  Museum,  the  first  that  was  found,  was 
purchased  for  ^1000,  and  the  second,  more  perfect, 
was  sold  to  the  Berlin  Museum  for  ^1000.  Another 
specimen  has  just  been  found  at  Solenhofen. 

The  discovery  is  announced  of  a  tree,  the  Butyro- 
spennum  Parka,  which  grows  in  abundance  in  dense 
forests  in  Central  Africa,  and  which  yields  gutta- 
percha. Mr.  Edward  Heckel,  the  discoverer,  is  of 
opinion  that  the  tree  can  be  transplanted  into  the 
English  and  French  colonies. 

Mr.  L.  Upcott  Gill,  the  publisher,  is  bringing 
out  in  yd.  parts,  a  series  of  most  useful  and  original 
works,  among  which  those  now  in  issue  are  on 
"Poultry,"  "  Fancy  Pigeons,"  "  Book  of  The  Goat," 
"  British  Cage  Birds,"  &c. 

We  draw  special  attention  to  Mr.  Joseph  Smith's 
paper  (republished  from  the  "  Midland  Naturalist '"), 
on  "  Anthropology  :  Its  Meaning  and  Aim." 

In  Sir  F.  Abel's  Address  to  the  Society  of  Arts 
(published  in  "Nature"),  there  is  a  sharp  satire 
on  the  way  in  which  pseudo-philanthropists  "attack 
the  problem  at  all  points  "  of  explosions  in  coal- 
mines, by  offering  rewards  of  ,£500  for  safety-lamps 
which  can  never  be  forthcoming,  and  so  reaping  a 
cheap  and  temporary  notoriety  thereby. 

We  have  received  a  copy  of  Dr.  Ricketts'  impor- 
tant paper  on  "Some  Erratics  in  the  Boulder  Clay 
of  Cheshire,  and  the  Condition  of  Climate  they 

Dr.  Currier,  of  New  York,  has  invented  an 
apparatus  by  which  the  large  class  of  deaf  persons, 
who  have  some  amount  of  latent  hearing,  can  learn  to 
speak  with  greater  uniformity  and  exactness. 

M.  Plateau,  a  French  zoologist,  has  shown  that 
the  palpi  of  insects  are  not  essential  to  the  recognition 
and  seizure  of  food,  as  has  hitherto  been  imagined. 
Beetles,  cockroaches,  &c,  can  be  deprived  of  them, 
and  still  retain  the  power  of  identifying  and  mastica- 
ting their  food. 



A  very  important  practical  paper  appears  in  the 
Wisconsin  State  Horticultural  Society's  "Trans- 
actions" on  "The  Grape  Rot,"  by  Professor 
W.  Trelease. 

The  last  number  of  the  Liverpool  Science 
Students'  Association's  "Proceedings,"  contains 
capital  digests  of  the  papers  read,  and  altogether 
shows  a  healthy  state  of  intellectual  activity. 

The  great  object-glass  for  the  Nice  Observatory, 
made  by  Messieurs  Henry,  is  completed.  It  is  nearly 
thirty  inches  in  diameter. 

M.  Trouvel  thinks  that  the  recently  developed 
bright  star  in  Andromeda  has  no  physical  connexion 
with  the  Nebula. 

We  are  pleased  to  find  that  the  much-required 
work  on  the  "  Rotifera,"  by  Dr.  Hudson  and  Mr. 
P.  H.  Gosse,  F.R.S.,  will  soon  be  ready.  It  will 
appear  in  six  parts,  with  coloured  illustrations. 

The  seventy-fifth  birthday  of  Professor  Asa  Gray, 
the  distinguished  American  botanist,  occurred  on  the 
1 8th  November,  and  it  was  appropriately  celebrated 
by  the  botanists  of  America  presenting  him  with  an 
appropriately  decorated  and  engraved  silver  vase. 
Bravo,  American  botanists  ! 

Mr.  John  Ryder  gives  in  "  Science  "  for  Novem- 
ber 27th,  a  full  account  of  his  new  system  of  oyster 

Dr.  Trelease  has  republished  from  the  Studies 
from  the  Biological  Laboratory  of  the  John  Hopkins 
University,  his  important  paper  (illustrated)  on 
certain  "  Zooglcere  and  Related  Forms." 


Mounting  Gizzards. — I  wish  to  obtain  and 
mount  a  gizzard  of  the  common  house  cricket. 
Would  some  correspondent  kindly  tell  me  the 
handiest  method  of  preparation  and  mounting  ? — 
IV.  L.  Tall. 

Staining  with  Iodine  Vapour. — Many  of  the 
micro-fungi  when  mounted  permanently  in  Canada 
balsam  become  so  transparent  as  to  be  nearly  in- 
visible. If  previously  exposed  to  the  action  of 
iodine  vapour,  they  assume,  when  mounted,  a  clear 
yellowish-brown  colour  by  which  their  structure  is 
beautifully  defined. — B.  Piffard. 

Liverpool  Microscopical  Society. — At  the 
ordinary  monthly  meeting  on  December  the  4th,  a 
paper  on  some  of  the  most  interesting  forms  of  life 
obtained  during  the  summer  dredging  expeditions, 
was  read  by  Professor  Herdman,  D.Sc.  &c.  Amongst 
Ccelenterata  some  points  in  the  structure  and  the 
life  histories  of  the  following  forms  were  illustrated 

and  explained  : — Hydractinia  eckinata,  Syncoryne 
eximia,  Garveia  natans,  Eudendrium  ramoswii, 
Tubularia  indivisa,  Alcyonium  digilatum  and  Adamsia 
palliata.  The  curious  polyzoon,  Pedicellina  cernua, 
was  then  discussed,  and  after  that  a  series  of 
tubicolous  annelides,  showing  various  modifications 
of  structure.  Special  attention  was  directed  to 
Sabellaria  alveolata,  which  forms  large  encrusting 
masses  on  the  rocks  at  Hilbre  Island.  Various 
Tubibranch  and  Nudibranch  Molluscs,  including 
Aplysia,  Pleurobranchus,  the  rare  Goniodoris 
castanea,  Eolis  and  Dendronotus,  were  then  described. 
The  lecture  ended  with  an  account  of  the  blood 
vessels  in  the  tunic  of  three  genera  of  Ascidium 
found  at  Hilbre  Island,  viz.  Clavelina,  Ciona,  and 
Ascidia.  The  process  by  which  these  vessels  had 
become  evolved  so  as  to  form  an  organ  of  respiration 
in  the  last-mentioned  genus  was  briefly  sketched. 

Cole's  Microscopical  Studies. — We  were  de- 
lighted, on  our  return  from  Australia,  to  see  the 
familiar  and  welcome  yellow  wrappers  of  "  Studies 
in  Microscopical  Science,"  by  Mr.  A.  C.  Cole, 
F.R.M.S.,  and  the  beautiful  slides  accompanying 
them.  The  parts  for  November  are  four  in  number, 
and  are  as  follows  :  —  1st "  Structure  of  Macrosporangia 
(Anthers)  in  Taxus,"  with  a  very  artistic  coloured 
plate,  showing  a  vertical  section  of  Ovule  of  Taxus  ; 
2nd  is  a  practical  illustration  of  animal  histology, 
represented  by  the  Lung  of  the  Frog ;  3rd  is 
devoted  to  Pathological  Histology,  and  deals  with 
Pleurisy,  and  this  is  accompanied  by  a  beautiful 
plate  showing  the  lung  (Emphysema)  X  18.  4th 
is  a  "  Popular  Microscopical  Study,"  and  treats 
on  insectivorous  and  carnivorous  plants.  All  four 
are  illustrated  by  slides,  mounted  in  Mr.  Cole's  best 
style  :  than  which  there  can  be  no  higher  praise.  The 
slide  illustrating  the  last  paper  is  one  of  the  most 
instructive  and  beautifully  got  up  of  any  we  have 
hitherto  seen. 

The  Royal  Microscopical  Society. —  The 
"Journal"  of  the  above  society  for  December 
contains,  besides  the  usual  full  and  accurate 
"Summary  of  Current  Researches,"  the  following 
papers: — "On  some  New  and  Rare  Desmids " 
(illustrated),  by  W.  Barwell  Turner;  "Further 
Experiments  on  Feeding  Insects  with  the  Curved 
or  'Comma'  Bacillus,"  by  Dr.  R.  L.  Maddox  ; 
"Improved  Form  of  Stephens'  Binocular  Prism," 
by  C.  D.  Ahrens  ;  "The  Limits  of  Resolution  in 
the  Microscope,"  by  Frank  Crisp,  &c.  One  delightful 
feature  (or  rather,  without  intending  a  pun,  set  of 
features)  are  the  portraits  of  former  'distinguished 
presidents  of  the  society,  such  as  Owen,  Farre, 
Lindley,  Bowerbank,  Carpenter,  Busk,  Bill,  Quekett, 
Lankester,  Sorby,  Parker,  Slack,  &c.  That  of 
Professor  Owen  in  an  exquisite  likeness. 

On  certain  so-called  Prodigies. — This  is  the 
title  of  a  paper  by  C.  F.  Cox,  in  the  "Journal  of  the 



New  York  Microscopical  Society,"  in  which  the 
author,  after  treating  the  subject  from  a  historical 
and  literary  point  of  view,  enumerates  a  good 
many  examples,  of  which  some  are  more  directly 
connected  with  microscopy  than  others.  The 
bleeding  of  statues,  shields,  &c,  would  probably 
be  the  growth  of  a  red  lichen  or  alga,  as  ITiemato- 
coccus  sanguineus,  or  Palmella  cruenta  ;  "  showers  of 
oil "  might  be  due  to  the  appearance  of  a  gela- 
tinous protophyte,  as  Nostoc,  or  one  of  the 
Palmellacece ;  while  "showers  of  wool"  turned  out 
to  be  a  product  of  the  Coccus.  Other  examples  are, 
"  showers  of  milk  "  (suggested  to  be  the  "  white 
rust"  fungus  on  cabbage  leaves,  &c),  the  spotting  of 
bread,  &c.  with  blood  {Palmella  p'odigiosa  ;  Tricho- 
basis,  "  red-rust " or  "corn-rust " on  grain  ;  CEcidium, 
Puccinia,  and  Uredo  on  leaves  of  shrubs  and  trees)  ; 
and  "red  snow." 

Micro-photography. — "  The  Journal  of  the  New 
York  Microscopical  Society "  contains  a  beautiful 
example  of  what  can  be  done  in  the  way  of  photo- 
graphing microscopic  objects.  Three  side  views  of 
Triceratium  Davyanum,  "  direct  reproductions,  in 
printer's  ink,  of  the  negatives,"  each  side  of  the 
triangle  being  about  2f  inches  long,  are  given  on 
one  plate ;  the  three  views  corresponding  to  three 
focussings.  No.  2  shows  a  level  of  -j^^  of  an  inch 
below  No.  I,  that  of  No.  3  being  Tn6us  °f  an  ^ncn 
below  No.  2  The  photographs  were  taken  by  P.  H. 
Dudley,  C.E.,  and  the  plate  says  "  Artotype.  E. 
Bierstadt,  N.Y." 

Sharpening  Microtome  Knives. — In  using  an 
oil-stone  the  blade  should  be  moved  forward,  edge 
foremost,  care  being  taken  not  to  raise  the  back  of  the 
knife  from  the  stone,  and  also  not  to  press  the  knife 
upon  the  stone,  but  to  hold  it  lightly,  the  necessary 
friction  being  left  to  capillary  attraction. 


Rugby  School  Natural  History  Society. — 
The  Report  of  this  Society  for  18S4  shows  a  very 
healthy  state  of  things.  It  is  well  got  up,  from  a 
literary  point  of  view,  and  the  illustrations  are  good  ; 
those  on  "Our  Bats"  being  especially  vigorous. 
Mr.  Bloxam  has  a  paper  on  "Ancient  British,  &c. 
Remains  found  near  Rugby  "  (illustrated) ;  Mr.  J.  E. 
Kelsall  one  on  "Some  British  Quadrupeds;"  Mr. 
G.  C.  Richards  on  "British  Spiders;"  Mr.  E.  E. 
Austin  one  on  "  Trout  and  Trout  fishing  near 
Rugby,"  &c. 

Preservation  of  the  Eyesight. — I  have  read 
with  pleasure  Mr.  Browning's  observations  on  print 
easy  to  read.*    It  may  not  be  generally  known  that 

*  Science-Gossip,  Dec.  1885,  p.  266. 

the  subject  engaged  the  attention  of  the  late  Charles 
Babbage.  In  the  preface  to  his  table  of  Logarithms, 
published  in  1841,  the  whole  subject  is  discussed 
in  detail,  and  an  account  given  of  the  various  experi- 
ments tried  with  a  view  to  determine  the  most  visible 
and  easily  read  combinations.  Type,  spacing,  and 
colour  were  all  considered ;  as  to  the  latter,  buff 
paper  printed  with  black  gave  the  best  result.  The 
tables  are  marvels  of  clear  printing  and  good  arrange- 
ment.— IV.  T.  Suffolk. 

Amalia  gagates,  Drap. — My  sister,  Miss  M.  E. 
Williams,  has  sent  me  two  very  interesting  varieties 
of  this  pretty  slug  from  Stourport,  in  Worcestershire. 
One  of  these  corresponds  to  Moquin-Tandon's 
V.  olivacea,  being  deep  grey-olive  coloured,  and  is  new 
to  this  country  ;  the  other  is  a  new  variety  of  a  drab 
colour,  with  the  shield  lighter  tinted  than  the  back, 
and  which  I  propose  to  call  V.  rava.  From  the  same 
locality  she  has  also  sent  me  Limax  maximus,  var. 
Johnstoni,  Moq.,  which  has  only  been  previously 
found  in  Gloucestershire.  Lessona  and  Pollonera,  in 
their  recent  monograph  on  the  Italian  Limacidse, 
published  in  the  memoirs  of  the  "  Reale  Accademia 
delle  Scienze  di  Torino  "  for  1882,  have  described  two 
new  varieties  of  Amalia  gagalcs,  Drap.,  and  which 
may  eventually  turn  out  to  be  British,  viz.  var. 
bedrigce,  animal  black  with  lateral  blackish  bands  on 
the  sole,  and  var.  benoiti,  animal  black  with  a  white 
keel.— J.  W.  Williams,  D.Sc. 

The  Field  Naturalists'  Club  of  Victoria. — 
This  Australian  Society  represents  a  numerous  and 
enthusiastic  body  of  ladies  and  gentlemen  who  are 
fond  of  out-door  observation  and  study.  Some 
excellent  papers  are  read  at  their  meetings,  after  which 
there  is  usually  a  conversazione.  We  lately  attended 
one  of  these  meetings,  and  the  room  was  crowded. 
The  Club  has  now  started  a  magazine  of  its  own, 
under  the  title  of  "The  Victorian  Naturalist,"  in 
which  the  best  of  the  papers  are  published.  Two  of 
the  last  numbers  contain  the  following  : — "  To 
Wilson's  Promontory,  Overland,"  by  J.  B.  Gregory 
and  A.  H.  Lucas  ;  "  A  Trip  to  the  Caves  near  Chud- 
leigh,  Tasmania,"  by  F.  Wisewould ;  "  Notes  on  a 
Basalt-Vitrophyr,"  at  Tanjil,  by  A.  W.  Howett  ; 
"Geological  Structure  of  S.  W.  Victoria,"  by  J. 
Dennant  ;  "Additions  to  the  Queensland  Flora," 
by  Dr.  Lucas,  &c. 

The  Hertfordshire  Natural  History 
Society. — Parts  5  and  6  of  the  "Transactions" 
of  this  well-known  Society  are  published.  They 
contain,  among  much  of  other  important  matter,  the 
following  papers  of  note: — "The  Origin  and  Com- 
position of  Chalk  and  Flint,"  by  Professor  T.  Rupert 
Jones  ;  "  List  of  Works  on  the  Geology  of  Hertford- 
shire," by  John  Hopkinson,  F.G.S. ;  "  Diatoms  ; 
their  Nature  and  Habits,"  by  Francis  Ransom  ; 
"  Notes  on  Birds  observed  during  the  year  iSS4," 



by  J.  E.  Littleboy  ;    "  Report  on   Insects  observed 
during  1884,"  by  F.  W.  Silvester,  &c. 

LlMN^EA  GLUTINOSA.— In  the  August  number, 
p.  178,  it  is  stated  that  Limneea  glutinosa  has  been 
recorded  as  living  on  Barnes  Common.  Mr.  E.  H. 
Rowe,  who  recorded  this  locality  in  the  Proceedings 
of  the  Lambeth  Field  Club,  now  informs  me  that  it 
is  incorrect,  and  arose  in  a  misidentification.  The 
only  other  Surrey  record  for  this  species  (Battersea, 
Cooper)  is  also  probably  incorrect  or  relating  to  a 
now  extinct  colony.—  T.  D.  A.  Cockcrcll. 

Helix  nemoralis.— The  following  analysis  of 
four  days'  collecting  may  be  of  some  interest  to  your 
readers,  besides  showing  co.  Dublin  to  be  rich  in 
varieties  of  this  species  : — 


3  6 
OJ  >* 


~3  6 

*U    O 
.C    O 
3   O 


3  in 

—    T 


32  10 




May  6 
June  7 

J«iy  5 

Sep. 20 





























3  ^ 

cj    10 

rt   m 

4>  — 

.2  A 


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qj  <~n 

u  m 


rJ2      m 


.Q    ro 

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3  « 


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May   6      2 




June  7 







July   5 




Sep.  20 











Two  other  specimens,  taken  were,  one  bandless  of  a 
chocolate  colour,  the  other  (as  described  by  S.  C. 
Cockerell,  to  whom  I  sent  it)  "with  very  light  red 
transparent  bands  (confluent),"  both  specimens  being 
rather  immature,  in  all  95  specimens  made  up  of 
19  varieties.  The  localities  were  Green  Lanes, 
Dollymount,  Killester  Lane,  Artane,  and  Tolka 
Bridge,  co.  Dublin.  I  intend  working  up  some  others. 
— John  R.  Redding,  Seville  Place,  Dublin. 

Abnormal  Amceba. — A  short  time  since  I  found 
an  amoeba  of  such  extraordinary  dimensions  as  to 
justify  its  being  recorded.  In  length  it  was  within  a 
very  small  fraction  of  the  fifth  of  an  inch,  breadth 
about  the  fifteenth.  This  is  ten  times  larger  than 
any  mentioned  in  Leidy's  monograph.  As  I  managed 
to  keep  it  alive  for  nearly  a  fortnight,  I  had  ample 
opportunities  of  showing  it  to  several  scientists,  who 
all  agreed  with  me  as  to  its  being  an  undoubted 
amceba.     To  the  naked  eye  it  was  visible  as  a  milky, 

slowly  moving  mass.  When  first  seen  it  was  very 
full  of  diatoms  and  fragments  of  other  algas.  Whilst 
I  had  it  under  observation  I  saw  it  subdivide.  This 
was  accomplished  very  quickly.  Two  protoplasmic 
currents  being  set  up,  caused  a  necklike  constriction 
which  rapidly  grew  narrower,  until  an  actual  division 
took  place,  when  each  piece  moved  off  in  opposite 
directions.  The  following  is  a  brief  description. 
Form  generally  ovoidal,  sometimes  palmate  and 
radiate.  Sarcode  granular,  dense,  containing  oil- 
like globules.  Ectosarc  rather  strongly  differentiated 
from  endosarc.  Pseudopodia  broadly  lobate.  Move- 
ments slow,  except  when  animal  was  touched  by 
infusoria  or  other  organisms,  when  sarcode  moved 
very  quickly,  to  point  of  contact.  Did  not  detect 
contractile  vesicle.  I  take  it  to  be  a  very  abnormal 
form  of  Amceba  protcus.—E.  B.  L.  Bray  ley,  Clifton. 

Abnormal  Trout.— When  putting  a  number  of 
two  months'  old  trout  fry  {S.  Far  id)  into  a  reservoir 
near  here,  I  noticed  one  with  two  perfectly  formed 
heads  joined  by  a  web  of  skin  just  behind  the  gills, 
the  bodies  merging  into  one  at  the  dorsal  fin.  The 
after  part  of  the  body  is  perfectly  formed,  and  the  fish 

Fig.  15.— Abnormal   Trout       Fig.  16.— Ditto.     Upper  view. 
Fry,  2  months  old.     Side 

did  not  seem  to  have  any  difference  of  opinion  as  to 
the  direction  it  was  to  take  in  swimming  and  appeared 
lively  and  well.  It  was  brought  away  and  put  into 
a  small  tank,  where  it  has  since  died  and  is  now 
preserved  in  spirits.  I  am  informed  by  the  game- 
keeper who  hatched  it  that  fry  with  two  heads  or 
two  tails  are  not  uncommon,  but  that  he  has  never 
seen  a  yearling  trout  with  two  heads.  I  enclose  a 
sketch  snowing  side  and  upper  views  of  the  fish,  from 
which  it  will  be  seen  that  one  head  is  about  half 
a  head  longer  than  the  other. —  Thomas  Winder, 

The  Bottle-nose  Whale  (Hyfcroodon  ros- 
trains). — Almost  every  autumn  we  hear,  from  short 
paragraphs  in  the  newspapers,  of  specimens  of  this 
animal  turning  up  on  our  shores,  but  very  seldom  do 
we  hear  of  what  becomes  of  them.  Most  frequently 
they  are  purchased  by  the  oil  refiner  for  the  sake  of 
the  blubber,  or  they  may  fall  into  the  hands  of  the 
farmer  and  be  used  for  manure.  A  male  of  this 
species,  twenty-one  feet  long,  was  stranded  near 
Dunbar,  on  the  morning  of  Thursday  5th  inst.,  and 
I  am  glad  to  say  has  been  purchased  by  Professor 
Turner,  of  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  and  removed 
entire  to  a  convenient  place  for  examination  and 
subsequent  dissection  by  him.  As  yet  comparatively 
little  is  known  about  the  visceral  anatomy  of  this 
interesting  xiphioid,  but  regarding  it  we  may  now 
hope  before  long  to  be  in  possession  of  information 



welcome  to  scientists  and  of  the  most  reliable 
description.  That  this  anatomist  takes  a  great 
interest  in  cetalogy  is  evinced  by  his  numerous 
papers  on  the  cetacea  and  the  fine  series  of  articulated  ' 
skeletons  he  is  now  forming  in  the  new  museum  of 
the  University,  among  which  may  be  enumerated 
Bahvnoptera  Sibbaldii,  B.  borealis,  B.  rostratus, 
Balana  mystketus,  ITyperoodon  rosti-atus  P ,  Rleso- 
plodon  bideus,  Glabrocep/ialus  mclas,  G.  macro- 
rhyncJius,  Platanista  Gangetica  <S  P,  &c. — Is.  Simpson, 


The  Waratah  (Australian  Bush-flower). — 
I  have  a  splendid  specimen  of  the  above  which  was 
picked  about  150  miles  from  here.  This  flower  was 
at  one  time  very  plentiful  about  Sydney,  but  by 
reason  of  building  and  ruthless  destruction  of  the 
plants  is  now  almost  extinct  there.  A  great  outcry 
has  been  made  lately  about  the  wholesale  and 
reckless  gathering  of  this  and  other  wild  flowers, 
the  plants  being  frequently  torn  up  by  the  roots. 
The  flower  I  have  is  as  large  as  a  saucer,  and  com- 
mences with  a  fringe  of  flat  petals,  from  out  of  which 
rises  a  close  mass  of  petals  very  much  like  an  un- 
expanded  honeysuckle  flower,  and  these  eventually 
open.  The  whole  is  a  brilliant  scarlet  set  in  a  bed  of 
dark  green  foliage. — E.  C. 

Floral  Varieties. — I  should  be  glad  to  know  if 
any  of  the  following  have  been  noticed  by  readers  of 
Science-Gossip  :  Erophilaverna,  with  purple  petals, 
growing  very  strong  ;  Erophila  verna,  with  orbicular 
seed  pods ;  Geranium  Robertianum,  with  white 
blooms,  otherwise  like  ordinary  specimens,  though 
all  plants  growing  near  had  pure  white  petals ; 
Geranium  molk,  with  white  blooms,  larger  than 
ordinary  and  with  petals  more  deeply  fid  and  con- 
stant, this  being  the  second  year  of  observation.  Not 
a  single  purple  specimen  amongst  either  batch  of 
seedlings.  Last  and  most  curious.  While  hunting 
for  insects  during  the  month  of  October,  1885,  I 
found  a  leaf  of  Cardaminc  pratensis  bearing  on  its 
under  side  several  small  plants  ;  one  with  two  or 
three  fully  developed  leaves.  I  have  not  heard  or 
read  that  plants  of  this  order  are  reproductive  from 
the  leaves,  or,  perhaps,  I  should  say,  the  venation  of 
the  leaves.  Of  course  the  preceding  may  have  been 
mentioned  before,  but  being  only  a  recent  subscriber 
to  your  valuable  GOSSIP,  I  have  not  had  the  chance  of 
knowing. — Joint  Taylor. 

Primroses  and  Cattle.— Dr.  Spencer  Thompson, 
in  his  "  Wild  Flowers  :  How  to  See  and  Gather 
Them,"  says,  p.  174— I  quote  from  the  edition  of  i860 
— about  the  common  primrose  {Primula  vulgaris)  : 
"Pretty  favourite  as  the  primrose  is,  both  its  leaves 

and  flowers  are  rejected  by  all  grazing  animals,  pigs 
excepted."  This  is  a  curious  point  about  which  I 
would  like  to  know  more,  and  I  hope  your  corre- 
spondents will  favour  your  readers  with  their  know- 
ledge as  to  the  facts.  I  want  to  know  what  cattle 
eat  primroses.  When  I  first  read  the  sentence 
quoted  from'  Dr.  Spencer's  volume,  now  more  than 
twenty-five  years  ago,  I  made  this  note  in  the  margin 
of  my  copy  :  "  Sheep  are,  on  the  contrary,  extremely 
partial  to  primroses."  I  then  lived  in  a  primrose  and 
sheep  country  among  the  hills,  six  miles  south  of 
Ballymena,  in  the  co.  Antrim,  where  it  was  noticeable 
that  no  primroses  were  permitted  to  put  forth  leaves 
and  flowers  along  the  hedgerows  and  in  the  shadowy 
grass  of  those  fields  wherein  they  were  pastured,  while 
they  abounded  in  the  same  places  when  under  tillage. 
Such  is  my  experience  of  sheep  eating  primroses,  and 
I  have  since  come  to  know  that  goats — animals  that 
I  am  sorry  to  say  abound  in  my  present  parish, 
Artmore,  co.  Armagh — have  the  same  partiality  for 
"  the  primrose  stars."  It  would,  moreover,  be  inter- 
esting to  know  how  the  cowslip  (Primula  vcris)  is 
treated  by  the  same  animals. — H.  W.  Lett,  M.A. 

Botanical  Drying  Paper. — We  have  received  a 
beautiful  specimen  of  demy  botanical  paper  manu- 
factured for  Messrs.  Spicer  Bros.,  19,  New  Bridge 
Street,  London,  by  Mr.  Josiah  Rose,  of  Southport, 
and  sold  by  Messrs.  Spicer  to  the  trade.  This  state- 
ment will  be  an  answer  to  one  of  the  many  queries 
which  frequently  appear  in  our  columns. 

GEOLOGY,  &c. 

Fossil  Insects. — Apropos  of  the  note  on  fossil 
insects  in  Science-Gossip,  the  following  letter  dated 
1836,  from  an  old  number  of  the  "  Edinburgh 
Journal  of  Natural  History,"  may  be  of  interest  to 
your  readers.  It  is  as  follows: — "I  have  in  my 
possession  the  wing  of  a  fly  encrusted  with  calcareous 
spar,  found  last  summer,  about  twenty-four  feet  from 
the  surface,  and  near  the  bottom  of  a  freestone  rock 
twenty  feet  in  thickness,  at  Fairy  Bank,  parish  of 
Bothwell.  It  was  discovered  ...  in  a  spot  from 
which  a  mass  of  stone  weighing  two  tons  had  just 
been  removed.  The  wing  is  rather  larger  than  that  of 
a  dragon  fly  ;  it  is  of  a  golden  colour,  and  beautifully 
membranous,  It  retains  all  the  freshness  of  the 
natural  wing,  having  undergone  no  petrifying  process, 
and  is  set,  as  if  by  the  art  of  the  lapidary,  in  the 
spar."  The  letter,  which  I  have  considerably 
abbreviated,  is  signed  "John  Craig,"  and  accom- 
panied by  a  rough  sketch. — J.  A.  Wlieldon,  Burgess 
Hill,  Sussex. 

Fossil  Insects.— Mr.  Herbert  Goss,  F.L.S.,  has 
recently  published,  in  the  "  Proceedings  of  the  Geo- 
logists' Association,"  another  of  his  capital  papers  oa 



Fossil  Insects  Recently  Discovered  in  the  Silurian  and 
Carboniferous  Rocks.  After  dealing  with  the  various 
fossil  insects  found  in  these  formations,  in  various 
parts  of  the  world,  he  treats  upon  the  fossil  scorpions 
and  cockroaches  found  in  the  Silurian  strata,  and 
also  on  similar  insects  found  in  the  Carboniferous 
rocks.  Mr.  Goss's  paper  contains  copious  biblio- 
graphical notices  of  memoirs  in  various  languages 
treating  on  the  fossil  insects  of  the  primary  rocks. 

On  some  Borings  in  Kent. — This  is  the  simple 
title  of  a  very  important  paper  just  read  before  the 
Geological  Society  by  W.   Whitaker,  B.A.,  F.G.S., 
Assoc.  Inst.  C.E.     Seven  deep  borings  in  the  eastern 
part  of  Kent  were  described,  all  of  them  reaching  to 
the  Gault.     The  chief  one  is  at  Chatham  Dockyard, 
where,"  after  passing  through  the  whole  thickness  of 
the  chalk,  the  Gault  was  found  to  be  193  feet  thick  ; 
whilst  the  Lower  Greensand  was  only  41  feet,   and 
was  underlain  by  Oxford  Clay,  a  formation  not  before 
known  in  Kent.     These  parts  involve  the  thinning  of 
the  Lower  Greensand  from  200  feet  at  the  outcrop 
a  few  miles  to  the  south,  and  the  entire  loss  of  the 
whole  of  the  Wealden  Series,  which,  further  south, 
exists  in  great  force,  the  Weald  Clay  being  600  feet 
thick,  or  perhaps  more,  and  the  Hastings  Beds  700 
feet  or  more.     Still  further  south,  in  the  central  part 
of  the  Wealden  district,  there  are  outcrops   of  the 
Purbeck  Beds,    whilst  the   Subwealden  boring  con- 
tinues the  series  downwards.     We  have  thus  an  addi- 
tion to  the  beds  wanting  at  Chatham  of  some  400  feet 
of  Purbeck  and  Portlandian,  of  over    1100   feet    of 
Kimmeridgian,  and  of  nearly  500  feet  of  Corallian,  &c. 
In   a   section   of   32   miles,    therefore    (the   distance 
between  the  Southwealden  and  the  Chatham  borings), 
we  have  a  thinning  of  beds  to  the  extent  of  over 
3400  feet,  or  at  the  average  rate  of  about  100  feet  in 
a   mile.      This   northerly   thinning   agrees    with   the 
facts   that  have  been  brought  before  us  from  other 
deep  borings  in  and  near  London  ;  but  the  Chatham 
boring  is  the  first  in  the  London  Basin  in  which  a 
Middle    Jurassic    formation    has   been   found.     The 
teaching   of  the   deep   borings,    as   a  whole,    is  that 
north  of  the  Thames  older  rocks  rise  up  beneath  the 
Cretaceous  beds,    whilst  on   the  south   newer  rocks 
come   in  between    the   two.      The   question   of    the 
finding   of  the  Coal-measures   beneath   parts   of  the 
London  Basin  seems  to  admit  of  a  hopeful  answer, 
whilst   the    lesson    of    the   deep  borings  as   regards 
water-supply  is  that  there  is  small  chance  of  getting 
water   from   the   Lower  Greensand   at   great  depths 

More  Curious  Primroses. — Since  mentioning 
some  uncommon  primroses  found  growing  wild,  we 
have  found  others,  growing  like  the  oxlip ;  one 
having  eight  flowers,  one  seven,  one  five,  and  the 
other,  three. — M.  E.  Thomson. 


Silkworms. — My  relative,  Laurence  G.  J.  Epps, 
lately  called  attention  to  having  several  times  noticed 
two  chrysalides  in  one  cocoon.  I  can  now  add,  that 
I  have  since  met  with  three  chrysalides  in  one 
cocoon,  and  a  most  curiously  ill-shapen  cocoon  it 
was.  As  might  have  been  expected,  the  worms 
have  generally  interfered  with  each  others'  spinning 
operations,  with  the  result  that  the  threads  could  not 
be  continuously  wound  off.  Instances  have  been  met 
with  by  us,  however,  in  which  this  has  not  been  the 
case,  when  it  would  appear  that  the  second  worm 
was  either  more  lazy  or  more  acute  than  usual.  A 
very  interesting  article  on  the  whole  subject  of  silk 
appeared  in  "  Harper's  New  Monthly  Magazine  "  for 
July  last,  entitled  "  A  Silk  Dress."  Reference  is 
there  made  to  double  cocoons  being  common,  and 
the  writer  hints  that  laziness  is  sometimes  a  weakness 
of  the  silkworm's  character.  Is  it  possible,  how- 
ever, that  the  explanation  can  be  that  the  silkworm 
is  gregarious  ? — Hahnemann  Epps,  Tube  Hill. 

More  November  Meteors. — Retaining  a  vivid 
impression  of  the  magnificence  of  the  sight  of  the 
celebrated  star-shower  of  the   night  of  the    13 — 14 
November,  1866,  which  it  was  my  privilege  to  see 
under  most  favourable    circumstances,  I  have    ever 
since  been  on  the  look  out  for  its  repetition.     Once 
more  the  precise  date  came,  and  there  was  nothing 
unusual  noticed  in  the  heavens.     I  had  quite  ceased 
to  think  of  it,  when,  on  the  evening  of  Friday,  the 
27th  of  November,  1885,  my  attention  was  suddenly 
attracted   at   4.40   p.m. — Dublin    time — to  what    at 
the   first  glance  I  took   to   be   sheet  lightning,  but 
which  a  moment's  notice  showed  me  was  a  shower  of 
meteors  or  shooting  stars  that  far  exceeded  the  great 
display   of  1866.      The   weather   on   the   26th   was 
stormy,  with  heavy  showers  from  the  south-east  till 
nightfall,  when  the  wind  veered  to  the  west  and  blew 
strongly  till  morning.     The  27th  was  calm  and  dry 
overhead,  with  a  good  sunset,  leading  one  to  expect 
frost.     There  was  no  mooD,  and  the  sky  was  perfectly 
cloudless  when  I  first  observed  the  meteors  in  extra- 
ordinary numbers  flashing  across  it,  some  faint  and 
vanishing  after  a   short   course  ;    others  far  brighter 
than  Venus  ever  appears  to  be,  and  many  of  these 
latter  leaving  a  trail  of  light  behind  them  as  if  they 
were  blazing.     A  countryman  who  was  speaking  to 
me  next  day  about  them,  expressively  described  it 
when  he  said  "  you  could  not  look  at  a  star  but  it 
ran  away."     I  and  a  member  of  my  family,  whom  I 
called  to  behold  the  beautiful  spectacle,  tried  to  count 
the   meteors,   I   say  tried,  for  it  was  impossible  to 
enumerate  all, — and  we  made  out  their  numbers  to 
be  more  than  seventy  per  minute,  which  is  consider- 
ably above  the  total  of  the  star-shower  of  nineteen 
years  ago.      I   watched  them   interruptedly  for   one 
hour,  during  which  time  there  was  no  diminution  in 
their  numbers  or  brilliancy.     At   5.30   o'clock    the 
sky  became  overcast,  but  even  then,  when  all  the 
stars  were  blotted  out  by  the  misty  clouds,  a  great 
many  of  the  meteors  were  visible  as  they  sped  hither 
and   thither   on    their    mysterious    paths.      They  all 
appeared  to  proceed  or  diverge  from  a  point  situated 
a  little  below  Cassiopeia's  Chair ;  from  that  spot  they 
radiated  in  all  directions,  and  as  the  locality  was  in 
the    north-east,    and    not    too    much    overhead,    it 
afforded  the  finest  astronomical  sight  it  has  ever  been 
my  good  fortune  to  witness.     The  occurrence  opens 
up  another  question  for  our  star  students,  as  the  27th 
November  is  not  one  of  the  dates  set  down  for  the 
recurrence  of  star-showers.     It  looks  as  if  the  orbit  of 



the  earth  had  cut  across  another  part  of  the  band  of 
meteors  which  astronomers  tell  us  it  passes  through 
each  year,  about  the  13th  November — H.  W.  Lett, 
M.A.,  Ardmore  Glebe,  Ltirgan,  Ireland. 

Shooting  Stars.— On  Nov.  27th,  along  the 
littoral  a  very  brilliant  sight  was  witnessed,  from 
soon  after  sunset  till  about  midnight,  when  the  sky, 
which  had  been  slightly  obscured  by  a  light  haze, 
became  quite  overclouded,  the  stars  seemed  to  fairly 
shower  down  ;  many  of  the  visitors  compared  it  to  a 
display  of  sky-rockets,  and  one  more  curious  than  the 
others  counted  over  forty-five  in  the  space  of  a  minute. 
The  country  people  round  here  are  very  superstitious, 
and,  from  the  unusual  abundance  of  shooting  stars,  as 
compared  with  previous  years,  believe  that  some 
great  evil  is  about  to  happen.  The  generally  accredited 
event  is  a  war  in  Europe  :  it  only  remains  for  us  to 
wait  and  see  if  their  prediction  be  true  or  no. — 
J.  R.  M.,  Mentone. 

The  Practical  Naturalists'  Society. — This 
society  has  now  been  in  existence  for  two  years,  and 
numbers  nearly  four  hundred  members  in  all  parts  of 
the  British  Isles,  as  well  as  a  few  in  France,  Germany, 
Switzerland,  Canada,  India,  Australia,  and  other 
countries.  The  society  is  managed  by  a  committee, 
who  discuss  their  various  matters  of  business  by  post, 
and  all  the  members  are  postally  connected.  There 
is  a  postal  reference  library,  a  postal  reference 
collection  of  natural  history  specimens,  and  a  body 
of  referees  who  name  specimens  and  answer  questions 
through  the  post.  With  the  nominal  subscription  of 
sixpence  per  annum,  the  society  has  done  some  good 
work,  and  promises  well  for  the  future.  The  secre- 
tary, Mr.  H.  Snowden  Ward,  Ilkley,  offers  to  send 
particulars  of  the  society  to  anyone  who  encloses  a 
penny  stamp  to  him. 

Mimulus  luteus. — F.H.  Arnold  will  be  interested 
to  know  that  I  found  the  above-named  plant  this  last 
summer  well  established  at  one  end  of  Cofton  reser- 
voir in  Worcestershire.  A  lady  to  whom  I  mentioned 
this  told  me  that  she  knew  of  it  growing  somewhere 
— I  forget  the  place — in  Oxfordshire. — K.  D.,  Cofton. 

Mimulus  luteus. — Mr.  Arnold,  staying  last  year 
in  August  at  Tintagel  (in  Cornwall),  came  upon  this 
plant  flowering  abundantly  along  the  banks  of  a 
stream,  which  ran  down  a  neighbouring  valley  to  the 
little  cove  of  Trebarwith.  This  is  the  only  time  I 
ever  saw  it  growing  wild. — B.  Tomlin. 

AjUGA  REPTANS.  — I  saw,  during  the  last  summer, 
a  large  patch  of  some  fifty  or  more  spikes  of  the 
white  variety  of  this  flower  in  a  damp  field  here. — 
K.  D.,  Cofton. 

Fly  Catchers. — A.  Kingston's  anecdote  of  the 
fly  catchers  and  the  stuffed  fox  reminds  me  of 
what  I  think  is  at  least  as  striking  a  verification  of 
the  old  proverb,  "  Familiarity  breeds  contempt."  A 
scarecrow,  dressed  up  in  an  old  coat  and  hat,  was 
put  in  the  garden  of  a  relative  of  mine  to  frighten 
the  birds.  It  may  have  been  very  effective  with 
other  birds,  but  a  pair  of  redstarts  took  advantage  of 
the  snug  opportunity  offered  them,  and  made  their 
nest  in  the  coat  pocket. — K.  £>.,   Cofton. 

Instinct  (?)  of  Spiders.— I  have  noticed  some 
time  ago  a  curious  habit  of  a  certain  species  of  small 
spider.  I  say  habit,  because  I  believe  it  to  be  really 
a  habit  or  instinct.  Thus,  I  found  in  a  gentleman's 
greenhouse,  in  certain  crevices  of  the  woodwork, 
nests  of  spiders  containing  numerous   eggs.     These 

nests  were  woven  around  "  bunches  "  of  small  pupse 
or  chrysalids.  Evidently  pupse  of  some  small  fly  or 
ichneumon.  Can  it  be  that  these  pupse  or  rather  the 
imagos  proceeding  from  them,  were  intended  by  the 
spider  as  food  for  her  offspring?  The  question  is, 
would  the  pupse  produce  imagos  simultaneously  with 
the  hatching  of  the  spider's  eggs.  If  so,  I  think  the 
spider's  object  would  be  undoubtedly  evident.  On 
examining  the  pupse  I  found  them  to  be  alive  and 
healthy,  and  giving  promise  of  attaining  to  maturity. 
If  my  surmise  be  correct,  what  a  wonderful  instinct 
is  shown  in  this  action  of  a  spider,  a  little  creature 
whom  we  look  upon  as  devoid  of  all  sense  or  reason  ! 
And  yet  God,  in  His  great  goodness,  has  not  forgotten 
to  provide  even  the  little  spider  with  that  instinct 
which  enables  her  thus  to  provide,  as  it  were,  so 
wisely  for  her  helpless  offspring.  Unfortunately,  I 
was  not  able  to  follow  up  my  discovery,  to  see  if  my 
ideas  were  correct.  However,  some  other  of  your 
readers  may  have  noticed  and  further  observed  this 
matter.  I  shall  be  glad  to  hear  their  opinion  of  it. 
—  William  Finch,  Nottingham. 

Cuckoos  and  their  Eggs. — Is  it  the  practice  for 
the  cuckoo  to  lay  its  egg  on  the  ground  and  then 
carry  it  about  in  its  mouth  until  it  finds  a  suitable 
nest  to  place  the  egg  ? — J.  B.  IV. 

Mice   as  Burglars. — Is  it  a  common  thing  for 
field  mice  to  frighten  small  birds   away   from    their 
nests,  when  they  have  been  sitting  for  some  time,  and 
then  steal  their  eggs  ?     I  have  to-day  found  two  nests 
deserted  and  mice  in  possession.     The  one  was  that 
of  a  long-tailed  tit,  who  had  been   sitting  for  some 
time,  and  whose  nest  was  in  a  hedge  in  a  field  ;  the 
other,  that  of  a  robin  on  a  bank  in  a  wood.      On 
going  to  visit  my  little  friend  the  tit,  I   expected   to 
find  her  a  very  busy,  happy,   little   mother  with  a 
large  family  to  provide  for,  instead  of  which  I  found 
a  very  different  state  of  affairs.     No  little  "  mother- 
bird  "  was  to  be  seen.     There  was  a  look  of  desertion 
about  the  home,  as  of  burglars  having  been  at  work. 
I  carefully  put  in  two  fingers  to  feel  if  the  eggs  were 
there  all  right.      Out  ran  a  small  mouse,  through  a 
hole  which  he  had  made  in  the  nest.      My  fingers 
came  out  somewhat  hastily,  not  having  expected  to 
find  the  thief  at  work  !     All  the  eggs  were  gone,  not 
even  the  remains  of  the  shells  being  left !     When  I 
first  saw  the  robin's  nest,  I  took  out  one  egg — leaving 
two  or  three — the  one  which  I  took  had  been  pushed 
almost  into  the  side  of  the  nest,  and  I  had  a  little 
difficulty  in  getting  it  out.     The  bird  returned  to  the 
nest,  for  on  going  to-day  to  see  how  the  little  birds 
were  going  on,  I  found  four  or  five  eggs,  but  quite 
cold  and  deserted.     I  noticed  that  another  egg  was 
in  the  same  curious  position,  so  I  examined  it  more 
carefully  and  found  that  it  had  been  drawn  halfway 
through  a  small  round  hole.     Suspecting,   from  the 
neat  way  in  which  the  hole  was  made,  that  a  mouse 
had  done  it,  I  removed  the  nest  and  found  that  it  was 
a  mouse's  hole,  into  which  he   had  evidently  _  been 
removing  the  eggs.     The  robin,  no  doubt,  too  indig- 
nant at  such  treatment  to  remain  at  his  post,  had 
deserted  it.     To  show   my  deep  sympathy  for  poor 
robin,  I  deprived  Mr.  Mouse  of  his  expected  feast ! 
— M.  E.  Thomson. 

Swallows  and  their  Young. — The  early 
autumn  which  came  on  us  so  suddenly  last  year  seems 
to  have  had  a  bad  effect  on  the  morals  of  the  swallows. 
A  number  of  them,  having  nests  under  the  eaves  of  a 
cottage  in  this  parish,  migrated,  leaving  their  young 
ones  (about  twenty)  behind  them.  Most  of  these, 
forced  I  suppose  by  hunger  to  leave  the  nest,  fell 



to  the  ground,  and  became  a  prey  to  the  cat.  One 
might  have  thought  that  the  domestic  instinct  which 
leads  the  swallow  to  cater  for  its  young,  would  have 
proved  stronger  than  the  tribal  instinct  of  migration, 
but  on  reflection  one  sees  that  for  the  old  birds  to 
remain  would  involve  the  destruction  of  both  old  and 
young,  and  therefore  the  instinct  to  do  so  would  be 
sure  in  time  to  be  dominated  by  the  instinct  of  migra- 
tion, which,  though  it  leads  to  the  death  of  the 
young  birds,  preserves  the  lives  of  the  parents.  May 
not  the  swallows  which  White  of  Selborne  saw  in 
November  have  been  deserted  young  ones  just  old 
enough  to  cater  for  themselves  ? — R.  S.  Pattrick, 
Sellinge  Vicarage,  Hythe. 

Late  Swallows. — It  may  interest  some  of  your 
readers  to  know  that  some  of  the  swallow  tribe  are 
still  here,  in  Nottingham,  having  seen  them  twice  a 
day  since  November  1st ;  the  weather  since  then  had 
been  mostly  wet  and  mild,  but  one  night  there  was  a 
very  sharp  frost,  the  roads  in  the  morning  being  one 
sheet  of  ice,  still  the  birds  were  flying  about  as  early 
as  8  A.M.  Twice  I  have  seen  a  couple  of  sand- 
martins,  known  by  their  small  size,  lighter  colour, 
and  comparatively  square  tail ;  the  others  were  the 
chimney  swallows,  mostly  young  birds,  but  a  few 
were  old  ones,  distinguished  by  their  darker  colour 
and  their  longer  outer  tail-feathers  ;  they  were  here 
this  morning,  and  seemed  as  vigorous  as  if  it  was  the 
height  of  summer. — L.  Lee,  Naturalist,  Nottingham. 

Split  Feathers. — Some  time  back  you  may 
remember  I  sent  you  up  a  curious  pigeon's  feather 
split  and  forming  two  feathers.  In  my  poultry-yard 
to-day  I  picked  up  the  enclosed  cock's  feather,  which 
almost  beats  the  pigeon's  as  a  curiosity — as  you  will 
see  on  examination.  I  thought  you  would  like  to  see 
it. —  Windsor  Hambrough. 

The  Knot. — Mr.  Heathcote's  note  on  the  knot 
{Tringa  canutus  not  cornutus)  in  summer  plumage, 
shot  during  the  seeond  week  in  August,  near  Preston, 
is  interesting  as  a  matter  of  migration,  as  well  as  of 
the  seasonable  change  of  plumage.  I  have  in  my 
own  collection  a  knot  in  full  summer  plumage,  shot 
on  May  20th,  1866,  but  that  a  specimen  in  this  state 
should  have  been  killed  in  this  country  in  the  autumn 
is,  as  I  have  said,  interesting,  for  the  simple  reason 
that  it  has  been  stated  that  the  young  birds  are  the 
first  to  return  southwards  in  the  autumn  from  their 
breeding  quarters  without  the  guiding  of  their  parents, 
which  are  said  to  remain  in  their  northern  breeding 
haunts  until  they  have  moulted,  after  which  they 
would  of  course  come  to  us  in  their  winter  dress. 
The  breeding-place  of  the  knot  had  never  been  satis- 
factorily determined  until  the  Arctic  expedition  of 
the  Alert  and  Discovery  in  1875-6,  and  then  no  eggs 
were  found ;  indeed,  I  believe  they  are  still  unknown 
to  science.  Mr.  Hart,  the  naturalist  on  board  the 
Discovery,  records  the  31st  of  May  as  the  date  when 
knots  were  first  seen  in  the  Arctic  regions,  and  their 
young  newly  hatched  on  the  nth  and  12th  of  July. 
The  question,  however,  which  I  wish  to  raise  is,  Do 
the  young  birds  migrate  southwards  from  their  breed- 
ing haunts  without  an  escort  of  some  few  old  birds  ? 
The  fact  of  a  female  in  summer  plumage  having  been 
taken  in  this  country  in  the  second  week  in  August 
would  appear  rather  as  evidence  against  this  theory, 
and  it  would  seem  that  some  few  adults,  perhaps 
those  most  backward  in  moulting,  do  accompany  the 
young  and  moult  after  their  arrival  in  this  country  or 
still  farther  south.  This  granted,  it  would  appear 
not  to  be  a  matter  of  pure  and  simple  instinct  on  the 
part  of  the  young  in  finding  their  own  way  on  a  long 
journey  which  they  had  never  travelled  before.     It  is 

just  possible  that  the  specimen  mentioned  by  Mr. 
Heathcote  had  not  gone  out  of  this  country,  and  had 
not  nested  ;  but  the  fact  of  its  being  in  summer  or 
breeding  plumage  would  lead  to  an  opposite  opinion. 
I  should  be  glad  to  see  the  opinions  of  others  on  this 
subject  expressed  in  Science-Gossip. —  William 
Jeffery,  Ratham,  Chichester. 

Absence  of  the  Operculum. — Mr.  Tomlin's 
remarks  on  the  T.  lineatus  at  Herm  are  very  interest- 
ing. Dr.  Jeffreys  (B.  C.  vol.  iv.)  mentions  a  specimen 
of  Fhsus  gracilis  which  had  no  operculum,  and,  as  is 
well  known,  the  operculum  of  the  common  whelk  is 
not  unfrequently  double  or  treble. —  T.  D.  A.  Cockerell. 

The  Shard-borne  Beetle. — Can  any  reader 
tell  me  the  name  of  the  above  beetle  ?  Shakespeare 
mentions  it  in  "Macbeth,"  and  Collins  in  his  beautiful 
"  Ode  to  Evening." 


To  Correspondents  and  Exchangers. — As  we  now 
publish  Science-Gossip  earlier  than  formerly,  we  cannot  un- 
dertake to  insert  in  the  following  number  any  communications 
which  reach  us  later  than  the  8th  of  the  previous  month. 

To  Anonymous  Querists. — We  must  adhere  to  our  rule  of 
not  noticing  queries  which  do  not  bear  the  writers'  names. 

To  Dealers  and  others. — We  are  always  glad  to  treat 
dealers  in  natural  history  objects  on  the  same  fair  and  general 
ground  as  amateurs,  in  so  far  as  the  "exchanges"  offered  are  fair 
exchanges.  But  it  is  evident  that,  when  their  offers  are  simply 
disguised  advertisements,  for  the  purpose  of  evading  the  cost  of 
advertising,  an  advantage  is  taken  of  our  gratuitous  insertion  of 
"  exchanges  "  which  cannot  be  tolerated. 

We  request  that  all  exchanges  may  be  signed  with  name  (or 
initials)  and  full  address  at  the  end. 

G.  A.  Widdows. — No  exchange  was  enclosed  in  your  en- 

D.  Rice. — You  will  find  an  account  of  the  migration  of  our 
British  Birds  in  Morris'  "  Ornithology."  Also  in  Tristram's 
"  Sahara,"  and  Seebohm's  "Siberia  in  Europe." 

P.  Q.  Z. — The  microscopic  fungus  on  your  thistle  is  the  sweet 
smelling  rust  ( Trichobasis  suaveolens).  See  Cooke's  "Micro- 
scopic Fungi,"  p.  99. 

R.  C.  Chaytor. — You  may  reflect  objects  seen  under  the 
microscope  by  means  of  the  camera  lucida  and  sketch  them. 
See  articles  on  the  Microscopic  and  Fine  Art,  &c,  in  vol.  of 
Science-Gossip  for  1882,  where  you  will  find  full  details  of 

F.  M. — It  is  not  at  all  uncommon  to  find  blackberry  blossoms 
out  in  the  middle  of  November,  particularly  if  the  weather  has 
been  fine. 

Krani. — You  will  find  in  Science-Gossip  for  1868,  p.  141 
et  seq.,  an  account  of  the  pink  and  yellow  laburnum.  Tne 
clusters  of  yellow  flowers  are  a  reversion  of  the  species  grafted 
on  the  pink  kind  to  their  original  colour.  The  occurrence  is  not 

John  Fraser. — Get  Rutley's  "Study  of  Rocks,"  price 
4^.  6d.,  published  by  Longmans.  You  will  there  find  full  par- 
ticulars for  cutting,  slicing,  and  polishing  rock  sections. 

A.  C.  R.  H. — We  are  not  aware  of  any  classes  in  existence 
as  yet,  for  teaching  geology  by  correspondence. 

F.  J.  R. — Hewitson's  "  British  Birds'  Eggs"  contains  a 
beautifully  coloured  drawing  of  the  eggs  of  each  species.  But 
the  work  is  scarce  and  always  fetches  a  high  price.  But  it  is 
the  best  work  on  the  subject. 

A.  Verinder. — Ammonites  are  found  both  in  the  upper 
chalk  and  the  flint,  but  very  rarely  in  the  latter.  Nodules  of 
iron  pyrites,  having  a  radiated  structure,  are  much  commoner. 
They  are  often  found  weathered  out  of  the  chalk,  and  mistaken 
for  meteorites.  The  nodules  of  iron  pyrites  decompose  into 
oxide  of  iron  or  red  rust. 

B.  Hobson. — The  Hon.  Sec.  of  the  Botanical  Exchange 
Club  is  Mr.  Charles  Baily,  F.L.S.,  Ashfield,  College^  Road, 
Whalley  Range,  Manchester.  Concerning  the  latest  edition  of 
the  "  London  Catalogue  "  apply  to  Messrs.  W.  H.  Allen  &  Co., 
Publishers,  Waterloo  Place. 

A.  G.  W. — Will  you  kindly  forward  us  (privately)  the  names 
and  addresses  of  the  persons  who  have  used  our  Exchange 
columns  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  specimens  fraudulently  ? 
We  have  a  "  Black  List,"  and  shall  feel  obliged  by  any  of  our 
readers  reporting  to  us  evident  frauds.  , , 



C.  C. — (Somme,  France).  The  "London  Catalogue"  is  an 
authoritative  list  of  all  genuine  British  plants.  It  is  published 
at  6d.,  and  may  be  had  of  Messrs.  Allen  &  Co.,  Waterloo 
Place.  London. 

Rev.  D.  M.  C. — Many  thanks  for  your  coloured  drawing  of 
double  mushroom.  In  Science-Gossip  for  1865,  you  will  tind 
figured  a  triple  mushroom.     Double  ones  are  not  uncommon. 


I  wish  to  exchange  named  and  localised  American  fossils,  in 
good  condition,  for  others  from  England.  None  but  those  who 
mean  business  need  answer  this  advertisement. — A.  G.  Wetherly, 
Cincinnati,  Ohio,  U.S.A. 

Wantei>,  foreign  zoophytes,  especially  those  from  Australia, 
Tasmania,  Africa,  and  the  East  ;  also  diatomaceous  earth  from 
the  same  districts  ;  good  slides  offered  in  exchange. — Racine, 
15  Horton  Lane,  Bradford. 

Members  wanted  for  an  "  Evercirculator  "  to  be  devoted  to 
Entomology.  Address  for  particulars — T.  F.  Uttley,  S.S.C., 
17  Brazennose  Street,  Albert  Square,  Manchester. 

Cocoons  of  the   North  American  Promethea  and  Cecropia 
moths,  in  exchange  for  moths,  butterflies,  and  cocoons.    Papilio 
(swallow-tailed)  butterflies  especially  wanted. — Jas.  L.  Mitchell 
jun.,  Grand  Hotel,  Indianapolis,  Indiana,  U.S.A. 

Wanted,  a  Ross's  microscope,  with  all  accessories,  give 
details,  in  exchange  for  a  large  herbarium,  containing  about 
7000  species,  value  ,£150. — J.  Harbord  Lewis,  F.L.S.,  145 
Windsor  Street,  Liverpool. 

Offered,  a  pair  of  tumbler  and  one  barb  pigeon,  all  good 
birds,  in  exchange  for  nine  micro  slides  (miscellaneous). — R.  H. 
Thomas,  28  Albert  Road,  Devonport. 

Cleaned  and  prepared  scales  of  pagaro,  melletto,  buga,  and 
other  Mediterranean  fish,  in  exchange  for  well-mounted  slides. 
Li^t. — John  R.  Marten,  Pharmacie  Uddo,  Mentone,  France. 

Wanted,  "The  Illustrated  Science  Monthly,"  vol.  iii.,  in 
numbers.  Will  give  good  micro  slides  in  exchange. — Rev.  H.  W. 
Lett,  Ardmore  Glebe,  Lurgan. 

Wanted,  fore;gn  stamps  or  fossils  in  exchange  for  fossils  of 
the  Drift  from  a  bed  200  feet  above  the  sea  level.  Can  give  six 
varieties. — J.  S.  Milne,  King-Edward,  Banff. 

Wanted,  a  ropy  of  Dr.  Cooke's  "Handbook  of  British 
Fungi,"  in  good  condition,  exchange. — John  Brown,  5  Byron 
Street,  Sheildlield,  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Wanted,  a  small  set  of  instruments  for  amateur  dissecting 
purposes. — T.  A.  Leonard,  258  Woodboro'  Road,  Nottingham. 

A  good  exchange  for  following  nests  containing  full  sets  of 
eggs :  stonechat,  wood  warbler,  great  tit,  rock  pip;t,  cirl  bunt- 
ing, hawfinch,  goldfinch. — W.  K.  Mann,  Wellington  Terrace, 
Clifi on,  Bristol. 

Wanted,  pupae,  various  species;  offered,  British  lepidoptera. 
— W.  K.  Mann,  Wellington  Terrace,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

For  exchange  or  oiherwise,  vols,  iii.,  iv.,  v.,  vi.  of  "  Boy's 
Own  Paper,"  canaries,  bullfinches,  or  guinea-pigs  preferred. — 
W.  S.  Castle-Turner,  6  Dagnall  Paik  Terrace,  Selhurst,  S.E. 

For  disposal,  Science-Gossip,  Nos.  145  to  214,  151,  158,  173. 
174.  181,  184,  191,  201  missing.  Wanted,  nigger's  wig  and 
tambourine. — W.  S.  Castle-Turner,  6  Bagnall  Park  Terrace, 
Selhurst,  S.E. 

Kook  of  78  botanical  plates,  engraved  on  steel,  mostly  by 
Sturm.  The  plates  contain  illustrations  and  dissections  of  589 
fruits.  Wanted,  a  series  of  micro  slides  illustrating  lnvertebrata. 
— E.  Cosgrave,  24  Gardiner's  Place,  Dublin. 

Wanted,  skeleton  of  fish,  frog,  reptile,  bird,  and  small 
mammal ;  also  any  vertebrate  or  invertebrate  specimens  that 
would  be  useful  for  teaching  purposes.  Will  exchange  collection 
of  nearly  200  skulls  (.various).  —  E.  Cosgrave,  24  Gardiner's 
Place,  Dublin. 

Wanted,  contents  of  a  micro  aquarium  and  unmounted 
objects,  in  exchange  for  mounted  objects,  postage-stamp  album 
with  stamps,  value  10s.,  and  a  few  numbers  of  Science-Gossip. 
—  K.  Beddow,  Derby. 

Wanted,  Science-Gossip  for  1884,  and  No.  242,  1885.  Will 
give  in  exchange  "The  Journal  of  a  Naturalist,"  Knapp,  new, 
half  morocco,  good  copy. — R.  C.  Chaytor,  Scrafton  Lodge, 
MMdleham,  Yorkshire. 

Wanted,  marine  shells  :  Crania,  Lepton,  I'enus  ovata,  Tel- 
Una  donacina,  Venerupis,  Chiton  rider,  C.  Icevis,  C.  marmo- 
reus,  Velutina,  Acera.  Pleurobranch,  Cardium  fasciatunt, 
Marginclla,  solecurtis,  &c.  Many  to  offer  in  exchange. — 
C.  D.  S.,  Maplewell,  Loughborough. 

Clans,  biplicata,  Ach.acicula,  Pal.  contecta,  P.  vivipara,  B. 
I.ciichii,  Odostomia  piicata,  O.  rissoides,  Rissoa  semistriata, 
and  many  others  in  exchange  for  small  series  of  the  commoner 
species  from  different  localities,  especially  from  Ireland  or 
Wales.— S.  C.  Cockerell,  51  Woodstock  Road,  Bedford  Park, 
Chi.wick,  W. 

J 'lelianthcinum  folifolium,  Silene  conica,  Lavatera  ar- 
horea,  &c,  offered  in  return  for  other  specimens.— E.  C.  May, 
The  Bartons,  Dawlish. 

L.  C.  7th  edition.  Offered  40,  41,  58,  182,  196,  205,  2326,  315, 
316,  350,  38%  406,  45s,  539,  668,  723,  773,  814,  832,  857,  931, 
1036,  1040.  1043,  1056,  1072,  1090,  1125,  1270,  1384,  1411,  T473, 
^Sg,  1590,  1591,  1596,  1597,  1665,  desiderata  numerous. — W.  S. 
Harrison,  15  Park  Place  East,  Sunderland. 

Wanted,  Loudon's  "Arboretum  "  &c.  Will  exchange  rare 
and  old  works  on  Botany  and  Gardening. — A.  D.  Webster 
Llandegai,  Bangor,  N.W. 

Will  exchange  for  other  works  on  Botany,  several  parts  of 
Maunde's  "  Botanic  Garden,"  bound  :  Linnseus's  "  Flora  Jap 
ponica  ;  "  "Flowering  Plants  and  Ferns  of  Great  Britain," 
by  Anne  Pratt,  Vol.  1  ;  Northern  "  British  Botany"  in  4  vols'.- 
Macintosh's  "Practical  Gardener,"  "A  new  Orchard  and 
Garden,"  with  the  "Country  Housewife's  Garden  for  Herbs," 
and  the  "  Husbandry  of  Bees,"  1623,  from  the  Library  of 
Stewart  of  Allonton.  In  good  condition  and  beautifully  bound 
in  calf.— A.  D.  Webster,  Llandegai,  Bangor. 

Wanted,  coins,  medals,  tokens,  old  china  or  ancient 
pjttery,  &c,  in  exchange  for  fossils,  canaries,  or  foreign 
Stamps. — F.  Stanley,  6  Clifton  Gardens,  Margate. 

LiNNfi,  "  Systema  Naturae,"  9  vols,  clean  and  perfect. 
Exchange  offers,  requested.— G.  A.  Barker,  1  Northwold  Road, 
Upper  Clapton,  E. 

Wanted,  axial  crystals,  selenite  figures,  plates,  wedges,  &c, 
for  small  polar  tourmalines,  micro,  or  lantern  slides. — H.  E. 
Freeman,  60  Plimsoll  Road,  Finsbury  Park,  N. 

Wanted,  Yarrel's  "  British  Fishes,"  Westwood's  "  Sessile- 
eyed  -Crustacea,"  Ray  Society,  and  other  good  natural 
history  works  in  exchange  for  a  new  copy  of  Brenchley's 
'•  Voyage  of  the  CuraQoa,"  with  50  plates,  mostly  coloured,  of 
insects,  &c.  (very  scarce),  and  other  books.— C.  A.  Grimes 

Botterill's  adjustable  zoophyte  trough  ("new),  twenty  vars. 
of  British  mosses,  and  specimens  of  the  Brayaham  Beetle 
(Auaplognat/ius  LeachiiS,  exchange  for  other  microscopic 
apparatus  and  material.— W.  J.  Abel,  Busford  Road,  Notting- 

Wanted,_  members  for  the  Scientific  Circulating  Magazine 
Society,  which  offers  the  choice  of  three  parcels  of  magazines 
for  perusal  every  month.— T.  F.  Uttley,  17  Brazennose  Street, 

Good  exchange  given  in  insect  preparations  for  all  kinds  of 
English  and  foreign  insects  (in  spirit),  must  be  in  good  condition. 
— C.  Collins,  Bristol  House,  Harlesden,  N.W. 

A  well-made  cabinet  with  576  insects,  moths,  and  butter- 
flies, all  British,  many  local  specimens.  Cabinet,  4  feet  high  by 
3  feet  wide,  38  drawers,  18  by  16,  slide  bottoms,  drawers  covered 
with  glass. — Robert  Barker,  11  Townend  Street,  Groves,  York. 
The  last  thirty  parts  of  "  Entomologist's  Monthly  Magazine," 
exchange  for  books  or  offers. — H.  C.  Quilter,  4  Cedar  Road, 

Wanted,  British  or  foreign  land  and  freshwater  and  British 
marine  shells.     Offered,  P.fontinale,  Limax  Icevis,  Testiicella 
haliotidea,  H.  mpestris,  V.  antivcrtigo,  B.  perversa,  CI.  bipli- 
cata,  Coch.   tridens,  &c. — F.   G.   Fenn,  20  Woodstock  Road 
Bedford  Park,  Chiswick,  W. 

For  exchange:  Lascra  rubra,  I'enus  exoleta,  Otina  at  is, 
B.  perz'ersa,  Trochus  /meatus,  Helix  virgata  (vars.),  Trochus 
magus,  Helix  nemoralis  (several  vars.),  Limncra  auricularia, 
Venus  verrucosa,  H.  tuberculata,  &c. — B.  Tomlin,  59  Liverpool 
Road,  Chester. 

Birds'  Nests,  English  and  Foreign. — Advertiser  wishes 
to  correspond  with  any  other  collectors  of  above. — Geo.  A. 
Widdas,  Bond  Street,  Leeds. 

Micro-slides,  well  mounted,  vegetable  sections,  double 
stained,  in  exchange  for  other  slides. — J.  E.  Nowers,  71,  Bran- 
stone  Road,  Burton-on-Trent. 

"  Fourth  Annual  Report  of  U.  S.  Geol.  Survey,"  1882-83, 
(Washington:  Government  Printing  Office.) — "On  some  Re- 
cently Discovered  Insecta  from  Carboniferous  and  Silurian 
Rocks,"  by  H.  Goss,  F.L.S. — "The  Victorian  Naturalist," 
Nos.  5  and  6,  vol.  ii. — "On  Boulder-Glaciation,"  by  Hugh 
Miller,  F.G.S.— "  River  Terracing,"  by  Hugh  Miller,  F.G.S. 
— "The  Journal  of  Conchology." — "The  Illustrated  Science 
Monthly."  —  "  The  American  Florist."  —  "  The  American 
Monthly  Microscopical  Journal." — "  Cosmos." — "  Science." — 
"The  Amateur  Photographer." — "Ben  Brierley's  Journal." — 
"The  Rochdale  Field  Naturalists'  Journal."  — "  FVuille  des 
Jeunes  Naturalistes."  —  "The  Garner." — Animal  World." — 
"The  Naturalist."— "The  Midland  Naturalist."— "Journal  of 
the  Quekett  Microscopical  Club."— "The  American  Natura- 
list."— Cole's  "  Studies  in  Microscopical  Science."     &c. 

Communications  received  up  to  the  12TH  ult  from  : — 
T.  A.  L.— J.  B.— E.  G.— E.  M— J.  H.  L.— J.  F.— C.  D.  S.— 
R.  H.  T.— J.  R.  M.— H.  W.  L.— L.  M.  B.— J.  G.  G.— A.  G.  S. 
— E.  I.— A.  H.— F.  M— E.  B.  L.  B.— W.  S.  C.  T.— T.  S.  S.— 
J.  M.  D.— W.  K.  M.— T.  D.  A.  C— R.  C.  C— E.  C— T.  B— 
G.  C.  R.— E.  C— A.  B.— P.  Q.  L.— E.  H.— W.  M.  C.  O'N.— 
Dr.  P.  Q.  K.— A.  D.  W.— F.  S.— G.  A.  B.— J.  R.— C.  A.  G.— 
H.  E.  V.  —  E.  C.  M.— S.  C.  C— W.  S.  H.— W.  T.  C— 
J.  H.  A.  J.— W.  J.  A.— F.  G.  F.— J.  T.— T.  F.  V.—D  M.  C— 
C.  C— G.  A.  W  —  R.  B.— S.  H.  D.— D.  J.  R.— H.  E.  Q.— 
Dr.  J.  W.  W.— W.  O.— B.  M.— W.  J.— H.  W.  L.— J.  B  — 
B.  T.— F.  H.  A.— G.  A.  W.— J.  E.  U.— D.  B.— A.  S.  W  — 
M.  M.— &c. 




By   V.   A.   LATHAM,  F.M.S. 

z^m&<S&g$\  ORBID  specimens 
"~l«^?JlP  can  be  prepared  in 
the  same  manner 
as  normal  tissues, 
by  the  ordinary 
processes  which  are 
well  known  to  all. 
The  subject  will  be 
treated  under  the 
following  heads  : — 
(i.)  Examination 
of  specimens  while 

(2.)      Hardening 
of  same. 

(3.)  The  making 
of  sections. 
(4.)  Staining. 
(5-)  Preservation 
by  mounting. 
It  may  here  be  observed  that  specimens  of  morbid 
tissues  require,   as  a  rule,   a    shorter  immersion  in 
chromic  acid  solution  than  healthy  tissues  do.      A 
very  small  degree  of  over-hardening  speedily  renders 
them  useless. 

(1.)  Examination  of  fresh  tissues. 

Divide  the  tissue  into  very  thin  slices  with  a  section 

knife  (should   it   prove   too  friable,   tease  it  out  by 

means  of  mounted  needles).     Be   careful    to   use   a 

.  well-wetted  knife,  and  make  your  slices  rapidly,  or 

they  will  be  too  jagged. 

Now  wash  your  fresh  slices  well  in  water  (when- 
ever water  is  used  it  is  distilled  in  every  case),  and 
then  immerse  it  in  any  normal  fluid,  such  as  a 
solution  of  chloride  of  sodium  to  the  proportion  of 
f  per  cent,  in  water,  i.e.  *]\  parts  in  1000  parts 
aqua  dest.  by  measure,  or  (1)  aqueous  humour  taken 
from  the  anterior  chamber  of  the  eye  of  a  newly 
killed  ox.  (2)  Serous  fluids,  such  as  taken  from  the 
pericardial  sac,  or  amniotic  fluid.  To  either  of  these 
serous  fluids  iodine  may  be  added  to  form  iodised 
serum.  It  is  prepared  by  adding  1  part  tinct.  of 
iodine  to  100  parts  of  the  serous  fluid. 

To  each  oz.  of  the  fluid  add  a  couple  of  drops  of 
No.  254.— FEBRl  ARY  1886. 

cai  >olic  acid  and  filter.     Its  disadvantages  are  that  it 
alters  the  tissues  slightly,  and  stains  them  yellow. 

Glycerine  is  frequently  used  in  preference  to  the 
salt  solution,  and  is  specially  applicable  to  the 
examination  of  membranous  specimens  which  only 
need  spreading  on  a  wet  glass  slide,  and  then  covering 
with  the  same.  Portions  of  the  renal,  pulmonary, 
and  hepatic  organs  are  thus  frequently  examined. 
Also  portions  of  tumours  ;  their  friability,  however, 
requiring  them  to  be  teased  out  with  needles  as  sug- 
gested above.  The  same  may  be  said  of  portions  of 
the  heart's  muscular  tissue. 

(2.)  Hardening : — There  are  several  hardening 
agents  in  use,  viz.  : — 

(a)  Midler's  fluid  : — R.  Potassium  bichromate,  2 
parts.  Sodium  Sulphate,  1  part.  Aqua,  100  parts. 

The  tissue  should  be  kept  in  this  solution  for  from 
one  to  two  weeks,  then  placed  in  common  alcohol  for 
two  or  three  days,  after  which  it  is  ready  for  making 
sections.  It  is  a  valuable  fluid  for  maceration  of 
tissues  which  are  examined  by  teasing — as  tumours, 
muscle,  &c. 

(P)  Chromic  acid  J  per  cent.,  15  grs.  to  oz.  Take 
of  this  2  parts,  and  sp.  vini  meth.  (methy.  sp.) 
1  part.     Stir. 

Allow  at  least  8  or  10  oz.  for  your  specimen,  and 
be  very  careful  not  to  allow  it  to  remain  in  the 
solution  more  than  a  week.  Change  the  solution 
once  or  twice  in  this  period  ;  be  careful  to  cut  the 
specimens  in  small  pieces  before  immersion,  and 
after  hardening,  let  them  steep  24  hours  in  alcohol 
before  cutting  specimens. 

(7)  Bichromate  of  potash  : — 2  per  cent.  It  is 
useful  for  blood-vessels,  nerves,  kidneys,  ovary,  and 
especially  for  brain  and  spinal  cord.  When  using, 
leave  the  specimen  for  at  least  a  fortnight  in  the 
solution,  changing  it  every  three  or  four  days. 

(5)  Alcohol  is  also  of  use  for  spleen,  testis,  and 
lymphatic  glands.  It  is  specially  worthy  of  note,  as 
being  a  necessary  complement  in  many  cases  to 
induration  by  other  agents  (Muller's  fluid,  bichromate 
of  potash,  &c),  a  couple  of  days'  immersion  in  alcohol 
being  frequently  indispensable  to  completely  secure 




the  indurations  induced  by  them.  Where  mucous 
membranes  and  portions  of  the  integument  are  to  be 
indurated,  chromic  acid  will  be  the  most  applicable 
of  these  reagents  for  bony  structures,  or  ossified 
tissues,  taking  care  to  add  to  the  solution  4  or  5  drops 
of  muriatic  acid  to  every  8  ounces. 

Lastly,  alcohol  must  be  employed  for  the  hardening 
of  all  tissues  which  have  been  injected. 

(e)  Picric  acid  : — (Kleinenberg)  for  hardening  soft 
sarcomata,  myxomatous  and  embryonic  tissues,  me- 
sentery, &c.  Make  as  follows  : — Saturated  watery 
solution  of  picric  acid,  100  parts.  Strong  sulphuric 
acid  (IL  S  04),  2  parts.  Filter  to  remove  yellow 
precipitate  which  is  formed,  and  add  distilled  water, 
300  parts.  It  hardens  the  above  tissues  in  from  3  to 
12  hours. 

(3.)  Cutting  sections  : — An  inexpensive  section 
knife  can  be  made  by  grinding  the  upper  side  of  a 
common  razor  blade  into  a  concavity,  and  the  under 
surface  quite  flat.  You  will  have  a  simple  but  quite 
as  effective  an  instrument  for  your  purpose  as  can  be 
devised.  Of  course  a  microtome  is  the  best.  I 
strongly  recommend  Cathcart's  as  a  good  and  cheap 
instrument,  but  the  razor  can  be  made  to  answer 
your  purpose  quite  well.  Keep  it  well  wetted 
with  alcohol  while  using,  and  slice  your  sections  off 
rapidly,  and  in  one  sweeping  motion  of  the  hand 
immerse  each  at  once  in  alcohol.  If  the  tissue  is  too 
small  to  hold  in  the  hand,  imbed  in  wax,  paraffin, 
cellodin,  &c. 

(4.)  Staining  sections  : — There  are  so  many  dif- 
ferent stains,  that  it  would  be  impossible  here  to  enter 
into  full  details  of  each.  Therefore  I  shall  content 
myself  with  naming  those  I  have  found  the  most 
useful.  Logwood,  carmine,  methylanilin  violet, 
methylene  blue,  anilin  blue-black  for  nerve  cells, 
picro-carmine,  and  osmic  acid. 

Bismarck  brown  and  iodine  green  for  double- 
staining.  I  would  recommend  students  to  buy  the 
stains  ready-made,  as  they  are  much  more  certain  in 
action,  and  save  a  large  amount  of  time.  For 
staining  in  picro-carmine,  see  pp.  275  and  276  of 
Vol.  XX.,  Dec.  1884,  of  this  paper.  In  staining  in 
methylanilin  violet,  soak  the  sections  in  a  watch-glass 
for  about  two  or  three  minutes  in  a  watery  solution  ; 
wash  well  for  half  an  hour  in  water,  and  mount  in 
glycerine,  either  pure  or  according  to  Cornil,  slightly 
acidulated  with  acetic  acid.  Farrant's  solution  may 
also  be  used  as  a  mounting  medium.  Do  not  use 
Canada  balsam  or  dammar,  as  both  clove  oil  and 
alcohol  dissolve  out  the  colour,  and  even  the  chloro- 
form used  as  a  solvent  for  dammar  and  balsam  acts 
in  a  like  manner  on  the  stain. 

Anilin  blue-black  can  be  made  as  follows  : — Anilin 
blue  black,  I  part.  Water,  40  parts.  Dissolve  and 
add  rectified  spirit,  loo  part.     (Bevan  Lewis.) 

Staining,  filter  a  few  drops  into  a  watch  glass,  and 
add  8  or  10  times  as  much  alcohol  to  it.  Soak  from 
i  to  3  minutes,   and   mount  in   C.   balsam.     If  the 

staining  is  too  deep,  soak  the  sections  for  a  time  in  a 
2  per  cent,  solution  of  chloral  hydrate.     (Stirling.) 

Bismarck  brown  ;  sections  must  be  stained  slowly, 
and  the  water  in  which  the  staining  fluid  is  suspended 
must  contain  about  10  per  cent,  of  methylated  spirit. 
Make  a  straw-coloured  solution,  and  allow  sections 
to  remain  in  this  for  several  days.  Mount  in  C. 
balsam.  Where  used  as  a  contrast  stain,  pour  a 
few  drops  of  the  strong  solution  into  a  watch-glass, 
and  allow  the  section  to  remain  in  this  for  about 
IO  minutes. 

Methylene  blue : — {saturated  solution)  dilute  with 
about  5  times  its  volume  of  water,  mount  in  glycerine 
or  Farrant's  solution. 

On  double  and  treble  staining  morbid  growths: — 
Well-hardened  sections  of  rodent  ulcer  and  epithel- 
ioma may  be  stained  by  the  picro-carmine  and 
logwood  process,  others  of  same  material  with 
rosanilin  and  iodine  green,  and  compare  them. 

Amyloid  degeneration,  hardened  in  chromic  acid, 
stain  with  rosanilin  hydrochloride  and  iodine  green, 
or  eosin  and  anilin  blue,  a  1  per  cent,  solution  of 
safranine  gives  a  good  result,  and  so  does  methylanilin 
violet,  and  iodine.  The  specimens  are  then  mounted 
as  ordinary  preparations.  (For  the  more  complete 
list  of  staining  reagents,  see  "Postal  Journal,"  July 
and  October,  1885.) 

Before  ending  this  paper,  I  would  strongly  urge 
students  to  get  up  normal  preparations  well,  before 
beginning  morbid,  or  they  will  otherwise  be  com- 
pletely at  sea,  if  I  may  use  the  term. 

Summary  : — 1st  day.  Small  pieces  placed  in 
chromic  acid  mixture. 

2nd  day.     Fluid,  changed. 

5th     >»  »>  » 

8th     ,,  ,,  ,, 

9th  day.  Spirit  mixture,  i.e.  1  part  of  water  to  2 
ofmethy.  spirit. 

10th  day.     Pure  methylated  spirit. 


Plain  water. 

,,      Section    cut,    stained,     and    mounted, 

The  following  papers  and  books  may  be  of  use  to 
students  : — 

(Coats.)     Pathology.     32s. 

(Gibbes.)     Practical  Histology,  &c.     5s. 

(Green.)     Pathology.     1 2s.  6d. 

(Cole.)     Methods  of  Microscopical  Research.     5.5-. 
And  Pathological  Studies.     21s. 

(Cornil  and  Rauvier.)     Pathology.     25J. 

(Woodhead.)     Practical  Pathology.     24s. 

(Ziegler.)  Pathology  vols.  i.  ii.  iii.  12s.  6d.  each, 
and  various  Journals,  especially  the  Royal  Micro- 
scopical, Years,  1883,  1884,  and  1885,  and  Quekett, 
&c.  &c. 

Sir  F.  J.  O.  Evans,  F.R.S.,  late  Hydrographer 
to  the  Admiralty,  has  just  died,  in  his  71st  year. 




^1.  BACTERIOLOGY,  by  Edgar  M.  Crook- 
shank,  M.B.  (London  :  H.  K.  Lewis).  Our  language 
is  gradually  enriched  by  the  advent  of  new  words 
and  terms.  It  is  impossible  in  the  history  of  intel- 
lectual progress  and  research  that  it  should  be 
otherwise.  "Bacteriology"  does  not  sound  either 
euphoniously  or  attractively.  But  it  well  expresses 
the  large  fund  of  real  knowledge,  gained  by  patient 
microscopical  observation  and  research,  which  is 
now  so  largely  influencing  the  medical  treatment  of 
most  epidemic  diseases.  Two  or  three  years  ago,  we 
published  in  our  own  columns  the  admirable  series 
of  papers  (illustrated)  by  Mr.  W.  B.  Grove,  B.A., 
on  the  "  Schizomycetes."  That  was  the  commence- 
ment of  a  systematic  arrangement  of  the  subject,  and 
the  articles  were  subsequently  republished  in  a  cheap 
and  attractive  form  by  Messrs.  Chatto  &  Windus. 
Dr.  Crookshank's  work  is  altogether  on  different 
lines.  He  modestly  calls  it  "An  Introduction" — 
it  is  in  reality  "A  Manual,"  and  a  first-rate  and 
very  valuable  manual  too.  It  is  abundantly  illus- 
trated with  coloured  plates  and  wood  engravings, 
both  of  which  are  highly  necessary  to  a  work  of  this 
kind.  To  young  medical  men  (and  old  ones  too, 
for  the  matter  of  that)  who  are  desirous  of  familiarising 
themselves  with  all  the  methods  and  natural  history 
of  epidemiological  research,  the  work  is  most  valuable. 
Dr.  Crookshank  has  followed  the  methods  introduced 
by  Professor  Koch,  and  he  has  been  assisted  by 
some  of  the  most  eminent  bacteriologists  of  the  day, 
all  of  whose  help  he  generously  acknowledges.  The 
work  includes  a  description  of  the  apparatus, 
material,  and  reagents  employed  in  a  bacteriological 
laboratory  :  Microscopical  Examination  of  Bacteria 
in  Liquids,  in  Cultivation  in  Solid  Media  and  in 
Tissues  ;  Preparation  and  Staining  of  Tissue  Sections  ; 
Preparation  of  Nutrient  Media  and  Methods  of 
Cultivation  ;  Experiments  upon  the  Living  Animal ; 
Examination  of  Animals  experimented  upon,  and  the 
Methods  of  isolating  Micro-Organisms  from  the 
Living  and  Dead  Subject  ;  History  of  our  Know- 
ledge of  Bacteria ;  Classification  of  Genera  and 
Species,  &c.  &c. 

Topography  and  Natural  History  of  Lofthouse,  by 
George  Roberts  (Leeds  :  Printed  for  the  Author). 
The  author  is  a  well-known  writer  in  the  pages  of 
Science-Gossip,  and  these  two  volumes  deal  with 
the  topography,  folk-lore,  antiquities,  phenological 
phenomena,  and  natural  history  of  the  district  he 
lives  in.  Reviewers  are  not  always  obliged  to  read 
the  books  through,  submitted  to  their  notice.  Per- 
haps, as  Dr.  Maginn  used  to  say,  it  is  enough  for 
many  of  them  that  they  cut  the  pages  and  then 
smell  at  the  paper-knife.  But  we  have  read  both 
these  volumes  right  through  with  much  pleasure. 
They  are  redolent  of  the  country  and  country  life, 

animal  and  vegetable.  Their  somewhat  miscellaneous 
contents  remind  us  of  White's  "  Selborne,"  which 
is  awarding  them  as  high  praise  as  is  possible.  To 
Yorkshire  people  especially  the  work  must  be  very 
welcome,  whilst  even  to  general  readers  it  is 
eminently  readable.  The  writer's  style  is  plain  and 
unadorned,  and  yet  vigorous  English — just  such  as 
an  educated  Yorkshireman  would  employ.  Evidently 
the  compilation  of  both  volumes  has  been  a  labour  of 
love,  and  we  wish  the  work  all  the  success  that  it 

light  and  Life,  edited  by  Joseph  John  Kaim 
(London  :  Wyrnan  &  Sons).  This  is  a  nicely 
printed  book  which  professes  to  give  the  "  Secrets  of 
Vegetable  and  Animal  Development,  detected  and 
explained  in  strict  conformity  with  known  natural 
and  chemical  laws  "  !  It  is  not  necessary  to  eat  the 
whole  of  a  hogshead  of  sugar  to  tell  what  it  is  like, 
and  so  we  give  the  following  quotation  of  how  the 
author  has  "  detected  and  explained  "  the  secrets  of 
the  organic  world,  as  a  sample.  This  secret  is 
printed  in  italics,  so  that  the  author  evidently  thinks 
it  is  very  important.  "  Without  the  agency  of  the 
sun,  the  consolidating  process  of  vegetable  structures 
would  be  impossible  ;  and  equally  impossible  would 
be  the  consolidation  of  animal  structures  ;  for  without 
a  sufficient  supply  of  oxygen,  liberated  by  the  power 
of  the  sun  from  the  sea,  and  distributed  by  moving 
currents  of  air  throughout  the  globe,  consolidation 
would  be  impossible,  even  if  all  other  conditions 
were  present  in  vegetable  and  human  structures." 
Our  readers  will  now  fully  understand  the  reason  for 
the  milk  in  the  cocoanut  ! 


No.  IV.— The  Ground  Ivy. 

(Nepeta  gkchoma,  Benth.     Glechoma  hederacea,  L.) 

By  Charles  F.  W.  T.  Williams,  B.A.  Cantab. 

THOSE  of  my  readers  who  are  unable  to  examine 
for  themselves  either  Arum  maculatum  or  Ne- 
peta  glechoma,  must  indeed  live  in  a  curious  region. 

It  is  useless  putting  on  paper  my  own  observations 
on  this  or  that  plant,  if  my  idea  in  doing  so  is  not 
followed  up  by  my  readers.  This  kind  of  study  will 
be  found  so  fascinating  to  the  lover  of  practical 
botany,  that  he  will,  in  a  short  time,  wish  to  study  in 
like  manner  for  himself,  and  on  his  own  account. 

As  you  read  or  work  among  our  plants,  consider 
them  as  friends — living  friends,  and  treat  them  as 
such — they  will  repay  you  a  thousandfold,  and  teach 
you  lessons  both  religious  and  scientific  you  little 
dreamt  of  before.  Their  voices  are  gentle ;  their 
form  is  lovely ;  and,  better  still,  their  conversation 
is  such  as  can  be  listened  to  with  respect,  delight, 
and  awe. 

If,  then,  you  start  with  such  feelings  as  these,  you 

c  2 


HA  R  D  WICKE '  S  S  CIE  JVC E-  GO  SSI  P. 

will  find  how  pleasant  are  the  paths  along  which  you 
wander ;  how  full  of  peace  are  all  your  hours  thus  spent. 

Some  people  might  consider  it  rather  a  leap  from 
Arum  maculatum  to  Nepeta  glechoma,  and,  indeed, 
from  one  point  of  view  at  least,  it  is. 

The  idea  will  occur  of  their  being  types  of  pride 
and  humility.  The  haughty  stateliness  and  refined 
beauty  of  the  spadix  of  Arum  maculatum — Pride. 
The  gentle,  retiring  lowliness  of  the,  in  reality,  far 
more  beautiful  Nepela  glechoma — Humility. 

The  natural  order,  Labiatas,  to  which  this  plant 
belongs,  possesses  several  very  striking  features,  which 
should  give  the  botanical  rambler  little  difficulty  in 
determining  plants  of  the  order.  Nepeta  glechoma  is 
a  good  lesson  in  itself,  furnishing  as  it  does  many,  if 
not  all,  of  the  distinctive  features  of  the  Labiatae. 
As  we  pursue  our  study  we  shall  see  this  in  stem, 

On  examining  the  stem,  which  is  slender,  its  shape 
must  be  well  noted,  for  here  is  the  first  characteristic 
of  the  order.  The  stem  is  tetragonal  (Fig.  21),  and 
covered  with  hairs ;  the  whole  plant  is  pubescent. 

These  hairs  are  generally  very  interesting,  afford- 
ing as  they  do  good  specimens  of  multicellular  hairs 
(Fig.  18). 

These  should  be  mounted  either  separately,  or  with 
the  epidermis  of  stem  or  leaf.  The  stem  will  be 
easiest  to  manipulate  for  the  epidermis.  It  is  best 
to  mount  in  glycerine  jelly.  Sections  should  be  taken 
both  transverse  and  longitudinal  through  the  stem, 
and  arrangement  of  cells  and  vessels  well  noted. 
The  petioles  of  the  leaves  are  long ;  in  many 
cases  considerably  longer  than  one  would  expect, 
being  from  one-half  to  two  inches  in  length.  The 
colouring  matter  in  cells  at  the  base  of  many  of  the 

Fig.  17. — Lower  portion  of  Nepeta  glechoma  (after  Lind- 
ley).  a,  Roots  produced  from  under  side  of  stem  ; 
b,  flowers  of  the  Verticillaster. 

Fig.  18. — Multicellular  hairs  in  various  stages  of  growth  from 
epidermis  of  stem  (mag.). 

leaves,  and  flower.  Remember,  first  of  all,  that  the 
plants  of  this  order  have  no  deleterious  qualities. 

Arepeta  glechoma  loves  to  dwell  beneath  a  hedge, 
and  retires  in  modesty,  hidden  as  much  as  possible 
by  anything  that  might  afford  a  shelter.  The  plant 
is  usually  procumbent,  but  not  always  much  so.  As 
it  roots  from  the  under  side  of  its  stem  (Fig.  17), 
some  part  of  course  lies  on  the  ground.  If  on  a 
hank,  its  procumbent  nature  is  far  more  noticeable 
than  when  growing  on  level  ground.  The  plant 
loves  the  warmth  of  the  sun,  and  flourishes  best  on 
sunny  banks  that  are  not  too  dry. 

The  root  fibres  are  very  interesting  when  examined 
under  the  microscope,  and  with  care  the  root  cap 
might  be  made  out.  The  minute  root  hairs  are,  too, 
of  interest.  A  little  carmine  solution  will  greatly 
assist  in  bringing  out  the  parts  in  this  investigation. 

hairs  should  be  noted  ;  these  help  to  give  various 
parts  of  the  plant  that  purple  tint  which  it  assumes 
later  on  in  the  year. 

The  shape  of  the  lamina  is  reniform,  the  upper 
ones  somewhat  cordate,  deeply  crenate  green.  Some 
difficulty  will  be  found  in  obtaining  the  epidermis  of 
the  leaf,  but  it  should  be  obtained.  The  stomata  are 
few  and  small,  chiefly  on  the  under  surface.  The 
important  point,  however,  is  to  note  the  oil  recep 
tacles  (Fig.  20).  These  are  the  second  important 
characteristic  of  most  plants  of  the  order.  A  leaf  or 
two,  if  boiled  for  a  short  time  in  diluted  nitric  acid, 
will  be  found  to  separate  its  epidermis  with  freedom. 
A  slide  should  be  mounted  showing  these  oil  reser- 

The  vessels  making  up  the  venation  of  the  leaf 
may  be  easily  dissected  by  the  above  process ;  and  if 

HARD  IVICKE '  S  S  CIE  NCE  -  G  0  SSI  P. 


mounted  in  glycerine  jelly  will  show  the  spiral  vessels 
of  which  the  bundles  are  composed. 

The  leaves  are  in  pairs,  opposite. 

We  now  come  to  the  third  and  very  important 
characteristic  of  the  order,  that  is,  the  inflorescence. 
This  must  be  studied  in  Nepcta  glechoma  with  great 
care,  because,  though  the  flowers  are  small,  they  are 
not  so  crowded  as  in  many  others  ;  such,  for  example, 
as  Lamium  album,  and  therefore  the  peculiar  inflor- 
escence can  be  the  better  made  out  and  understood. 

On   a   careful   examination   of  the   petiole   at    its 

So  much  for  explanation  ;  but  if  you  want  a  short, 
clear  definition  of  a  verticillaster,  here  is  one  :  — 

Verticillaster,  a  false  whorl,  formed  of  two  nearly 
sessile  cymes  placed  in  the  axis  of  opposite  leaves.* 

If  you  turn  to  Asa  Gray  on  Structural  Botany,  you 
will  see  that  he,  too,  makes  this  matter  very  clear. 

This  is  fortunate,  seeing  that  many  find  it  difficult 
to  make  out  what  a  verticillaster  really  is. 

The  bracteoles  which  are  subulate  equal  in  length 
the  short  pedicels. 

We  now  come  to  the  consideration  of  the  flower. 


Fig.  20. — Epidermis  from  lamina  of  leaf  (unrlT 
surface).  A,  cells;  b,  stoma;  c,  chlorophyll 
bodies;  D,  oil  reservoirs. 

Fig.  19. — Rough  diagram  showing 
verticillaster  inflorescence. 

Fig.  22. — Flower  of  X.  glechoma,  cut  open  and 
folded  back  (much  enlarged),  a,  Upper;  c,  di- 
vided under  lip  ;  is,  lattral  lobe  u[  the  corolla  ; 
i>,  E,  anthers  conniving  and  forming  a  cross. 

Fig.  21. — Tetrago- 
nal stem  of  A\ 

Fg.  23. — Gynoecium  of 
N. glechoma.  A, bifid 
stigma  ;  h,  style  ;  c, 
ovary  ;  d,  portion  of 

junction  with  the  stem  on  each  side,  it  will  be  seen 
that  the  flowers  borne  on  very  short  pedicels  spring 
from  this  axis  (Fig.  19).  In  the  case  of  Nepeta 
glechoma,  in  from  two  to  three  on  each  side.  The 
general  appearance  of  this  manner  of  inflorescence  is 
misleading.  It  leads  one  to  assume  it  is  that  of  a 
verticil.     That  is  just  what  it  is  not. 

Seeing  that  the  flowers  proceed  from  the  axis  of 
the  petiole  with  the  stem,  the  inflorescence  is  more 
cymose  than  anything  else.  But  the  flowers  are 
nearly  sessile,  the  pedicels  being  very  short ;  there- 
fore we  get  a  distinctive  name  for  this  peculiar  in- 
florescence, and  we  call  it  a  Verticillaster. 

The  calyx  is  tubular,  persistent,  and  five-toothed  ; 
the  teeth  are  recurved. 

The  persistent  calyx  is  a  fourth  characteristic  of 
the  order  ;  the  fruit  being  enclosed  in  the  calyx,  as 
may  be  most  commonly  seen  in  such  a  plant  as 
Stachys  sylvatica.  The  corolla  is  bilabiate,  which  is 
a  fifth  and  striking  characteristic  of  the  order.  The 
corolla  tube  is  long  ;  the  mid  lobe  of  the  lower  lip 
obcordate.  The  upper  lip  is  bifid,  the  lower  trifid  ; 
the  mid  lobe  large. 

In  looking  down  the  corolla  tube  the  picture  is 

*  Balfour's  "  Class  Book  of  Botany,"  p.  1102. 


very  beautiful.  The  colour  of  the  corolla,  azure 
blue,  the  tube  spotted,  and  a  fringe  of  white  hairs  at 
the  base  of  the  lower  lip. 

On  examining  the  andrcecium,  we  find  the  stamens 
are  four — two  long  and  two  short,  or  as  we  say, 
Jidynamous.  This  is  a  sixth  characteristic  of  the 

The  stamens  are  epipetalous.  The  anthers  connive 
and  form  a  cross,  as  in  Fig.  22. 

The  pollen  grains  are  small,  free  from  any  markings, 
and  of  no  special  interest. 

The  gyncecium,  which  is  shown  in  Fig.  23,  con- 
sists of  a  deeply  four-lobed  ovary  seated  on  a  disk, 
the  lobes  each  containing  one  erect  ovule.  The 
style  basilar  ;  the  stigma  bifid. 

The  fruit — nutlets,  minutely  granulate. 

The  seeds  erect,  exalbuminous. 

Having  followed  out  the  study  of  Nepeta  gkchoma 
from  roots  to  fruit,  it  may  be  well  to  recapitulate  the 
points  in  which  it  shows  the  great  characteristics  of 
the  natural  order  Labiatae. 

(a)  Stem  tetragonal. 

(0)  Leaves  opposite,  exstipulate,  full  of  receptacles 
containing  aromatic  oil. 

(7)  Inflorescence  a  Verticillaster. 

(8)  Calyx  tubular,  persistent. 
(«)  Corolla  bilabiate. 

(|)  Andrcecium,  4,  Didynamous,  Epipetalous. 

(v)  Ovary,  four-lobed. 

(6)  Fruit,  nutlets. 

There  is  yet  one  other  point  of  interest  in  Nepeta 
glechoma,  and  that  is  its  micro-fungus. 

Without  saying  that  Puccinia  glechomalis  is  as  rarely 
to  be  found  as  /Eeidiuvi  ari,  still  I  think  it  is  far 
fro.n  common.  It  is  years  since  I  found  it,  and  then  it 
was  in  a  field  some  little  distance  from  Cold  Harbour 
Farm,  Redland  Green,  Bristol— a  spot  well  known  to 
Clifton  microscopists,  especially  for  a  pond  replete 
with  infusorial  wonders,  and  abounding  in  Hydra 

The  following  is  Dr.  M.  C.  Cooke's  description  in 
his  "  Microscopic  Fungi  "  : — 

Puccinia  glechomatis,  DC.  Ground  Ivy  Brand  ; 
spots  brownish ;  sod  subrotund,  scattered,  hypo- 
genous ;  spores  brown,  rather  short,  sub-elliptic, 
scarcely  at  all  constricted.  On  leaves  of  Ground 
Ivy,  Glechoma  hederacea.  September  and  October. 
Not  uncommon. 

The  Fungus  will  be  found  figured  on  plate  iv., 
figs-  73.  74  of  the  above  work. 

Those  who  wish  to  refer  to  any  old  herbal  will 
doubtless  find  many  wonderful  medicinal  properties 
assigned  to  this  plant. 

Dr.  Taylor  mentions  that  in  the  North  of  England 
it  "is  credited  with  a  fair  share  of  medicinal  pro- 

Sir  J.  D.  Hooker  speaks  of  the  plant  as  bitter  and 

"  Half  Hours  in  Green  Lanes,"  p.  230. 

aromatic,  and  that  it  was  formerly  used  for  beer,  and 
occasionally  for  tea. 

A  tea  made  from  the  leaves  of  this  plant  is  said  to 
be  good  for  colds,  and  is,  I  believe,  often  used  by 
country  folk.  If  you  boil  a  few  leaves  in  a  test 
tube,  the  aromatic  aroma  given  off  will  be  found  to  be 
refreshing  and  pleasant. 

Corns  are  by  no  means  pleasant  things  to  be 
troubled  with,  especially  in  long  botanical  rambles. 
Be  it  known,  therefore,  that  if  a  leaf  or  two  is  steeped 
in  vinegar  for  a  few  hours,  and  then  placed  on  a 
troublesome  corn,  and  bound  round  with  a  small 
piece  of  lint  secured  with  cotton,  immense  relief  will 
be  experienced.  Let  the  leaf  remain  on  as  long  as 
possible,  and  if  not  eased,  apply  another. 

I  do  not  say  this  will  cure  a  corn— what  will  ?  But 
this  I  do  say,  from  personal  knowledge  in  many  cases, 
it  will  give  relief,  which  is  something. 

Thus,  then,  I  have,  as  far  as  possible,  endeavoured 
to  set  forth  the  various  points  of  interest  in  Nepeta 


MR.  W.  W.  MIDGLEY,  Curator  of  the  Chad- 
wick  Museum,  Bolton,  recently  read  a  paper 
before  the  Microscopical  Society  of  that  town  on  the 
"  Bacilli  of  Typhoid  Fever  in  Man."  This  paper 
contains  such  an  important  set  of  original  observa- 
tions that  we  extract  the  most  valuable  of  them  for 
the  benefit  of  our  readers. 

Mr.  Midgley  said  the  experiments  had  been  carried 
out  under  the  joint  observation  of  himself  and  Dr. 
Sergeant,  Medical  Officer  of  Health.  In  the  early 
part  of  August  several  cases  of  typhoid  fever  were 
removed  to  the  Borough  Hospital.  Some  peculiarities 
in  a  case  which  ended  fatally  led  Dr.  Sergeant  to 
make  a  careful  investigation  into  it.  In  the  second 
week  of  August  he  brought  to  the  Museum,  in  order 
that  the  microscopic  examination  might  be  conducted 
conveniently,  a  test-tube  containing  some  blood 
taken  from  the  ventricle  of  the  brain,  as  well  as  a 
portion  of  the  brain  of  the  patient.  They  examined 
a  drop  of  the  serum  with  Beck's  4-10-in.  objective, 
and  could  just  discern  minute  specks  in  motion. 
Then,  applying  a  power  of  1500  diameters,  the  nature 
and  shape  of  the  specks  came  out  clearly.  The 
bacilli  were  very  numerous,  flitting  about  the  "  field  " 
with  lively  movements ;  some  being  dumb-bell  shaped, 
and  the  two  rounded  ends,  particularly  of  those 
where  the  constriction  had  become  attenuated, 
struggling  as  if  to  disengage  themselves  from  each 
other.  Others  were  more  rod-like  in  shape,  some 
with  one,  others  with  two  slight  constrictions  occur- 
ring along  their  sides.  They  also  observed  a  few 
inactive  specks,  rather  larger  than  the  active  types, 
auriculate  in  shape,  somewhat  opaque,  the  nature  of 
which  they   could   not  at  the  time  make  out.     Drs. 



Rothwell  and  Howarth  called  in  to  observe  the 
organisms.  The  next  day  they  placed  a  fresh  drop 
of  the  serum  on  the  stage,  and  found  the  microbes 
far  more  numerous  than  previously.  About  two 
hours  later  Mr.  Midgley  noticed  a  change  in  one  of 
the  inactive,  opaque  specks  already  referred  to,  and 
shortly  after  the  whole  "  field  "  was  filled  with  fine 
dust-like  granules.  Half-an-hour  later  this  had 
visibly  begun  to  thin  away,  and  upon  careful  illumi- 
nation he  could  see  the  whole  mass  dancing  about 
with  the  energies  of  vital  force  ;  and  in  a  period  of 
3^  hours  from  the  time  of  observing  the  first  change 
of  the  test  bursting,  the  granules  had  become  as 
active,  and  of  the  same  shape,  as  the  adult  bacilli. 
He  then  concluded  that  the  opaque  specks  noticed 
were  encysted  forms,  and,  having  undergone  seg- 
mentation, burst,  and  discharged  their  spores.  They 
could  readily  see  the  binary  fission  going  on  in  the 
rod-like  forms,  by  the  deepening  of  the  constrictions, 
and,  first  assuming  the  dumb-bell  shape,  then  separate, 
and  become  two  distinct  individuals.  The  serum 
was  kept  under  cultivation  for  several  clays,  and  the 
alternation  of  generations  watched  from  time  to  time. 
In  order  to  see  how  the  bacilli  could  be  cultivated  in 
milk,  five  drops  were  placed  in  a  gill  of  new  milk  at 
10  a.m.  At  7  P.M.  a  drop  of  it  was  examined,  and 
found  to  contain  such  a  vast  number  moving  among 
the  fat  cells  of  the  milk  as  to  keep  the  smallest  cells 
in  constant  movement.  The  rapid  rate  of  increase 
proved  how  enormous  is  their  power  for  evil  if  the 
virus  be  introduced  into  the  dairy.  The  next  morning 
the  milk  had  become  slightly  sour,  and  contained 
very  few  moving  forms.  By  noon  it  had  become 
white  opaque,  and  was  destroyed.  Another  of  the 
experiments  brought  out  how  tenacious  of  life  the 
microbes  are.  Three  drops  were  placed  in  a  small 
test-tube  with  about  half  an  ounce  of  water,  and  held 
over  a  spirit  lamp  to  boil  for  five  minutes.  The 
water  was  corked  up  while  cool  and  examined,  and 
to  their  astonishment  they  found  them  moving  about 
the  "  field  "  as  if  nothing  had  happened.  The  intro- 
duction of  alcohol  or  dilute  sulphuric  acid  at  once 
arrested  their  movements.  In  conclusion,  he  said 
that  the  presence  of  bacilli  having  been  found  in  a 
region  of  the  body  so  remote  from  the  viscera  as  the 
brain,  entirely  disposed  of  the  doubt  honestly  held  by 
Klein,  and  he  thought  entirely  settled  the  question, 
not  only  that  Messrs.  Klebs  and  Eberth  were  on  the 
right  track,  but  that  typhoid  lever  is  accompanied 
by  these  minute  poisonous  organisms.  The  great 
problem  which  science  had  to  solve  was,  whether  it 
was  possible  to  modify  the  virulence  of  this  noxious 
bacillus  into  the  innoculo-septic  form  of  Bacillus 
subti/is,  as  Biichner  claims  to  have  done  with  the 
Bacillus  anthrax  of  splenic  fever. 

Dr.  Samuel  Birch,  Keeper  of  the  Egyptian  and 
Oriental  antiquities  in  the  British  Museum,  has  died 
at  the  age  of  seventy-two. 


LAST  summer  I  made  an  infusion  of  hay,  which 
presently  swarmed  with  Hypotrichous  In- 
fusoria, which  were  either  of  the  genus  Stylonychia, 
or  some  closely  allied  genus.  I  spent  a  good  deal 
of  time  in  watching  their  habits,  which  proved  to 
be  of  great  interest,  and  intended  to  determine  the 
species  more  accurately  later  on.  I  failed  to  do  so, 
however,  because  after  a  while  a  few  of  them  began 
to  form  cysts  (Fig.  24),  covered  with  large  strong 
projections  ;  and  the  rest  followed  suit  so  rapidly  that 
in  forty-eight  hours  I  had  not  a  single  free  individual 
left.  I  shall  in  this  paper  call  them  Stylonychia  ; 
but  it  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  I  am  by  no  means 
certain  that  this  is  correct.  None  of  them  left  their 
cysts  before  I  had  to  go  away  from  Devonshire. 
These  strong  spiny  cysts  are  formed  to  protect  them 
during  a  resting  period.  In  what  form  they  emerge 
from  the  cyst  I  cannot  tell,  but  probably  in  their 
original  form.  I  did  not  notice  any  particular 
abundance  of  conjugating  individuals  while  the  en- 
cystment  was  going  on.  Stylonychia  Pustulata  forms 
a  cyst  figured  by  Stein  (Sav.  Kent,  pi.  45,  fig.  16), 
which  is  very  like  those  which  I  found,  but  differing 
in  one  respect.  In  6".  pustulata  the  spines  are 
generally  united  at  their  bases,  whilst  in  those  which 
I  found  the  spines  rarely  touch  each  other,  and  are 
often  separated  by  a  space  equal  to  half  or  more  than 
half  their  height.  These  cysts  seem  to  be  simply 
protective,  and  are  formed  when  the  surrounding 
conditions  are  unfavourable,  such  as  change  of 
temperature,  or  the  drying  up  of  the  ditch,  or  other 
water  they  are  in.  When  thus  encysted  they  are 
often  blown  about  by  the  wind,  and  so,  as  all  In- 
fusoria-hunters know,  turn  up  in  places  where  they 
were  not  known  before. 

Amongst  the  Stylonychias  were  a  large  number  of 
Tentaculiferous  Infusoria,  belonging  to  the  genera 
Sphserophrya  and  Podophrya.  These  Infusoria  have 
clubbed  tentacles,  through  which  they  suck  the  juices 
of  their  prey.  It  is  the  relation  between  these  and 
the  Stylonychias  which  I  have  to  describe. 

Several  of  the  Stylonychias  were  observed  swimming 
about  with  a  Sphaerophrya  attached.  It  was  obser- 
vations similar  to  this  which  led  Stein  to  form  his 
celebrated  theory,  that  the  young  of  many  Infusoria 
were  of  the  Acineta  or  Tentaculiferous  type.  Cla- 
parede  and  Lachmann,  however,  soon  proved  that 
the  Acineta  form  was  a  parasite,  and  not  the  off- 
spring ;  and  Stein  has  since  abandoned  his  theory. 
In  one  of  these  cases  I  observed  a  very  singular  fact 
- — the  Sphaerophrya  had  its  clubbed  tentacles  extended 
to  their  usual  length  ;  but  it  was  also  provided  with 
a  very  large  number  of  short  tentacles,  which  were  in 
constant  slow,  wavy,  or  vibratory  motion  (Fig.  25). 
They  were  much  too  thick  to  be  called  cilia,  other- 
wise the  case  might  be  held   to  be  parallel  to  the 



one  figured  in  Kent  (pi.  46,  figs.  4,  5),  where 
Sphaerophrya  develops  fine  cilid  preparatory  to  sub- 
division. These  short  tentacles  were  not  clubbed.  I 
observed  another  pair,  in  which  the  Sphaerophrya 
was  covered  with  these  short  curved  tentacles ;  but 
these  were  all  motionless.  I  cannot  find  in  the  books 
any  trace  of  these  short  wavy  tentacles. 

My  next  observation  was  Podophrya  fixa,  which 
had  seized  one  of  the  Stylonychias.  The  latter  kept 
the  cilia  on  the  under  side  of  its  body  in  very  rapid 
motion,  as  if  endeavouring  to  escape.  After  I  had 
watched  it  for  more  than  an  hour  it  got  free  and  swam 
away.  The  next  stage  was  as  follows  :  a  Stylonychia 
had  a  Sphaerophrya  attached  ;  the  former  gradually 
contracted  itself  to  a  spherical  form,  with  its  cilia 

and  again  the  Stylonychia  made  an  attempt  to  leave 
its  cyst,  this  time  getting  about  one-third  of  its  body 
out,  and  leaving  its  cyst  behind  with  a  thick  uneven 
border  (Fig.  2S).  Again  it  came  in  contact  with  the 
Sphaerophrya,  and  then  remained  motionless  for  a 
long  time,  which  closed  my  work  for  the  night. 

Another  evening  I  observed  a  pair  where  the 
Stylonychia  had  assumed  the  spherical  form,  with  its 
cilia  projecting  all  round.  These  were  withdrawn  as 
usual.  In  falling  down  the  tilted  cell  in  which  they 
were  enclosed,  the  little  one  stuck  somewhere,  and  the 
weight  of  the  Stylonychia  set  it  free.  It  immediately 
burst ;  a  small  quantity  of  protoplasm  was  emitted 
where  the  Sphaerophrya  had  been  attached,  while  two 
globular  projections  were  thrown  out  on  the  opposite 

Fig.  24. — Normal  cyst  of 
Stylonychia  sp. 

Fig.  27. — Remarkable  shape 
temporarily  assumed  by 

Fig.  28.  — Stylonychia  emerging 
from  its  cyst,  a  further  stage 
of  Fig.  26. 

Fig.  25. — Sphaerophrya,  with  short 
wavy  tentacles,  on  Stylonychia. 

Fig.  29.  — Stylonychia,  which 
after  withdrawal  of  the 
cilia  has  thrown  out  two 
large  and  one  small  globule 
of  protoplasm. 

Fig.  26. — Stylonychia  preparing  to  encyst 
when  attacked  by  Sphaerophrya. 

Fig.  30. — A  further  stage  of  Fig.  29.  The 
internal  protoplasm  has  left  the  cyst, 
now  wrinkled  and  nearly  opaque.  Ac- 
cumulation of  granules  at  lower  end  of 
the  oval  body. 

projecting  all  round  (Fig.  26).  After  an  hour  all  the 
cilia  had  vanished.  It  was  forming  a  cyst,  apparently 
to  protect  itself  from  its  foe.  It  then  threw  out  a 
blunt  projection  near  the  Sphaerophrya,  which  burst, 
and  a  considerable  amount  of  granular  protoplasm 
was  emitted.  Then  it  resumed  its  contour.  Again 
it  burst  close  to  the  Sphrcrophrya,  and  again  resumed 
its  spherical  contour.  As  the  water  on  the  slide  was 
drying  up  I  added  a  little  water,  which  separated  the 
pair  a  little  way — the  Sphaerophrya  assuming  a  very 
remarkable  shape,  with  a  wavy  irregular  outline, 
quite  unlike  anything  I  have  seen  in  these  creatures 
(Fig.  27).  The  Stylonychia  then  threw  out  another 
broad  projection,  which  unluckily  again  brought  it 
in  contact  with  its  enemy.     I  separated  them  again, 

side  [a  and  b,  Fig.  29).  The  cyst  then  opened  in 
another  place,  and  the  whole  contents  of  the  body 
very  slowly  emerged  ;  the  process  taking  one  and  a 
half  hours.  The  cyst  formed  over  the  two  globular 
projections  which  I  have  already  mentioned.  In 
proportion  as  the  interior  part  emerged,  the  cyst 
contracted  in  size,  became  wrinkled  and  opaque. 
The  internal  protoplasm  emerged  in  a  simple  oval 
form,  contained  in  a  membrane  so  fine  as  to  be  barely 
visible.  The  protoplasm  was  finely  granular,  and 
every  granule  was  in  rapid  swarming  motion,  some- 
thing like  the  Brownian  movements.  The  whole 
presented  a  very  curious  spectacle.  Under  the 
influence  of  gravity,  these  granules  settled  at  the 
bottom  of  the  oval,  so  that  at  last,  this  lower  part 


was  nearly  opaque,  while  the  top  part,  owing  to  the 
fineness  of  the  membrane,  was  barely  visible.  I  could 
see  no  trace  of  nucleus  or  contractile  vesicle.  It 
remained  in  this  state  till  I  went  to  bed,  and  I  did 
not  see  it  again.  I  had  so  many  Stylonychias  at  the 
time  that  I  made  sure  of  finding  some  more  couples  ; 
but  as  I  said  before,  they  suddenly  vanished  away. 
This  kind  of  encystment  is  quite  new  as  far  as  I  can 
make  out.  It  is  only  temporary,  and  apparently  is 
assumed  expressly  in  order  to  get  rid  of  the  tentacu- 
lifera.  For  it  is  evident  that  the  tentaculiferous 
enemy  will  remain  outside  the  cyst  while  the  Stylony- 
chia  gets  away  by  another  opening.  The  bursting 
and  ejection  of  protoplasm  may  also  be  a  means  of 
defence,  if  it  bursts  just  where  the  sphajrophrya  is 
holding  on. 

The  form  also  in  which  the  protoplasm  emerges  is 
quite  new  and  strange.  From  its  ordinary  cyst,  the 
Stylonychia  emerges  unchanged,  whilst  here  we  have 
a  motionless  oval  body.  What,  again,  is  the  meaning 
of  the  swarming  motion  of  the  granules,  and  what  has 
become  of  the  nucleus  and  contractile  vesicle  ?  I  am 
painfully  conscious  of  the  incompleteness  of  these 
observations,  but  they  seem  to  me  to  be  of  sufficient 
interest  to  be  worth  recording.  When  working  at 
questions  of  this  sort,  one  ought  to  be  prepared  to  sit 
up  all  night  if  necessary  ;  but  unfortunately  my  health 
would  not  allow  me  to  do  that. 

J.  G.  Grenfell,  B.A.,  F.G.S. 

Clifton  College. 

By  W.  Mattieu  Williams,  F.R.A.S.,  F.C.S. 

demand  more  and  more  of  the  "missing  links" 
that  are  required  to  fill  the  blank  spaces  in  the 
evolutionary  series  will  find  their  wants  very  largely 
supplied  in  the  Reports  of  the  United  States  Geo- 
logical Survey  of  the  Territories.  The  multitude  of 
new  creatures,  or  new  types  or  forms,  there  described 
is  so  great  that  palaeontologists  have  heavy  work 
before  them  in  classifying  the  new  finds.  Such 
-discoveries,  properly  regarded,  teach  us  that,  in  spite 
of  the  great  recent  progress  of  geology,  we  yet  know 
but  a  small  fraction  of  the  sum  total  of  the  number  of 
species  that  have  inhabited  the  earth  during  its  past 
history.  Even  in  the  best-explored  districts  we  can 
■only  find  a  few  that  have  died  under  exceptional 
circumstances,  or  which,  having  hard  shells  or  other 
exceptionally  indestructible  elements  of  structure, 
have  been  exceptionally  preserved.  Those  that  have 
shared  the  fate  of  the  majority— have  been  eaten  and 
digested — leave  few  or  no  traces  behind  ;  and  those 
which  have  died  on  dry  land,  far  away  from  the  sea 
or  lakes,  must  have  decomposed  or  have  been 
crumbled  to  dust  ere  they  could  reach  the  position 
of  entombment. 

I  have  again  and  again  expressed  heretical  notions 
on  this  subject,  and  still  maintain  that  when  geologists 
represent  a  certain  era  as  the  age  of  fishes,  Crustacea, 
or  the  inhabitants  of  swamps  and  marshes,  they 
perpetrate  a  serious  fallacy  ;  the  fact  that  only  such 
animals  are  represented  by  the  fossils  of  the  period 
does  not  prove  that  such  creatures  were  any  more 
representative  of  the  period  in  question  than  they 
are  now.  The  creatures  that  lived  in  the  sea,  and 
especially  those  in  estuaries  and  near  the  mouths  of 
rivers,  became  entombed  in  the  deposits  formed  by 
the  silt  of  such  rivers,  while  of  those  on  land  only  a 
few  specimens  that  have  been  accidentally  drowned 
under  very  exceptional  circumstances  could  have 
been  preserved.  All  the  stratified  rocks  were  formed 
in  such  places  or  on  the  sea-coast.  Then  again,  how 
small  a  fraction  of  the  whole  surface  of  the  earth 
have  we  yet  scratched  to  any  depth  beyond  soil- 
tillage  I 

Coal-dust  and  Colliery  Explosions. — Mr. 
W.  Galloway,  who  has  "done  the  State  some  ser- 
vice "  in  showing  that  neglected  deposits  of  coal-dust 
are  the  great  factors  in  producing  great  colliery 
explosions,  complains,  and  I  think  justly  ( see 
"Nature,"  Dec.  31),  of  the  manner  in  which  Sir 
Frederick  Abel,  in  an  address  to  the  Society  of  Arts, 
has  recently  slighted  the  merit  of  Galloway's  work. 
I  say  "  slighted  "  for  want  of  a  better  word.  It  was 
not  exactly  ignored,  not  directly  denied,  not  positively 
pooh-poohed,  but  all  these  modes  of  treatment  were 
combined.  Sir  Frederick  said,  "  Several  well-known 
French  mining  engineers  published,  many  years 
after  Faraday  and  Lyell  wrote,  observations  and 
experimental  results  as  new  which  were  simply  con- 
firmatory of  those  philosophers'  original  statements 
and  conclusions  ;  and,  to  some  extent,  this  was  also 
the  case  in  still  more  recent  publications  in  this 
country  by  Galloway  and  Freire-Marreco."  That  is 
to  say,  that  a  number  of  Frenchmen,  many  years  ago, 
republished  as  new  certain  scientific  work  already 
old  and  done  by  Englishmen  ;  and  then  later  still, 
Galloway  has  claimed  as  his  own  these  ancient  and 
doubly  appropriated  researches.  This  is  very  hard 
upon  Galloway,  in  spite  of  the  qualification  "to 
some  extent."  Being  a  regular  contributor  to  the 
journal  ("  Iron")  in  which  so  many  of  his  communi- 
cations on  the  subject  have  appeared,  I  have  read  his 
papers,  have  become  much  interested  in  his  work 
(which  began  in  1870),  and  have  no  hesitation  in 
concluding  that  he  is  fully  justified  in  all  the  state- 
ments contained  in  the  letter  above  named,  and  in 
his  complaints  of  the  treatment  he  has  received  from 
Sir  Frederick  Abel.  At  the  same  time  there  is  no 
evidence  of  ill-will  nor  intentional  injustice,  nor  is 
any  attributed  to  Sir  Frederick  by  Mr.  Galloway. 
It  is  simply  a  slighting  due  to  imperfect  knowledge 
of  the  subject.  Galloway's  researches  sliow,  that  in 
great  colliery  explosions  a  relatively  small  quantity 



of  gas  first  explodes  and  raises  a  cloud  of  inflammable 
particles.  These,  heated  by  the  flame  of  the  gas, 
combine  with  the  oxygen  of  the  air  suddenly  and 
explosively,  as  in  flour-mill  explosions  ;  more  dust  is 
thereby  raised  and  exploded,  and  thus  it  travels  like 
firing  a  train  of  gunpowder. 

The  Prevention  of  Dangerous  Colliery 
Explosions.  —  The  above  suggest  very  obvious 
practical  lessons.  Every  colliery  should  be  kept 
free  from  considerable  accumulations  of  dust.  In 
ordinary  collieries,  where  there  is  much  water,  this 
may  easily  be  done  by  a  hose.  In  the  collieries  of 
the  future,  where  we  shall  be  working  the  deeper 
coal  at  depths  only  limited  by  the  heat,  the  pits 
will  be  dry,  and,  as  I  have  already  explained  (see 
"Limits  of  Coal  Supply,"  in  my  "  Science  in  Short 
Chapters  "),  surface  water  and  intermediate  springs 
will  then  be  largely  used  for  cooling  purposes.  These 
hot  and  dry  workings  will  be  especially  exposed  to 
terrible  results  from  dust  explosions,  and  therefore 
the  necessity  for  a  clear  understanding  and  practical 
recognition  of  this  source  of  clanger  becomes  con- 
tinually more  and  more  urgent.  Once  understood, 
and  thus  recognised,  prevention  of  serious  calamities 
is  easy  enough. 

My  first  underground  experience  was  in  descending 
a  small  trial  shaft,  and  following  a  trial  drift,  under 
the  guidance  of  a  "larkish"  young  colliery  engineer. 
When  we  arrived  at  the  end  of  the  drift  he  recognised 
a  small  blower,  took  a  match  from  his  pocket, 
and  lighted  it.  A  small  but  rather  startling  flash 
resulted,  followed  by  a  most  alarming  sense  of 
suffocation.  When  above  ground  I  remonstrated, 
and  received  reply  that  my  conductor  knew  by  the 
state  of  his  lamp  that  there  was  no  dangerous 
quantity  of  fire-damp,  and  therefore  a  good  oppor- 
tunity of  giving  me  a  taste  was  afforded.  This 
"baptism  of  fire,"  though  unpleasant,  was  very 
instructive,  as  it  proved  that  an  experienced  collier 
can,  by  means  of  his  lamp,  form  some  estimate  of  the 
extent  of  danger ;  and,  with  the  additional  light 
thrown  on  the  subject  by  Mr.  Galloway's  experiments, 
explains  the  fact,  that  explosions  have  in  so  many 
cases  extended  to  roads  and  workings  where  no  sane 
collier  would  have  remained  had  it  been  charged 
with  sufficient  gas  to  be  dangerous  alone.  If  there  is 
enough  hydro-carbon  gas  to  form  with  the  air  an 
explosive  mixture,  there  is  enough  to  fill  the  cage 
of  the  Davy  lamp  with  the  warning  flame  that  is  too 
terrible  to  be  unheeded.  The  collier  who  would  at 
once  retreat  and  raise  alarm  on  seeing  this,  now 
passes  without  heed  any  amount  of  accumulated 
coal-dust  on  pillars,  walls,  roofs,  and  dry  floor  of  the 
pit,  because  he  is  ignorant  of  its  dormant  yet  fatal 

Porpoise  Milk.— Mr.  Purdie  has  published  in 
the  "  Chemical  News"  an  analysis  of  porpoise  milk, 

which  is  very  curious.  To  show  its  peculiarity,  I 
state  below  the  composition  of  the  milk  of  some 
other  animals,  for  comparison  with  that  of  the 
porpoise  : — 


Ass.      . 
Sheep    . 
Uitch     . 




66  '3 



Sugar  and    1     Nif°genous 

soluble  salts.    FomP°u.nd  *«* 
:  insoluble  salts. 







The  porpoise  milk  examined  by  Mr.  Purdie  was- 
yellow,  thick,  and  had  a  fishy  odour,  and  was  com- 
posed of  water  41  -i  1  ;  fat  45*80  ;  albuminoids  1 1-19  ^ 
sugar  1-33  ;  and  ash  0-57  per  cent. 

The  curious  difference  is  the  very  large  propor- 
tion of  fat :  more  than  eleven  times  as  much  as  in 
cow's  milk,  or  nearly  eighteen  times  as  much  as  in 
woman's  milk.  It  is  probably  connected  with  the 
demand  for  blubber  by  the  young  porpoise  ;  and,  if 
so,  does  not  support  the  conclusions  of  those  physio- 
logists who  have  lately  denied  that  the  fat  of  food 
does  not  form  the  fat  of  the  animal  that  eats  it.  It 
would  be  very  interesting  to  compare  the  composition 
of  the  milk  of  an  Esquimaux  woman  with  that  of  a 
negress — the  Arctic  with  the  tropical  variety  of  the 
same  species. 

Digestibility  of  Cheese.— Klenze  has  experi- 
mented on  eighteen  kinds  of  cheese,  and  finds  that 
Cheddar  was  digested  in  the  shortest  time  (four 
hours).  Unripe  Swiss  cheese  required  ten  hours. 
He  concludes  that  fat  cheeses  are  dissolved  more 
readily  than  hard  skim-milk  cheeses,  because  the 
fat  renders  them  more  open.  He  finds  no  connec- 
tion between  the  digestibility  and  the  percentage  of 
water  in  the  cheese,  but  that  ripeness  is  favourable. 

Manuring  Vines  with  Copper. — Many  investi- 
gations have  lately  been  made  upon  the  absorption 
of  soluble  metallic  salts  by  the  rootlets  of  various 
plants,  and  the  distribution  of  the  metal  in  the  plant. 
The  vine  has  thus  been  manured  with  sulphate  of 
copper,  mixed  with  lime,  by  MM.  Millardet  and. 
Gayou.  They  find  that  most  of  the  copper  is  de- 
posited in  the  leaf — that  merely  a  doubtful  trace  can 
be  found  in  the  juice  of  the  grape.  Other  experi- 
ments with  other  salts  and  other  plants  indicate  thai 
the  chlorophyll  of  the  leaves  is  the  most  addicted 
to  picking  up  the  foreign  matter.  Tea-leaves,  for 
example,  contain  much  iron,  doubtless  due  to  the 
ochreous  soil  on  which  they  best  grow.  The 
analytical  myth  concerning  the  adulteration  of  tea 
with  iron  filings  is  thus  explained.  When  roasted, 
the  iron  salt  in  the  leaves  is  reduced  to  magnetic 
oxide,  and  the  leaves  are  therefore  attracted  by  a 



The  Kinetic  Theory  of  Gases. — Another  blow 
has  been  delivered  to  this  complex  hypothesis.  M. 
Faye  infers  that  Hirn's  recent  experiments  on  the 
velocity  of  gases  demand  a  reconsideration  or  absolute 
rejection  of  this  kinetic  theory.  For  my  own  part,  I 
always  regarded  it  as  a  violation  of  the  fundamental 
principles  of  inductive  philosophy.  Atoms  and  mole- 
cules are  first  invented  without  any  physical  evidence 
of  their  existence,  i.e.  the  discrete  structure  of  fluids 
is  assumed  hypothetically.  Then  these  imaginary 
separated  entities  are  imagined  to  be  in  violent  motion 
•colliding  with  each  other  in  such  complex  fashion 
that  the  mere  description  of  their  proceedings  de- 
mands a  serious  amount  of  mathematics,  or,  if  not 
absolutely  demanded,  it  is  certainly  supplied.  The 
structure  of  the  imaginary  molecules  is  made  very 
complex.  Thus  Professor  G.  Forbes  describes  an 
"improved  gyrostatic  molecule,"  which  consists  of 
two  fly-wheels  on  one  axis  with  "  the  axis  cut  in  two 
in  the  middle  between  them,  and  the  parts  fitted 
together  by  a  ball-and-cylinder  joint.  The  other 
ends  of  the  half-axes  are  supported  in  ball-and- 
socket  joints  in  the  massless  shell."  The  "  crude 
molecule  "  thus  improved  was  "  a  fly-wheel  inside  a 
massless  shell,"  but  this  was  too  simple  a  conception 
of  the  constitution  of  matter — hence  the  improve- 

Such  exquisite  fooling,  however  suitable  for  the 
purpose  of  pedants,  who  by  dint  of  mutual  admiration 
are  striving  to  set  themselves  apart  as  a  mathematical 
priesthood,  is  not  science  at  all ;  it  is  an  obstruction 
perversely  placed  upon  the  path  of  scientific  progress. 
Every  natural  truth  is  so  simple  that  the  teacher  who 
himself  understands  it  may  render  it  intelligible  to  a 
little  child  ;  and  whenever  the  explanation  of  a  fact  is 
more  difficult  to  understand  than  the  fact  it  pretends 
to  explain,  we  may  at  once  dismiss  it  as  an  illogical 

The  true  philosopher,  i.e.  he  who  has,  first  of  all, 
studied  himself,  knows  that  he  has  no  faculty 
whereby  to  enter  and  grasp  the  inner  and  absolute 
mechanism  of  matter  ;  that  he  can  only  learn  its 
action  on  himself  by  means  of  its  relations  to  his 
senses  and  his  reasoning  powers.  He  knows  that  in 
the  solution  of  physical  problems  he  can  only  reason 
soundly  on  data  supplied  by  the  senses  ;  and  therefore 
when  he  reaches  a  problem  to  which  his  senses  give 
no  response  he  confesses  his  hopeless  ignorance. 

Migration  of  Squirrels. — "  Science  "  says  that 
.four  millions  of  squirrels  are  emigrating  from  the 
Mississippi  side  over  to  the  Arkansas  shore  at  a  point 
commencing  about  five  miles  below  Memphis,  and 
extending  down  for  twenty  miles.  They  are  swim- 
ming the  Mississippi  river,  and  evidently  making  for 
more  elevated  grounds  in  Arkansas.  Thousands 
are  being  killed  by  farmers,  who,  by  reason  of  their 
great  numbers,  use  sticks  instead  of  guns.  A  similar 
emigration  of  squirrels  occurred  in  1872. 


ONE  of  the  most  remarkable  groups  of  the  old 
genus  Sphaeria  was  that  which  was  distin- 
guished by  its  long,  compressed  ostiolum  (mouth). 
This,  which  is  the  opening  whereby  the  sporidia  are 
enabled  to  escape  from  the  interior  of  the  perithecium, 
is  inmost  cases  a  round  pore-like  aperture  ;  but  in  the 
group  which  we  are  now  considering,  it  is  a  narrow, 
linear  chink,  seated  on  the  top  of  a  kind  of  crest  or 
ridge  which  runs  across  the  perithecium,  and  is  often 
as  long  as  the  perithecium  itself  (Fig.  31).  The 
species  possessing  this  character  were  formed  by 
Persoon,  in  1S01,  into  a  section  called  Spharuv 
Platy stoma*  and  this  name  was  afterwards  adopted 
by  Fries,  in  1822  ;  he  then  altered  the  name  to  Lophio- 
stomae,  in  1849,  and  still  later  they  were  separated 
entirely  from  the  true  Sphoeriie,  and  constituted  by 
De  Notaris  into  a  distinct  genus  called  Lophiostoma.T 

Now,  again,  this  genus  is  raised  to  the  rank  of  a 
family,  the  Lophiostomacere,  by  Saccardo,  and  the 
various  species  which  are  included  under  that  name 
are  subdivided  into  seven  genera,  to  one  of  which  the 
name  Lophiostoma  is  restricted.  According  to  the 
rule  in  such  cases,  the  genus  to  which  the  restricted 
Lophiostoma  is  assigned,  is  that  which  includes  the 
first  known  species  of  the  group,  viz.  the  Spkceria 
macrostoma%  of  Tode,  who  described  and  figured  its 
external  appearance  with  remarkable  accuracy,  so 
early  as  179 1.  As  a  curiosity,  his  drawing  is  here 
reproduced  (Fig.  32),  from  plate  ix.  of  the  "Fungi 
Mecklenburgenses  Selecti." 

We  may  pause  here  to  notice  the  manner  in  which 
the  species  that  at  first  constituted  but  a  small  section 
of  a  genus,  were  afterwards  raised  to  the  rank  of  a 
distinct  genus,  and  are  now  formed  into  a  family, 
itself  consisting  of  several  genera.  This  instance  is 
but  typical  of  a  process  which  has  gone  on  in  every 
department  of  Biology  ever  since  the  first  establish- 
ment of  the  Linnaean  nomenclature  ;  one  might  say, 
ever  since  the  first  classification  of  natural  objects 
formed  itself  long,  long  ago,  in  the  brains  of  our 
untutored  forefathers.  The  process  is  merely  the 
natural  result  of  the  increase  in  the  number  of  known 
species,  and  of  the  investigation  by  the  microscope 
of  minuter,  and  still  minuter,  details.  If  families, 
genera,  species,  etc.,  represented  in  all  cases  some- 
thing really  existing,  there  might  be  some  objection 
to  such  proceedings ;  what  is  rightly  called  a 
"genus"  now,  could  not  hereafter  be  rightly  called 
a  "family."  But  we  know  that  these  names  are 
merely  subjective,  that  is,  represent  things  of  man's 
own  devising,  and  that  the  distinctions  which  appear 
to  him  so  necessary,  only  arise  from  the  limitations  of 
his  knowledge.  In  many  cases  species  still  appear  to 
us  distinctly  marked  off  from  all  other  species,  and 
the  same  is  true  of  genera  in  a  greater  degree ;  but 

*  Flat-mouthed.         f  Ridge-mouthed. 



there  are  numberless  instances  where  even  genera  are 
now  united  by  gradual  intermediate  links,  and  of 
species  this  is  true  in  an  as  yet  hardly  recognised 

To  a  perfect  being,  having  perfect  knowledge  of  all 
the  individual  forms  of  organic  nature  that  exist  or 
ever  have  existed,  the  whole  organisms  of  this  globe 
would  be  varieties  of  but  one  species.  And  although 
for  us,  with  the  necessary  finiteness  of  our  faculties, 
species  and  genera  must  always  remain,  yet  there  will 
come  a  time  when  the  discoveries  of  men  will  tend 
rather  to  diminish  the  number  of  "recognised" 
species,  by  discovering  previously  unknown  links, 
than  to  increase  them. 

But  to  return  to  our  subject.  Among  the  species 
of  Lophiostoma  in  the  "  Handbook  of  British 
Fungi,"  are  two,  L.  caulium,  and  L.  sex-mtclcata,. 
which  have  been  found  on  the  nettle.  Of  these  the 
latter  is  now  removed  to  another  genus,  Lophiotrema,* 
distinguished  from  true  Lophiostoma  by  its  colourless- 
sporidia;  and  now  appears  in  the  sylloge,  under 
No.  5432,  as  Lophiotrema  sex-nucleatitm  (Cooke), 
Sacc.  Besides  these  there  is  a  species,  Lophiostoma 
dolabriforme,  with  dark  sporidia,  which  has  been 
found  on  the  nettle  in  France,  and  may  be  expected 
to  occur  here. 

Last  April  I  picked  up  an  old  nettle-stem,  at 
Middleton,    near    liirmingham,  which  was   in  a  very 

31. — Lophiotrema  an^nstilabriim  (Sacc.)-     o,  side  view  ; 
b,  end  view.      X  90. 

Figi  32. — Spliaria  macrostoma.     (After 

F'g-  33-— Sporidium  of  Lof>hio- 
trema  angu  stilabrtim.  b, 
sporidium  of  L.  sex-nucleatum 

(.after  Cooke). 

Fig.  34.— Group  of  sporidia  from  a  single  perithecium  of  L.  angits 
tilabrum.  a,  a  young  sporidium  ;  b,  a  mature  one,  showing 
pseudo^epta  ;  c,  the  most  frequent  form.     X  1000. 

Still,  as  matters  stand,  the  increase  must  go  on,  and 
conjointly,  for  our  own  convenience,  we  must  divide 
and  subdivide  our  groupings  more  and  more.  Those 
who  study  the  group  of  fungi  which  has  developed 
out  of  the  old  genus  Sphceria,  know  that  Saccardo  has 
pushed  the  process  to  a  very  great  extent.  In  his 
stupendous  Sylloge,  nearly  6000  species  are  described 
which  would  have  been  included  under  Persoon's  idea 
of  Sphaeria.  It  is  obvious  that  such  a  mass  of  de- 
scriptions would  be  beyond  the  power  of  the  ordinary 
human  mind  to  compass,  if  the  art  of  subdivision  were 
not  carefully  employed  to  break  it  up  into  intelligible 
fragments,  and  those  who  grumble,  as  some  in  Eng- 
land do,  at  Saccardo's  giant  work,  remind  one  of  Mrs. 
Partington's  futile  efforts  to  conquer  the  Atlantic. 

decayed  and  friable  condition.  On  the  lower  par 
were  the  traces  of  many  old  and  nearly  vanished 
perithecia  of  Leptosplncria  doliolum,  but  among  them 
were  a  few,  evidently  quite  fresh  and  vigorous,  which 
a  second  glance  showed  to  possess  the  unmistakable 
Lophiostoma  crest  (Fig.  31).  These,  on  examination, 
proved  to  be  identical  with  Lophiotrema  Qiigiisii- 
labrum  f  (B.  and  Br.)  Sacc,  according  to  the  descrip- 
tion with  which  they  agreed  in  every  respect  but  one.. 
This  species,  the  Lophiostoma  angustilabra  of  the 
Handbook,  p.  S50,  is  said  by  the  authors  to  have 
sporidia  40-43  y.  long,  whereas  I  find  the  length  of 
the  sporidia  of  my  specimens   to   vary  from   28  n  to 

*  Ridge-aperture. 

+  Narrow-lipped. 



33  fi,  reaching  occasionally  35  j",  but  not  exceeding 
that  limit.  But,  fortunately,  Plow-right  published 
specimens  of  this  species  in  his  "  Sphseriacei  Brit- 
annici,"  ii.  No.  49.  These  I  have  not  seen,  but 
Winter  has  given  the  measurement  of  sporidia,  from 
these  specimens  as  28-32  /*  X  7  p,  thus  agreeing 
exactly  with  mine. 

We  conclude,  therefore,  that  the  length  of  the 
sporidia,  given  by  the  original  finders  of  the  species,  is 
too  great.  Tiie  difference  may  appear,  to  outsiders, 
very  little  ;  but  it  is  found  by  experience  that  in  the 
majority  of  cases,  the  size  of  the  sporidia  of  sphoeria- 
ceous  fungi  is  remarkably  constant,  and  I  have  a 
reason  for  insisting  on  this  point,  as  will  appear  from 
what  follows. 

My  specimens  were  found  on  the  nettle  ;  L.  sex- 
nitclcatum,  referred  to  above,  also  occurred  on  the 
nettle.  Moreover,  in  Cooke's  article  on  "Old 
Nettle-Stems  and  their  Micro-fungi,"  the  latter  is 
stated  to  occur  on  stems  "far  advanced  in  decay," 
so  as  to  be  "tender  and  friable,"  as  mine  did.  The 
chief  difference  between  the  alleged  species  is  in  the 
sporidia  ;  those  of  sex-nucleatum,  which  are  given  as 
35  fx  long,  are  said  to  be  shorter  than  those  of  angus- 
tilabrum,  but  the  measurements  quoted  above  dispose 
of  this  difference.  Again,  the  sporidia  of  sex-nu- 
cleatum  are,  as  the  name  implies,  six-nucleate,  each 
"nucleus"  occupying  a  cell.  By  a  "nucleus,"  here 
is  meant  an  oily  drop  of  much  higher  refractive  index 
than  the  other  cell  contents.  These  objects,  by-the- 
bye,  are  now  called  "  guttulse,"  since  they  have  nothing 
in  common  with  a  true  cell-nucleus.  The  sporidia  of 
angustilabrum,  on  the  contrary,  are  said  to  contain 
"  two  or  three  nuclei  "  in  each  half,  and  apparently 
have  rarely  been  seen  with  more  than  a  central 
septum,  although  said  to  be  "probably  4-6-celled 
when  mature." 

Now,  in  Fig.  34,  I  have  given  a  group  of  sporidia 
taken  from  a  single  perithecium  of  my  specimens, 
and  in  Fig.  33,  tracings  from  Cooke's  drawings  of 
the  sporidia  of  the  two  species.  By  the  comparison 
of  these,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  extreme  forms  of 
Fig.  33  are  connected  by  intermediate  links.  When 
several  guttulre  occur  in  a  row,  it  is  easy  by  manipula- 
tion of  the  light  to  produce  a  false  appearance  of 
septa  between  them,  as  at  b  (Fig.  34).  This  is  a 
mere  illusion  of  diffraction.  I  satisfied  myself  that 
none  of  the  sporidia  in  my  specimens  were  more 
than  uniseptate.  The  earlier  observers  seem  not 
to  have  been  always  on  their  guard  against  such 

The  sporidia  of  angustilabrum  are  further  said  to 
terminate  in  hyaline  conical  appendages  at  each  end, 
which  are  wanting  in  sex-nucleatum.  My  specimens 
sometimes  had,  but  oftener  had  not,  these  appendages. 
In  Cooke's  figure  of  the  sporidia  of  angustilabrum 
in  his  article  on  "  Lophiostoma,"  he  represents  a 
distinct  enveloping  membrane,  of  which  I  could  see 
no  trace.     Winter  also  describes  this  ;  but  Saccardo, 

who  figures  the  sporidia  of  the  same  species  ill 
his  "Fungi  Italici,"  No.  238,  says  nothing  of  its- 
existence.  I  conclude  that  this  is  not  always  present, 
which  is  very  likely,  for  it  is  not  in  any  case  a  mem- 
brane, but  merely  the  outline  of  some  mucilaginous 
matter  surrounding  the  sporidium. 

I  think,  therefore,  that  the  last  remnant  of  a 
difference  disappears,  and  L.  sex-nucleatum  must  be 
considered  as  merely  a  synonym,  representing  pro- 
bably the  most  perfect  state,  of  L.  angustilabrum. 
This  is  what  will,  as  I  have  previously  hinted,  befall 
many  of  the  new  species  described  in  these  days,  as, 
indeed,  it  has  done  in  the  past.  The  true  rule  on 
this  point  I  have  laid  down  before.  It  is  the  duty  of 
anyone  who  discovers  a  form  of  life  which  he  cannot 
identify  with  any  previously  described,  to  give  it  a 
name,  and  append  to  the  name  a  careful  description  ; 
but  it  is  equally  his  duty,  when  its  identity  with  some 
previously  known  form  is  demonstrated  by  the  dis- 
covery of  facts  which  he  was  ignorant  of,  cheerfully 
to  allow  them  to  be  united  under  one  name,  or  to 
unite  them  so  himself. 

W.  B.  Grove,  B.A. 


By  Walter  Henshall. 


HAVING  described  the  general  character  of  the 
cotton  hair  and  its  method  of  growth,  we 
must  now  pass  on  to  its  structure  and  composition. 

From  treatment  with  various  reagents,  particularly 
an  ammoniacal  solution  of  oxide  of  copper,  the  cotton 
hair  has  been  found  to  consist  of  four  parts,  quite 
distinct  from  each  other  :  1st,  the  outside  membrane, 
which  is  insoluble  in  the  copper  liquid  ;  2nd,  the 
cellulose,  which  occupies  by  far  the  greatest  portion 
of  the  fibre,  and  round  which  there  appears  to  be 
wrapped  from  end  to  end  (3rd)  spiral  fibre  ;  4th,  an 
insoluble  matter  occupying  the  core  of  the  cotton 
hair,  which  resembles  the  shrivelled  matter  in  the 
interior  of  quills.  This  solution  (also  known  as 
Schweitzer's  solution)  has  the  power  of  dissolving 
cellulose,  and  it  is  most  interesting  to  watch  its  action 
on  the  cotton  fibre  under  the  microscope.  Before 
dissolving,  the  cellulose  swells  out  enormously, 
dilating  the  outside  membrane,  and  stretching  out  the 
spiral  fibre,  which  is  not  so  elastic  as  the  outer 
membrane.  This  causes  it  to  break  in  many  places, 
the  cellulose  forming  bead-like  swellings  where  the 
spiral  has  broken  away. 

The  action  which  other  reagents  have  on  cotton  is- 
also  interesting.  Caustic  soda  has  a  most  peculiar 
effect  on  the  fibre.  When  cotton  is  soaked  in  a 
solution  of  caustic  soda,  the  fibres  increase  very  much 
in  diameter,  and  besides  becoming  fuller,  the  soda 
leaves  them  much  stronger.     It  has  also  been  found 



that  such  fibres  take  the  dye  more  readily,  and  when 
-dyed  the  colour  is  more  permanent.  To  make  use  of 
these  important  results,  and  further  for  the  purpose 
of  scouring  all  grease  from  the  fibres,  cotton  is  usually 
soaked  in  caustic  soda  before  it  is  dyed.  Sulphuric 
acid  dissolves  cellulose,  membrane,  and  everything. 
Indeed,  all  acids,  when  in  weak  solution,  render  the 
cotton  weak  and  brittle ;  some  entirely  destroy  the 

In  the  attempt  to  soak  raw  cotton  in  water,  it 
will  have  been  noticed  how  repulsive  it  is  to  water. 
This  is  caused  by  the  outer  membrane  of  the  fibre, 
which  is  really  vegetable  wax,  called  by  some,  cotton 
wax.  It  is  the  same  substance  as  the  "bloom" 
found  on  some  leaves  and  fruit,  and  is  composed  of 

hair.  It  is  similar  to  that  found  in  the  cells  of 
dicotyledonous  plants  and  trees,  and  is  deposited  on 
the  inner  side  of  the  cell-wall  in  layers.  These  layers, 
or  concentric  rings,  may  sometimes  be  seen  in  a  cross- 
section  of  the  hair,  highly  magnified,  though  the  lami- 
nated form  is  somewhat  difficult  to  make  out.  It 
shows  us,  however,  that  the  depositing  of  cellulose  is 
not  regular  and  continuous,  but  thicker  in  some 
places  than  others — similar  to  the  way  in  which  the 
rings  are  formed  in  the  trunk  of  a  tree. 

The  existence  of  spiral  fibre  in  the  cotton  hair, 
seems  to  be  the  source  of  its  great  strength.  It  has 
been  found  that  a  fibre  of  a  good  class  of  American 
cotton  will  resist  a  strain  of  145  grains  before  it 
breaks.     Now  the  maximum  or  theoretical  strength 

Fig.  35. — Cotton-Fibre,  compared  with  wool,  &c.     X  400.     (See  page  39.) 

the  same  constituents,  and  in  nearly  the  same  pro- 
portion as  cerosine,  a  wax  obtained  from  the  leaves 
of  the  sugar-cane.  In  bleaching,  this  waxy  covering 
is  dissolved  by  the  hot  bleaching  liquids,  which 
also  remove  a  fatty  acid  along  with  the  wax.  The 
loss  in  weight  sustained  by  bleaching  is  generally 
about  five  per  cent,  so  that  if  we  were  to  have 
bleached  100  lbs.  of  grey  calico,  the  weight  after 
bleaching  would  be  only  95  lbs.  The  cotton  wax, 
however,  only  forms  a  small  portion  of  this  loss,  as  it 
only  constitutes  two  per  cent,  of  the  whole  of  the 
fibre.  We  may  describe  it  as  a  varnish  on  the  cotton 
hair,  which  is  impermeable  and  insoluble  in  the 
copper  solution  previously  referred  to. 

The  cellulose  forms  about  87  per  cent,  of  the  cotton 

of  yarn  would,  of  course,  be  the  aggregate  strength  of 
the  fibres  which  compose  it.  But  it  is  found  in 
practice  that  we  cannot  get  anything  near  this  strength 
out  of  yarn ;  in  fact,  the  actual  is  but  a  fifth  of  the 
theoretical  strength.  The  number  of  fibres  in  a  cross- 
section  varies  as  to  the  thickness  of  the  yarn.  In  32's* 
twist,  made  out  of  American  cotton,  there  are  about 
140,  and  in  50's  yarn,  about  ninety  in  a  cross-section. 
Of  course,  not  all  these  get  twisted  in  the  thread. 
Many  hang  out  from  it,  and  this  explains  the  great 
loss  of  strength.  Cannot  some  improvement  be 
made  ?      This  is  the  question  which  is  engaging  the 

*  The  numbers  or  counts  are  given  to  denote  the  thickness  of 
the  yarn.  They  indicate  the  numbei  of  hanks,  each  840  yards, 
in  1  lb.  of  yarn. 



attention  of  cotton  spinners  at  the  present  time  ;  and, 
indeed,  now,  one  of  the  vital  points  with  spinners  is, 
who  can  make  the  most  strong  and  even  yarn  out  of 
the  same  cotton. 

The  cotton  hair  has  a  most  wonderful  power  of 
absorption.  This  is  most  probably  owing  to  the 
capillary  attraction  of  the  tube  of  the  fibre.  We  see 
this  property  well  adapted  in  lamp  wicks,  etc.  ;  but 
it  is  often  abused.  Putting  the  yarn  in  a  damp 
cellar,  and  steaming  it  in  order  to  increase  the 
weight,  is  one  of  the  well-known  tricks  of  the  trade. 
It  will  be  readily  understood  that  cotton  will  absorb 
a  great  amount  of  moisture  from  our  usual  atmo- 
sphere. If  we  subject  cotton  that  has  been  in  an 
atmosphere  of  ordinary  temperature  to  a  heat  of 
212°,  we  should  find  it  would  lose  about  J  per  cent., 
through  the  evaporation  of  water,  which  loss  would 
be  regained  if  we  replaced  the  cotton  in  the  former 
temperature.  Any  manager  of  a  cotton  mill  will 
tell  you  that  cotton  will  lose  weight  even  to  as  much 
as  5  per  cent,  on  the  change  of  from,  say,  very  wet, 
damp  weather  to  dry  or  frosty  weather.  Cotton,  to 
be  worked  with  ease,  requires  a  humid  atmosphere. 
In  dry  weather,  the  cotton  seems  to  become  less 
pliable,  and  so  snaps  and  breaks.  When  very  dry, 
it  also  becomes  a  good  conductor  of  electricity,  and 
is  thus  attracted  to  rollers,  etc.,  through  which  it  has 
to  pass.  These  rollers  lick  up  the  cotton,  and  so 
make  a  great  amount  of  waste. 

In  continuous  dry  weather  the  difficulties  of  spin- 
ning are  often  so  serious  that  the  floors  of  the  mills 
are  regularly  degged  with  water  to  make  the  atmo- 
sphere moist. 

In  all  classes  of  cotton,  more  or  less,  but  more 
especially  in  the  low  classes  of  American  and  East 
Indian  cotton,  when  received  in  Liverpool,  there  are 
found  small  patches  of  very  bright  straight  fibres. 
These  fibres  are  very  weak  and  brittle,  destitute  of 
twist,  and  without  any  tube ;  and  were  formerly 
thought  to  be  "dead  cotton,"  by  which  name  the 
fibres  were  known.  With  the  aid  of  the  microscope, 
some  time  ago,  it  was  found  that  such  cotton  is 
really  unripe  * — cotton  which  has  been  gathered 
before  the  fibre  was  mature.  Asa  consequence  of 
this,  little  or  no  cellulose  has  been  deposited,  and  the 
fibre  is  weak.  When  the  vital  fluid  is  withdrawn 
the  cotton  hair  collapses  entirely,  and  forms  a  flat, 
glassy,  structureless  fibre.  Having  no  tube  it  cannot 
be  dyed  ;  being  without  twist  it  cannot  be  formed 
into  thread.  Altogether,  it  is  a  useless  cotton,  and 
not  only  useless,  but  very  damaging  when  mixed 
with  other  cotton,  as  it  usually  is.  And  yet  it  is 
quite  abundant  in  some  classes  of  cotton.  Machines 
have  been  invented  to  open  unripe  pods,  and  to  ex- 
tract the  cotton  and  seeds  :  so  we  cannot  expect  any 
reduction  in  the  quantity  of  this  unripe  fibre  in  future. 

*  One  of  these  unripe  fibres  will  be  seen  in  the  illustration  in 
the  January  part  of  this  Journal. 

Cotton  growers  are  always  in  a  hurry  to  realise  on 
their  crops,  and  this  is  the  result. 

When  cotton,  having  a  great  proportion  of  unripe 
or  half-ripe  fibre  mixed  with  it,  is  spun  into  yarn, 
the  short  immature  fibres,  being  broken  up  in  the 
working,  form  little  conglomerations  of  fibres  in  the 
yarn,  or  what  are  technically  termed  "  neps."  If 
such  yarn,  having  been  woven  into  cloth,  were  to  be 
dyed,  all  these  neps  would  be  left  untouched  by  the 
dye,  and  the  cloth  would  present  a  speckled  appear- 
ance, causing  great  loss  to  the  manufacturer  or  dyer. 
From  this  it  will  be  seen,  how  very  important  it  is  to 
see  that  the  cotton  we  buy  is  free  from  this  unripe 
fibre  ;  and  here  is  one  of  the  many  cases  which  point 
to  the  usefulness  of  the  microscope  in  the  cotton 
industry.  I  am  glad  to  see  that  the  textile  industries- 
are  now  taking  more  notice  of  the  teachings  of 
science,  and  I  have  not  the  slightest  doubt  that  the 
microscope  will  be  found  increasingly  useful  in  the 

Before  concluding,  it  would  be  well  to  compare 
the  cotton  fibre  with  other  fibres  and  hairs  of  com- 
merce. I  would  here  refer  to  Fig.  35,  p.  38.  Taking 
from  left  to  right,  the  first  we  come  to  is  the  regular 
form  of  the  cotton  hair.  Next  is  Lincoln  wool, 
then  a  common  coarse  wool.  It  will  be  noticed  how 
the  rough  serrated  surface  of  wool  would  act  when 
made  into  yarn.  I  have  previously  mentioned  that 
it  is  owing  to  the  twist  in  the  cotton  fibre  that  we 
can  make  thread  out  of  it.  In  wool  the  rough 
serratures  act  on  each  other,  and  enable  them  to  hold 
together.  If  we  were  to  try  and  make  thread  out  of 
human  hair,  we  should  find  it  difficult,  if  not  im- 
possible, as  human  hair  has  a  smooth  surface  and 
would  not  hold  together.  Remaining  on  the  figure 
are  flax  and  silk,  both  of  which  have  a  smooth  glassy 
surface,  but  are  of  such  length  that  the  large  number 
of  twists  in  the  yarn  is  sufficient  to  overcome  the  dif- 
ficulty, and  so  the  flax  silk  and  thread  holds  together. 

For  information  respecting  the  treatment  of  cotton 
fibre  in  manufacture,  I  would  refer  the  reader  to 
"Cotton-Spinning,"  by  R.  Marsden,  published  by 
Bell  &  Son.  This  volume  contains  full  particulars  of 
the  machines  through  which  cotton  has  to  pass  in  the 
process  of  manufacture. 

Transfer  of  Pictures. — I  have  been  trying  to 
transfer  pictures  to  wood  by  means  of  methylated 
spirit,  but  have  repeatedly  failed.  I  placed  the  paper 
on  a  piece  of  polished  wood,  and  then  soaked  the 
paper  with  the  spirit  by  means  of  wadding.  After 
leaving  the  paper  on  the  board  for  twenty-four  hours, 
I  attempted  to  rub  it  off  by  wetting  it,  and  rubbing  it 
with  my  finger,  and  I  have  never  been  able  to  rub  it 
off  without  tearing  the  picture.  If  any  reader  could 
inform  me  how  to  accomplish  this  task,  either  by  this 
or  some  other  method,  I  should  be  very  thankful. — 
Josrph  Willson. 


HARD  WI CKE  'S  SCIE  NCE  -  G  O  SSI  P. 



IN  Science-Gossip  for  February  1881,  I  gave, 
under  the  heading  of  "  Bird  Studies  in  Chalk,"  a 
resume  of  the  contents  of  vol.  i.  of  the  "  Trans,  of  the 
Peabody  Museum  of  Yale  College,"  in  which  Pro- 
fessor O.  C.  Marsh  of  Newhaven,  Conn.,  detailed 
the  history  of  the  strange  toothed  birds  (Odontor- 
nithes),  discovered  by  him  in  1 872-5  in  the  cre- 
taceous deposits  of  the  eastern  slopes  of  the  Rocky 

Since  the  publication  of  that  volume,  the  inde- 
pendent geological  surveys  and  explorations  of  various 
states  have  been  consolidated  as  the  "  Geological 
Survey  of  the  United  States  Government,"  with 
Major  J.  W.  Powell,  as  director,  and  the  entire 
department  of  vertebrate  palaeontology,  placed  under 
the  control  of  Professor  O.  C.  Marsh,  "  palaeontologist 
in  charge."  This  accounts  for  the  change  of  title 
nnd  mode  of  publication  of  his  second  volume  of 
contributions  to  knowledge  of  the  extinct  American 
vertebrate  fauna,  which  has  recently  appeared  as  vol.  x. 
of  the  "  Memoirs  of  the  United  States  Geological 
Survey."  It  forms  a  complete  and  fully  illustrated 
history  "  of  the  dinocerata,  an  extinct  order  of 
gigantic  mammals,"*  of  which  the  chief  structural 
characters  were  made  known  as  discovered  from  time 
to  time  in  the  "  American  Journal  of  Arts  and 
Sciences,"  from  the  year  1871  and  upwards.  The 
present  monograph  is  a  well-printed  and  richly 
illustrated  quarto  with  fifty-six  finely  executed  litho- 
graphic plates,  and  over  190  original  woodcuts 
separately  illustrating  every  bone  of  the  skeletons  of 
both  sexes,  and  various  ages  of  these  animals,  and 
mainly  drawn  from  the  very  large  number  of  speci- 
mens obtained  by  Professor  Marsh  during  different 
expeditions  of  the  Yale  College  exploring  parties  in 
1870,  1871,  1872,  and  following  years.  His  collection 
at  Newhaven  now  comprises  more  or  less  perfect  parts 
of  the  skeletons,  including  seventy-five  skulls,  more 
than  twenty  nearly  perfect,  of  at  least  200  indi- 
viduals of  a  horned  race  of  large  hoofed  mammals  that 
abounded  by  the  swampy  shores  of  a  tropical  and 
extensive  lake  basin  in  the  middle  Eocene  period. 

Professor  Marsh  describes  this  ancient  lake  basin 
ns  bounded  then  as  now,  west,  by  the  Waksatch, 
south,  by  the  Uintah  Mountains,  and  on  the  north  by 
the  Wind  river  range,  which  furnished  the  sediments 
by  which  it  was  gradually  filled  up.  It  now  lies  at 
an  elevation  of  from  6000  to  Sooo  feet  above  sea 
level  in  western  Wyoming,  and  is  drained  by  the 
Green  River,  main  affluent  of  the  mighty  Colorado, 

*  Dinocerata,  an  extinct  order  of  gigantic  mammals,  by 
Othniel  Charles  Marsh.  Vol.  x.  of  the  United  States  Geolo- 
gical Survey,  Washington,  1884.  The  publication  of  this 
article  has  been  accidentally  delayed,     (rid.  Sc.-Gos.) 

which  has  carried  away  half  of  its  former  thickness  of 
strata.  For  the  Eocene  deposits  in  this  region  are 
stated  on  good  evidence  to  have  once  reached 
vertical  mile  in  thickness.  This  estimate  requires 
such  an  enormous  lapse  of  time,  both  for  deposition 
and  partial  erosion,  as  would  amply  suffice  for  the 
development  and  specialisation  of  the  rich  and  varied 
fauna  the  area,  100  miles  in  extent,  has  already  yielded 
to  the  hardy  scientist  explorers.  Crocodiles,  the 
ancestors  of  the  modern  bony  pike,  and  fresh  water 
dog-fishes,  abounded  in  these  waters,  by  which  the 
ancestral  forms  of  the  present  horse  and  tapir  were 
refreshed,  together  with  a  vast  number  of  flesh- 
eating,  insect-feeding,  and  marsupial  animals.  Here 
dwelt  the  big-framed  Tillodont,  unlike  all  living 
mammals,  with  the  ancestors  of  the  little  lemuroid 
monkey  ;  and  the  huge  horned  dinocerata,  half 
elephant,  part  rhinoceros,  and  part  hippo,  wallowed 
in  the  neighbouring  swamps,  or  contended  for  mastery 
under  the  palms  amid  a  tropical  vegetation,  sheltering 
insects,  serpents  and  lizards. 

The  investigations  of  Professor  Marsh  prove,  that 
the  bulky  horned  animals  he  has  called  dinocerata 
(deinos,  terrible,  keras,  horn),  form  a  well-marked 
order,  allied  both  to  the  odd-toed  and  even-toed 
divisions  of  the  great  group  of  hoofed  mammals 
(ungulata),  uniting  in  their  structure  features  of  the 
elephant  rhinoceros,  and  suggestions  of  the  hippo- 
potamus. "  They  were,"  he  says,  "  the  monarchs  of 
the  region  in  which  they  lived."  The  larger  forms 
measured  twelve  feet  long,  five  feet  across  the  loins, 
stood  over  six  feet  high,  and  weighed  at  least  6000  lbs. 
Their  necks  were  much  longer,  and  far  more  flexible 
than  those  of  the  existing  elephants,  and  they  had 
no  trunk,  but  their  heavy  heads  were  armed  with 
three  pairs  of  horny  protuberances,  which  suggested 
the  family  name  of  the  group.  One  pair  of  horn 
cores  was  near  the  nostrils  (nasal),  another  (maxillary) 
on  the  cheek  bones,  and  the  third  (parietal)  near  the 
top  of  the  head.  These  defensive  weapons  were 
most  developed  in  males,  which  were  also  furnished 
with  large  upper  canine  teeth  so  enormously  deve- 
loped, as  to  form  two  decurved  tusks  often  some  inches 
long,  and  fitting  into  a  protective  depression  in  the 
lower  jaw,  a  special  character  of  this  group  of 
animals.  The  molar  teeth  foreshadow  the  rhinoce- 
rine  type.  The  dinocerata  limb-bones  were  large  and 
solid,  and  the  foot  flat-footed  with  five  toes  in  each 
foot,  the  hinder  pair  being  the  smaller.  The  mode 
of  union  of  the  composing  bones  intermediate  between 
that  of  the  odd-toed  and  even-toed  hoofed  mammals, 
bridges  over — as  Huxley  long  ago  predicted  the 
earlier  fossil  forms  would — the  gulf  between  those 
two  divisions  of  the  ungulata. 

(To  be  continued.) 

M.    TuLASNE,   the   distinguished  French  botanist 
and  fun  ologist,  is  dead. 



By  John  Browning,  F.R.A.S. 

VENUS  will  be  an  evening  star  during  the  first 
half  of  the  month,  and  a  morning  star  near  the 
end  of  the  month,  setting  about  7.29  P.M.  on  the  1st, 
7. 1 1  p.m.  on  the  5th,  and  6.29  p.m.  on  the  12th,  and 
5.41  P.M.  on  the  19th  of  the  month.  The  fact  that 
this  planet  sets  so  early  should  not  discourage  ob- 
servations being  made  of  it,  as  it  is  best  seen  with 
a  telescope  in  twilight. 

Mercury  will  be  too  near  to  the  sun  for  observation 
this  month. 

Saturn  will  be  almost  stationary  in  Gemini,  setting 
on  the  5th  about  5.19  a.m.,  on  the  12th  about  4.52 
A.M.,  on  the  19th  4.23,  and  on  the  26th  at  3.55  a.m. 
On  the  2nd  of  February  Mercury,  and  on  the  5th 
Venus  will  be  in  conjunction  with  the  moon. 

On  the  1 2th  of  February  there  will  be  an  occulta- 
tion  of  y  {gamma)  Centauri,  a  star  of  the  fourth 

I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  W.  G.  Lettsom  for  the 
following  very  interesting  notices  from  the  "  Astro- 
nomische  Nachrichten." 

On  the  1 6th  of  November  the  brothers  Paul  and 
Prosper  Henry,  of  the  Paris  Observatory,  discovered 
a  new  nebula  in  the  Pleiades  by  means  of  photography. 
It  appears  to  start  from  Maia,  taking  at  first  a 
westerly  direction,  and  then  turning  abruptly  towards 
the  north.  On  three  occasions,  namely  on  the  16th 
of  November  and  on  the  8th  and  9th  of  December, 
photographs  of  it  were  taken  ;  but  as  yet  it  has  not 
been  visible  to  the  eye  in  any  of  the  instruments  at 
the  Observatory.     This  nebula  is  about  3'  in  extent. 

Position  of  new  star  now  known  as  Nova  in 
Orion,  R.A.  5  hr.  48  min.  59  sec,  Declin.  N. 
200  9'  13";  it  is  therefore  near  x  (^')>  known  also 
as  54,  a  star  visible  to  the  naked  eye.  Its  colour  is 
said  by  one  observer  to  be  a  beautiful  orange  yellow, 
by  another  decidedly  yellow.  On  the  iSth  of  De- 
cember it  was  estimated  of  the  6 "5  magnitude. 

Discovery  of  a  new  comet  by  Brooks  on  the  26th 
and  27th  of  December.  First  telegram,  12  hr.  56  min. 
G.M.T.,  R.A.  19  hr.  52  min.,  Dec.  N.  40  8'.  Second 
elegram,  28th  of  December,  11  hr.  44  min.  g.m.t., 
R.A.  19  hr.  59  min.  2  sec,  Dec.  N.  40  31'.  The 
physical  appearance  is :  Circular,  3'  in  diameter, 
ninth  magnitude,  strong  eccentric  condensation,  no 

Speaking  at  the  Royal  Astronomical  Society  of 
the  meteor  shower  of  the  27th  of  November,  Mr. 
Common  said  :  "  I  was  observing  the  meteors  with  a 
field-glass  for  some  time,  and  some  of  the  brighter 
ones  that  left  streaks  behind,  visible  to  the  eye  for 
two  or  three  seconds,  were  visible  in  the  field-glass 
for  nearly  a  minute.  They  had  a  peculiar  appear- 
ance, such  as  you  see  in  De  la  Rue's  vacuum 
discharges,  like  a  row  of  coins  slightly  separated. 
Another  thing  that  very   much   surprised   me   was, 

when  the  sky  cleared  between  six  and  seven,  and 
when  there  were  not  many  meteors  visible  to  the 
naked  eye,  there  were  a  good  many  visible  with  the 
field-glass.  When  observing  this  display  between 
5.20  and  5.25,  no  first  magnitude  stars  were  visible 
through  the  haze,  and  yet  behind  this  haze  I  saw 
several  bright  meteors  flash.  From  a  quarter  to  six 
to  seven  o'clock,  when  the  sky  was  less  clouded,  I 
counted  them  at  the  rate  of  twenty  to  thirty  a  minute, 
looking  at  one  part  of  the  heavens  alone.  The  most 
noticeable  feature  was  the  number  of  small  meteors 
that  were  seen,  and  with  the  aid  of  the  telescope  the 
great  length  of  time  that  the  trains  of  the  large 
meteors  lasted.  I  noted  one  about  6.45,  that  ex- 
ploded over  Cassiopeia,  which  was  far  beyond  a  first 
magnitude  star,  and  more  like  Venus  at  her  brightest." 

Mr.  Nathaniel  Green  states,  that  on  the  15th  of 
December  he  observed  Saturn  with  a  reflecting  tele- 
scope, and  power  560,  and  he  found,  "  the  markings 
of  the  outer  ring  were  most  clearly  defined  ;  there  is 
no  dark  line  indicative  of  division,  but  a  band  of 
shading  rather  nearer  to  the  outer  than  its  inner 
edge.  .  .  .  The  small  light  belt  following  the  broad 
dark  one  next  the  equator,  which  was  so  wide  in 
1883,  and  less  distinct  in  1884,  is  now  barely  visible." 

In  the  drawing  of  Saturn  made  by  the  writer  in 
1868,  two  of  these  small  light  belts  are  clearly  visible 
on  the  globe  of  the  planet  in  this  position. 

The  mean  temperature  of  the  week  ending  the 
1 2th  of  December  was  ten  degrees  below  the  average 
for  twenty  years.  In  the  week  ending  the  19th  of 
December  the  temperature  was  i"6  above  the  average. 
In  the  week  ending  the  26th  of  December  the  mean 
temperature  was  o'l  below  the  average.  In  the 
week  ending  the  2nd  of  January  the  mean  temperature 
was  two  degrees  above  the  average'.  The  mean  tem- 
perature of  January  for  Lincoln  is  380,  for  London  39°, 
and  for  Brighton  400  ;  it  is,  therefore,  the  coldest 
month  of  the  year.  The  mean  temperature  of  Feb- 
ruary for  Hull  is  400,  for  London  410,  and  for 
Southampton  420  ;  the  average  temperature  of  the 
month  is,  therefore,  two  degrees  warmer  than  January. 

The  rainfall  during  these  four  weeks  was  but  very 
little  over  |  of  an  inch,  yet  it  should  be  borne  in 
mind  that  this  is  equal  to  about  77  tons  to  the  acre. 
The  average  rainfall  for  January  is  in  London  full 
two  inches,  and  between  London  and  the  south  coast 
it  is  three  inches,  which  is  about  340  tons  to  the  acre 

The  winter  of  1 884-1 885  was  a  long,  cold,  dry 
winter,  and  the  summer  of  1885  was  a  cold  dry 
summer.  I  do  not  think  it  has  been  remarked  how 
much  the  weather  during  these  twelve  months  was 
influenced  by  the  fact,  that  we  had  an  unusual  number 
of  overcast  days,  followed  by  clear  nights. 

The  clouds  by  day  of  course  shut  out  the  heat  of 
the  sun,  while  the  absence  of  clouds  at  night  allows 
the  heat  of  the  earth  to  radiate  into  space,  and  thus 
the  conditions  of  temperature  are  unfavourably  affected 
in  both  ways. 




[It  is  our  desire  to  bring  out  a  Scientific  Directory  in  the 
monthly  pages  of  Science-Gossip,  feeling  certain  that  it  would 
be  very  useful  for  our  readers  to  know  what  scientific  societies 
had  been  formed  in  their  own  neighbourhoods.  We  shall  there- 
fore feel  very  much  obliged  if  Secretaries  of  any  kind  of 
Scientific  Society,  in  any  town  or  part  of  the  country,  will  send 
us  the  full  name  and  title  of  each  Society,  together  with  the 
names  of  the  President  and  Hon.  Secretary.] 

~T)EDFORD  PARK  Natural  History  and  Gar- 
J  J  dating  Society  :  President,  Rev.  J.  W.  Horsley, 
M.A.;  Vice-President,  Mr.  R.  B.  Sharpe,  F.L.S., 
F.Z.S. ;  Secretary,  Mr,  R.  J.  G.  Read. 

Bristol  Microscopical  Society  (founded  1843)  • 
President,  C.  T.  Hudson,  LL.D.,  F.R.M.S.,  etc. ; 
Hon.  Secretary,  E.  B.  L.  Brayley,  Clifton. 

Chichester  and  JFest  Sussex  Natural  History  and 
Microscopical  Society :  President,  Rev.  F.  H.  Arnold, 
LL.B.,  etc.  ;  Hon.  Secretaries,  Joseph  Anderson,  jun., 
Aire  Villa,  Chichester,  Alfred  Lloyd,  F.E.S.,  F.C.S. 

Colchester  Students'1  Association  (founded  1881)  : 
President,  James  Round,  Esq.,  M.P.  ;  Hon.  Secre- 
tary, Mr.  T.  Forster. 

Croydon  Microscopical  and  Natural  History  Club 
(established  1S70)  :  President,  H.  T.  Merrell,  F.L.S. ; 
Hon.  Secretary,  W.  L.  Sarjeant. 

Dover  Field  Club  and  Natural  History  Society: 
President,  S.  Webb ;  Hon.  Secretary,  Rev.  D. 

Louth  Naturalists'  Society:  Patron,  Rev.  W.  W. 
Fowler,  M.A.,  F.L.S. ,  Lincoln  ;  President,  Edwin 
Hall ;  Vice-President.  A.  R.  Yeoman,  M.A. ;  Hon. 
Secretary  and  Treasurer,  H.  Wallis,  Kew. 

Manchester  Microscopical  Society :  President,  Dr. 
Tatham  ;  Hon.  Secretary,  George  YVilks,  27,  Wyn- 
ford  Street,  Weaste. 

Norwich  Science-Gossip  Club  (instituted  1870)  : 
President,  Mr.  A.  W.  Preston,  F.R.Met.  Soc. ; 
Secretary,  Mr.  F.  H.  Ellingham. 

Penzance  Natural  History  and  Antiquarian  Society 
(founded  1839):  President,  Win.  Bolitho ;  Hon. 
Secretaries,  G.  B.  Millet  and  E.  D.  Marquand. 

Sheffield  Microscopical  Society :  President,  W. 
Jenkinson,  Esq.  ;  Secretary,  Alfred  Diaper,  275, 
Abbeydale  Road. 

Society  of  Amateur  Geologists,  No.  31,  King 
William  Street,  London,  E.C.  :  President,  Professor 
G.  S.  Boulger,  F.L.S.;  Hon.  Secretary,  Mr.  G.  F. 
Harris,  F.G.S. 

Sydenham  and  Forest  Hill  Microscopical  and 
Natural  History  Club:  President,  Mr.  E.  L.  C. 
1'.  Hardy;  Hon.  Secretary,  Mr.  A.  C.  Perrins, 
12,  Sunderland  Villas,  Forest  Hill,  S.E. 


In  the  United  States,  picture-frames  are  now  made 
of  paper.  Paper-pulp,  glue,  linseed  oil,  and  carbonate 
of  lime,  or  whiting,  are  mixed  together,  and  heated 
into  a  thick  cream,  which,  on  being  allowed  to  cool, 
is  run  into  moulds  and  hardened.  The  frames  are 
then  gilded  or  bronzed  in  the  usual  way. 

Dr.  Thomas  Andrews,  F.R.S.,  the  distinguished 
chemist,  has  died  at  Belfast,  aged  seventy-two. 
Another  well-known  chemist,  Mr.  Alfred  Tribe,  has- 
died  at  the  comparatively  early  age  of  forty-six. 

Science  will  be  a  gainer  by  the  return  of  Sir 
Henry  Roscoe,  Professor  of  Chemistry,  Queen'- 
University,  as  one  of  the  Members  of  Parliament  for 

Dr.  Henry  Woodward,  F.R.S.,  editor  of  "The 
Geological  Magazine,"  has  been  presented  with  a 
silver  tea  and  coffee-service,  and  a  cheque  for  ^253, 
as  a  testimonial  by  the  readers  and  contributors  of 
the  above  magazine,  in  celebration  of  his  having 
edited  it  for  twenty-one  years.  Professor  Bonney 
made  the  presentation  in  the  rooms  of  the  Geological 
Society,  Burlington  House. 

The  electric  light,  supplied  by  a  portable  battery, 
has  been  applied  for  lantern  illumination.  This  will 
be  good  news  to  lecturers,  who  have  been  tortured  by 
the  oxy-hydrogen  light. 

Seasonal  dimorphism  is  stated  by  Dr.  F.  Dahl  to 
occur  in  spiders.  This  author  has  already  pointed 
out  that  Micrommeta  virescens  and  M.  ornatd  were 
simply  two  broods  of  the  same  species.  He  now 
states  that  Met  a  segmentafa  and  M.  menger  are 
respectively  spring  and   summer  broods  of  the  same 

species  of  spider. 


We  are  pleased  to  find  that  Mr.  D.  Morris,  M.A., 
F.G.S. ,  Director  of  the  Public  Gardens,  Jamaica, 
has  been  appointed  Assistant-Director  of  the  Royal 
Gardens,  Kew. 

Dr.  J.  W.  Williams  has  been  deputed  by  the 
Council  of  the  Practical  Naturalists'  Society  to  make 
a  survey  of  the  migration  of  British  birds,  and  to 
draw  up  a  list  of  species  migrating,  including  such  as 
have  recently  become  rare  or  extinct.  He  will  be 
glad  if  any  of  our  readers  will  help  him  in  the  matter 
by  sending  him  records  of  arrivals,  departures,  &c, 
and  also  the  meteorological  conditions  prevailing. 
His  address  is  27,  Corinne  Road,  Tufnell  Park, 
London,  N. 

It  has  been  discovered  that  New  Caledonia 
contains  coal,  for  Carboniferous  strata  have  lately 
been  found  near  Noumea,  and  also  on  the  western 
side  of  the  island. 



Mr.  J.  W.  Slater  has  demonstrated  that  cater- 
pillars are  affected  by  magnetic  currents,  which 
hinder  their  development,  and  even  kill  them.  His 
experiments  were  conducted  on  the  larYae  of  the 
Cabbage  White.  The  non-magnetised  larvae  from 
the  same  brood  were  all  right. 

We  have  received  No.  70  of  the  useful  "  Natural 
History  and  Scientific  Book-Circular"  of  Messrs. 
William  Wesley  &  Son,  of  28,  Essex  Street,  Strand. 

We  observe  that  the  Herbarium  of  the  late  Mr. 
J.  F.  Robinson,  the  well-known  Cheshire  botanist, 
is  offered  for  sale.  This  is  an  opportunity  to  get  an 
admirably  preserved  collection  of  plants  not  often 

Mr.  T.  Meehan,  the  well-known  American 
botanist,  holds  that  the  spines  of  cactuses,  which 
are  simply  modified  leaves,  and  have  hitherto  been 
regarded  as  protective  against  browsing  animals,  have 
another  defensive  function — that  of  breaking  the 
force  of  the  sun  on  the  plant,  and  of  practically 
lowering  the  temperature. 

Dr.  Hansgirg  has  shown  that  many  genera  of 
Algae  are  polymorphic,  and  that  many  so-called 
special  forms  may  develop  one  out  of  another. 

We  have  to  welcome  another  monthly  candidate 
•for  public  recognition — "  The  Scientific  Inquirer," 
edited  by  Mr.  Alfred  Allen.  It  is  intended  to  be  a 
medium  through  which  the  reader  may  ask  for  and 
obtain  information  on  every  scientific  subject. 

Mr.  Robert  Paulson  encloses  us  a  specimen  of 
milk-wort  {Potygala  vulgaris)  gathered  in  flower  at 
Orr,  near  Hastings,  on  the  5th  of  January. 

Messrs.  Swan  Sonnenschein  &  Co.  announce 
for  early  publication  a  "  Pocket  Handbook  to  the 
Flora  of  the  Alps,"  specially  adapted  for  botanical 
tourists,  and  edited  by  Mr.  A.  W.  Bennett. 

Mr.  J.  J.  Harris  Teall,  F.G.S.,  is  about  to 
ssue  a  work  (in  parts)  on  "  British  Petrography," 
with  coloured  plates  by  Messrs.  Watson  Bros. 

Mr.  G.  A.  Musgrave,  F.R.G.S.,  has  formed  a 

Bird    Preservation   League,   the   members  of  which 

pledge     themselves    neither    to    purchase  birds    of 
beautiful  plumage,  nor  to  shoot  rare  birds. 

In  the  "Transactions  of  the  Entomological  So- 
ciety "  for  December  there  appears  a  lengthy  and  well 
written  account,  by  Mr.  Frederick  Enock,  of  "  The 
Life-history  of  Atypus  piccus."  Mr.  Enock  discovered 
this  rare  and  beautiful  spider  on  Hampstead  Heath. 

Mr.  F.  N.  Williams,  F.R.S.,  has  published  in 
•the  "Journal  of  Botany"  an  enumeration  of  the 
genera  and  species  of  the  genus  Dianthus. 

A  monograph  on  the  Recent  Brachiopoda,  by 
the   late   Thomas   Davidson,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  edited 

by  Agnes  Crane,  will  be  issued  in  three  parts,  with 
thirty  quarto  plates,  during  18S6,  and  will  form  a  sepa- 
rate volume  of  the  "Transactions  of  the  Linnoean 
Society  of  London." 

M.  Charles  Joly  has  re-published  his  "  Notes  on 
the  Giant  Eucalyptuses  of  Australia  "  (illustrated). 

A  LENGTHY  and  elaborate  paper  on  "  British 
Lizards  "  has  been  read  before  the  Warrington  Field 
Club,  and  re-published,  by  Mr.  Linnreus  Greening. 

"The  Moon  and  the  Weather"  is  the  title  of  a 
pamphlet  written  by  Mr.  Walter  L.  Browne.  In  it 
the  author  re-considers  the  probability  of  lunar 
influences,  and  forecasts  the  storms  for  the  current 

Professor  Main,  well  known  as  the  author  o: 
various  books  on  the  marine  steam-engine,  died  on 
the  28th  of  December  last. 

One  hundred  and  fifty  tree-ferns  (represented  by 
four  species)  have  been  forwarded  from  the  Melbourne 
Botanic  Gardens  by  Mr.  W.  R.  Guilfoyle,  F.L.S.,  to 
form  a  "Fern-Gully"  at  the  forthcoming  Colonial 
and  Indian  Exhibition. 

We  are  profoundly  distressed  to  notice  the  death 
of  an  old  friend,  the  eminent  geologist,  Professor 
Morris,  for  twenty-two  years  Professor  of  Geology  at 
University  College.  He  was  a  born  teacher,  full  of 
love  for  his  work,  and  possessed  with  the  power  of 
inoculating  others  with  the  same  feeling.  His  death 
will  be  mourned  by  geologists  all  over  the  world. 


Instantaneous  Microphotography. — Mr.  D. 
S.  Holman  has  recently  made  some  very  important 
experiments  in  microphotography.  Having  suc- 
ceeded in  taking  microphotographs  of  rapid  vibra- 
tions, he  determined  to  attempt  to  photograph  the 
Amaba  protcus,  and  other  low  forms  of  life,  while 
in  motion.  His  method  was  as  follows  :  Having 
enclosed  the  material  in  one  of  the  Holman  Life 
Slides,  and  allowed  it  to  remain  until  the  Amoeboe 
had  become  accustomed  to  their  new  home  and 
active,  he  cast  an  image  of  an  Amoeba  on  the  ground 
glass  of  a  camera,  by  means  of  a  Holman  Lantern 
Microscope,  which  is  illuminated  with  the  oxy- 
hydrogen  light.  A  Zeutmayer  one-fifth  objective 
was  used.  A  dry  plate  picture  was  then  taken  with 
about  one-hundredth  of  a  second  exposure.  Two 
exposures  were  made  of  one  Amoeba  at  intervals  of 
three  minutes,  and  one  exposure  of  two  Amoeba;  in 
the  field  at  one  time.  The  photographs  were  a  com- 
plete success,  and  were  shown  at  a  recent  meeting 
of  the    Franklin    Institute   magnified    ten    thousand 



diameters,  making  a  picture  of  about  eight  feet  on 
the  screen,  so  accurate  that  the  granular  appearance 
of  the  protoplasm  could  be  distinctly  seen. 

Enock's  Entomological  Slides. — Mr.  Frede- 
rick Enock  is  working  out  a  novel  and  interesting 
scheme.  He  is  issuing  a  series  of  slides,  showing  the 
mouth-organs  of  British  Ilymenoptera,  especially 
bees.  These  are  accompanied  by  explanatory  draw- 
ings, so  that  a  person  can  see  at  a  glance  the  name 
of  each  part.  The  specimens  are  mounted  naturally, 
so  that  there  is  no  distortion,  and  they  are  seen  in 
their  natural  colours.  The  heads  are  specially  pre- 
pared for  the  paraboloid — the  most  suitable  objectives 
for  showing  them  being  the  two-inch,  inch  and  a- 
half,  and  one-inch.  The  drawings  are  very  neatly 
and  artistically  done,  and  the  slides  are  superbly 

Cole's  Microscopical  Studies.— The  parts  of 
the  "  Studies  in  Microscopical  Science  "  for  Decem- 
ber are  as  follows  : — Section  I.  "  Structure  of  the 
Sexual  Organs  of  Reproduction  in  Angiosperms  ;  " 
2.  "On  the  Disposition  of  the  Organs  in  the  In- 
vertebrata  "  (illustrated  by  a  transverse  section  of  the 
common  earthworm) ;  3.  "Pathological  Histology" 
(illustrated  by  section  of  the  lung,  showing  Carci- 
noma) ;  4  has  a  beautiful  plate  of  the  Trichina 
spiralis,  showing  longitudinal  and  transverse  sections 
X  250. 

have  become  normal.     The  following  was  the  dental 

formula  at  the  time  of  the  animal's  death  : — 


2,  2 

3»  2 

2,  2  , 
2,  2' 


Abnormal  dentition  in  Slender  Monkey. — 
In  the  early  part  of  the  present  year  we  received  at 
the  Bristol  Museum,  from  the  Clifton  Zoological 
Gardens,  the  body  of  a  young  female  monkey  belong- 
ing to  the  common  Indian  species  Scmnopithecus 
cutellits,  ¥.  Cuvier,  the  skull  of  which,  now  prepared 
and  placed  in  the  .Museum,  is  remarkable  from 
possessing  a  single  supernumerary  incisor.  In  the 
lower  jaw  there  are  two  incisor  teeth  on  the  right 
side  and  three  on  the  left.  The  presence  of  this 
extra  incisor  had  caused  the  first  or  median  left 
incisor  to  occupy  a  central  position  in  the  front  of 
the  mandible.  Seeing  that  all  these  incisors  are 
equally  grown  and  well -formed,  it  seems  impossible 
to  decide  which  of  the  three  on  the  left  side  is  the 
redundant  one.  When  the  animal  died  the  dentition 
was  in  a  transitional  state,  consisting  partly  of  milk 
and  partly  of  permanent  teeth.  The  alveoli  of  the  two 
pairs  of  permanent  incisors,  as  well  as  of  the  third 
pair  of  molars  in  both  upper  and  lower  jaws,  with 
their  contained  teeth,  are  distinctly  visible.  Hence 
it  is  obvious  that  the  extra  incisor  cannot  be  accounted 
for  by  the  supposition  of  a  mixture  of  permanent  and 
persistent  milk  teeth.  It  also  appears  that  if  this 
monkey   had    lived    to   full    age   its   dentition   would 

of  which  the  incisors  are  deciduous  and  the  remainder 
permanent  teeth.  It  is  well  known  that  supernumerary 
teeth  are  occasionally  developed  in  monkeys,  as  well 
as  in  man  and  other  mammals.  In  a  general  way, 
however,  when  abnormal  variations  of  this  kind 
arise,  they  are  symmetrically  arranged.  Asymme- 
trical variations  are  very  much  rarer  ;  and  although 
cases  similar  to  the  above  have  no  doubt  been  noticed, 
I  cannot  at  the  moment  find  any  record  of  a  pre- 
cisely analogous  one. — E.  Wilson,  F.G.S.,  Bristol 

Sense-Organs  of  the  Brachiopoda. — Pro- 
fessor Sollas  has  shown  that  the  csecal  processes 
occupying  the  canals  in  the  brachiopod  shells  are 
extensions  of  the  outer  epithelium  of  the  mantle. 
At  the  outer  end,  which  lies  immediately  beneath 
the  chitinous  periostraction,  each  terminates  in  a 
large  cell,  invested  by  smaller  cells.  The  large  cell 
is  continued  into  a  nerve-fibril,  which  runs  axially 
down  the  csecal  process,  and  enters  the  nervous 
layer  of  the  mantle.  This  is  the  structure  of  a 
sensory  end-organ,  which  seems  to  transfer  luminous 

Noctiluca,  etc. — I  have  just  been  up  the  Persian 
Gulf,  laying  a  cable  ;  and  while  we  were  proceeding 
from  Jask  up  the  Gulf,  in  lat.  260  25'  N.,  and  long. 
560  11'  E.,  we  encountered  immense  numbers  of  the 
minute  phosphorescent  Noctiluca  miliaris,  the  centre 
reddish  speck  of  which  caused  the  water  to  appear  in 
places  as  if  covered  with  clotted  blood.  It  was  of  the 
most  intensely  red  colour,  appearing  in  streaks  and 
blotches  all  round.  I  caught  quantities  of  it  for 
examination.  The  water  in  places,  when  fished  up 
in  a  bucket,  seemed  one  mass  of  them,  though  in  a 
small  quantity  they  lost  a  good  deal  of  their  intense 
colour.  Mixed  up  with  them  were  a  few  pieces 
of  the  Trichodesmium  Ehrcnbcrgii,  but  very  little. 
There  were  also  quantities  of  sea-snakes  and  Medu- 
sae. The  sea  was  quite  calm,  and  at^night  the  steamer 
stirred  up  the  most  brilliant  green  waves  I  ever 
saw. — D.  Wilson-Barker,  F.R.  Met.  Soc,  Commander 
o/T.S.S.  "  Daciar 

The  Colouring  of  Land-Shells. — After  some 
conversation  with  a  friend  of  mine  on  the  absence 
and  variety  of  colour  in  some  of  our  land  and  fresh- 
water shells,  I  was  led  to  try  the  following  experi- 
ment. I  took  two  specimens  of  Helix  aspersa  and 
five  of  //.  ncmoralis.  The  two  former  I  placed  in 
a  glass  jar  bedded  with  grass,  which  from  time  to 
time  was  removed  ;  four  of  the  //.  ncmoralis  I  placed 
in  a  similar  jar ;  number  five  I  accidentally  left  in  a 
cardboard  box.  After  three  weeks  I  noticed  that  the 
If.  aspersa   were    losing   all   colouring    matter    from 



their  shells  and  turning  to  a  dirty  grey.  Four  weeks 
elapsed  before  any  change  occurred  in  the  //. 
nemoralis,  which  now  became  quite  white  around 
the  apex.  The  unfortunate  individual  in  the  card- 
board box  I  released  after  a  month's  imprisonment, 
and  found  that  quite  half  of  the  lid  and  bottom  of 
the  box  had  been  consumed,  and  that  a  broad  grey 
band  had  formed  around  the  lid.  The  H.  aspersa 
next  became .  covered  with  small  porous-like  warts, 
until  they  resembled  pieces  of  pumice-stone.  Upon 
being  placed  in  the  garden,  the  H.  nemoralis  soon 
returned  to  their  former  colour,  but  the  II.  aspersa 
kept  in  this  condition  for  about  two  months,  when  I 
lost  them. —  W.  E.  Collinge. 

Rhopalocera  in  1SS5. — One  thing  noteworthy 
last  summer  was  the  great  abundance  of  several 
species  of  butterflies.  Blues,  for  example,  were  very 
abundant ;  I  think  I  hardly  ever  remember  seeing  the 
common  blue  {Lyarna  Icarus)  in  such  profusion. 
Canonympha  Pamphiltts,  Pyarga  Megcera,  Satyrus 
Tithonus,  Pyrameis  Atalanta,  and  Vanessa  lo,  were 
also  plentiful  about  the  neighbourhood  of  Cambridge — 
the  last-named  species  markedly  so.  Some  butterflies 
too,  which,  like  Colias  edusa,  are  ordinarily  scarce, 
put  in  an  appearance  last  summer. — Albert  II. 
Waters,  B.A.  F.S.Sc.,  etc.,  Cambridge. 

Mimicry  in  Bees. — Those  who  read  G.  H. 
Bryan's  paper  (Science-Gossip,  vol.  xxi.,  pp.  241- 
243),  "On  Mimicry  in  Diptera,"  maybe  interested 
to  know  that  there  is  an  equally  good  article  on 
another  branch  on  the  same  subject,  "  Bees  and 
their  Counterfeits,  or,  Bees,  Cuckoo  Bees,  and  Fly 
Bees,"  by  H.  Noel  Humphrys,  beautifully  illustrated 
with  coloured  figures  and  woodcuts,  in  the  "  In- 
tellectual Observer,"  vol.  i.,  pp.  165-173,  for  1862. 
It  is  very  pleasant  reading,  and  well  worth  the 
perusal  of  all  who,  like  myself,  take  a  pleasure  in 
keeping,  studying,  and  profiting  by  the  honey-bee. — 
IT.  W.  Lett,  M.A. 


The  Origin  of  Cryptogamic  Plants. — An 
interesting  paper  on  "  Plant  Life  "  was  lately  read  by 
Mr.  Morris  Miles,  hon.  sec.  of  the  Southampton 
Literary  and  Philosophical  Society.  The  author 
advocated  the  exhaustive  study  of  the  lowest  forms 
of  vegetable  life  as  offering  a  simple  epitome  of  the 
physiological  processes  of  more  complex  forms.  He 
also  sketched  with  much  ability  the  geological  story 
of  the  cryptogams,  and  expressed  his  opinion  that 
the  whole  of  the  cryptogamic  tribes,  being  fertilised 
by  free-swimming  motile  cells,  were  originally  of 
aquatic  origin,  and  that  they  still  pursue  the  modes 
of  reproduction  common  to  their  ancestors. 

DlANTHUS  Armeria.— This  pretty  plant  has  such 
conspicuous  bright  red  flowers  that  wherever  it  occurs 
it  cannot  fail  to  be  noticed.  For  at  least  ten  years  I 
have  observed  it  in  abundance  at  Racton,  Sussex. 
It  was  to  be  seen  in  the  cornfields,  by  the  road-sides, 
and  by  paths  in  the  woods  in  great  quantity  ;  but 
during  the  last  two  seasons  it  seems  to  have  almost  or 
entirely  disappeared — a  circumstance  I  cannot  in  any 
way  account  for.  Its  recurrence,  if  such  should  be 
the  case,  I  hope  to  look  for.  Has  any  similar  dis- 
appearance been  noted  ? — F.  II.  Arnold. 

The  Transpiration  of  Plants. — The  Rev. 
G.  Henslow,  F.L.S.,  has  been  experimenting  on 
the  relative  effects  of  different  parts  of  the  solar 
spectrum  on  transpiration.  His  experiments  prove 
that  Wiesn'er's  results  are  correct ;  also,  while  recog- 
nising the  fact  that  obscure  heat-rays  cause  a  certain 
amount  of  loss  of  water  by  evaporation,  that  trans- 
piration, per  se  (theoretically  distinct  from  the  purely 
physical  process  of  evaporation,  which  takes  place 
from  all  moist  surfaces  and  bodies,  dead  or  alive),  is 
especially  referable  to  those  particular  bands  of  light, 
which  are  absorbed  by  chlorophyll ;  and  that  such 
light,  being  arrested,  is  converted  into  heat,  which 
then  raises  the  temperature  within  the  tissues  and 
causes  the  loss  of  water.  The  only  additional  fact 
here  advanced,  somewhat  tentatively,  is  that  yellow 
light  has  a  retarding  influence  upon  transpiration — 
that  "life"  has  a  retarding  influence  upon  evapora- 
tion as  distinct  from  transpiration. 

Proliferous  Cardamine. — Adverting  to  Mr. 
Taylor's  note  (p.  20)  on  Cardamine  pratensis  bearing 
small  plants  on  the  under  side  of  the  leaves,  the 
cultivated  double  form  of  this  species  is  commonly 
found  with  the  leaves  viviparous,  and  with  the 
blooms  also  proliferous,  like  a  hen  and  chicken 
daisy.  The  interest  of  Mr.  Taylor's  communication  is 
that  he  has  found  the  wild,  and,  I  presume,  single- 
flowered  form  of  the  species,  with  viviparous  leaves. 
The  fact  has  been  observed  previously,  vide  Dr. 
Masters's  "Vegetable  Teratology,"  p.  170,  published 
by  the  Ray  Society,  1869.-7.  7-  Weir. 

Floral  Varieties. — Plants  of  the  cuckoo-flower 
{Cardamine pratensis),  bearing  gemmae,  or  small  buds, 
on  the  leaves,  are  very  common  in  the  damp  meadows 
of  this  district — from  an  agricultural  point  of  view, 
far  too  common,  as  the  plants  spread  and  form  large 
patches,  which  do  not  improve  the  pasture.  Albino 
varieties  of  Geranium  Robertianiim  are  not  uncom- 
mon ;  but  I  have  not  noticed  the  petals  such  a  pure 
white  colour  as  Mr.  Taylor's  specimens  :  they  have 
usually  been  a  little  cloudy. — J.  IF.  O.,  Pinner. 

Plants  from  the  Isle  of  Wight.  —  The 
following  three  plants  have  been  forwarded  to  me 
from  Ventnor  during  the  past  year  or  so.  I  do  not 
know  if  they  have  been  previously  recorded  in  the 


HA  RDU'ICKE'S  S  CIE  NCE  -  G  O  SSI  P. 

Island,  i.  Qrnithogalum  umbellatum,  from  the 
hedgerow  of  a  country  lane,  far  away  from  any 
habitation.  The  specimen  had  all  the  characteristics 
of  the  French  or  Italian  plant.  2.  Epipactis 
ensifolia,  sent  to  me  from  the  woods  of  the  Under- 
cliff.  Although  not  so  uncommon  in  Hampshire,  I 
have  not  before  seen  the  species  from  the  Isle  of 
Wight.  3.  Polemonium  cceruleum,  from  the  very 
heart  of  the  island,  growing  by  a  running  stream, 
but  possibly  escaped  from  cultivated  ground.  My 
correspondent,  who  forwarded  the  specimens,  is  the 
most  indefatigable  and  accurate  observer.  —  C. 
Parkinson,  F.G  S. 

Vegetable  Symbiosis.- — Mr.  A.  W.  Bennett,  in 
"  Nature,"  has  called  attention  to  cases  of  symbiosis 
between  fungi  and  the  roots  of  flowering  plants.  It 
is  only  three  years  since  the  doctrine  of  symbiosis 
was  propounded,  and  then  it  was  concerning  the 
animal  kingdom,  or,  at  any  rate,  the  animal  and 
vegetable  kingdoms  together.  It  seemed  a  novel  idea 
that  certain  animals  actually  had  lowly  organised 
forms  of  vegetation  living  within  their  tissues,  so 
that  reciprocal  benefits  ensued.  Also  that  lowly 
organised  animals  associated  with  more  highly  or- 
ganised ones,  for  mutual  benefits.  Such  co-operation 
was  fitly  termed  symbiosis — "living  together."  Mr. 
Bennett  considers  the  fact  to  be  now  sufficiently 
established,  that  a  considerable  number  of  our  forest 
trees  do  not  draw  their  nourishment  directly  from 
the  soil,  but  through  the  medium  of  an  investing 
layer  of  fungus-mycelium.  Dr.  Frank  has  proved 
this  by  discovering  that  the  roots  of  oaks,  besides 
chestnuts,  hazels,  &c,  are  covered  with  a  fungous 
growth,  now  called  Mychoriza.  Through  it  alone 
such  trees  get  their  nourishment  from  the  soil.  Dr. 
Frank  thinks,  that  the  well-known  partiality  of  the 
natural  order  Cupuliferse  for  soils  rich  in  humus 
is  now  explained.  The  fungous  growth  first  makes 
its  appearance  at  the  lateral  roots  of  young  seedlings, 
and  is  constantly  replaced  by  fresh  formation  on 
older  roots. 

GEOLOGY,  &c. 

The  Fossils  recently  discovered  at  Com- 
mentry.— Mr.  Charles  Brongniart  writes  me,  under 
date  of  the  20th  of  December  :  "  Commentry  is  a 
town  in  the  department  of  Allier,  situated  between 
Clermont  and  Montlucon  ;  or,  since  our  English 
maps  perhaps  are  more  commonly  divided  into  pro- 
vinces, in  the  Bourbonnais,  and  near  the  last-named 
town.  They  have  there  upper  and  lower  coal- 
measures  ;  the  fossils  are  from  the  primary  rocks. 
The  mines  of  Commentry  are  rich  in  plants,  insects, 
and  fish.  We  are  engaged  in  the  preparation  of  an 
important  monograph  on  the  discoveries  at  Com- 
mentry ;  the  insects  alone  will  occupy  twenty  plates, 

as  is  probable  in  folio.  As  for  the  fish,  Mr.  Sauvage 
will  undertake  the  ganoids ;  and  Messrs.  Renault 
and  Zeiller  will  be  occupied  with  the  vegetation. 
Mr.  Stanislas  will  undertake  the  description  of 
the  rocks,  and  Mr.  Fayol  writes  the  introduction, 
the  geology,  and  the  description  of  the  mines.  The 
figures  of  fossil  insects  already  heliographed  in  the 
Bull,  de  la  Soc.  des  Amis  des  Sciences  naturelles 
de  Rouen  are  quite  sensational  from  their  startling 
perfection,  and  confer  a  new  quiet  delight,  such  as 
our  ancestors  looked  for  in  the  Romance  of  the 
Rose." — A.  II.  Swinton. 

Society  of  Amateur  Geologists. — This  society 
has  successfully  completed  its  first  year  of  existence. 
A  considerable  amount  of  work  has  been  done  by  its 
members,  as  the  following  record  will  show.  Papers 
have  been  read  at  the  meetings,  on  "The  History  of 
Geology,"  by  Professor  Boulger,  F.L.S.,  F.G.S.  ; 
"  The  Geology  of  Belgium,"  by  G.  F.  Harris  ;  "  The 
Foraminifera  of  the  English  Chalk,"  by  H.  W. 
Burrows  ;  "  The  Origin  and  Varieties  of  Granite,"  by 
H.  Fleck  ;  "Notes  on  Palaeolithic  Man  in  relation 
to  the  Valley  Deposits  of  North-West  Middlesex," 
by  J.  Allen-Brown,  F.R.G.S. ;  "Organic  Acids  and 
their  Geological  Effects,"  by  Professor  Boulger ; 
"Volcanic  Rocks,"  by  Chas.  Lane:  "Chemical 
Action  as  a  Factor  in  Geology,"  by  Dr.  Maybury  ; 
"The  Deposition  of  Sediment,  and  Formation  of 
Shingle  Beaches,"  by  G.  F.  Harris;  "Underground 
Heat,"  by  J.  Starkie  Gardner,  F.L.S.,  F.G.S. ; 
"  The  Modes  of  Occurrence  of  the  Diamond,"  by 
W.  J.  Abbott;  "  How  to  Distinguish  the  Genera  of 
Bivalve  Shells,"  by  A.  Loydell.  Excursions  also 
have  been  made,  under  able  directors,  to  Finchley, 
Caterham,  Loampit  Hill,  Westcombe  Park  and 
Charlton,  Croydon  and  Caterham,  Erith  and  Cray- 


Sunflowers. — Among  interesting  facts  respecting 
sunflowers  recorded  in  recent  articles,  it  does  noc 
appear  that  any  reference  has  been  made  to  their 
occasional  habitat  on  the  face  of  a  brick-wall.  In  this 
neighbourhood,  one  of  old-fashioned  gardens,  the 
walls  carry  a  wide  range  of  flora,  which  appear  year 
after  year,  being  well  established.  Among  other 
plants,  the  sunflower  has  been  observed  by  me  in 
such  a  situation,  and  no  satisfactory  explanation  has 
yet  presented  itself.  Two  instances  of  this  occur  at 
present  (October)  in  my  garden,  and  I  will  proceed 
to  describe  them.  One  sunflower  grows  from  mid- 
way up  the  wall,  the  plant  dwarfed  to  nine  inches, 
without  flower  ;  the  other  from  a  foot  above  the 
surface  of  the  ground,  a  strong  plant  of  three  and  a 
half  feet  stature,  with  a  flower  of  three  inches  dia- 
meter producing  seeds.  I  noticed  small  plants 
similarly  placed  last  year  also,  but  am  not  able  to 
give  earlier  experience,  being  a  new  resident.  Are 
such  occurrences  rare,  and  what  is  the  method  by 
which  such  heavy  seeds  reach  so  peculiar  a  situation  ? 
— Hahnemann  Epps,  Tulsc  Hill. 



Pulex  irritans. — In  reading  Mr.  Robson's  very 
interesting   article   on    the   development   of  a  flea's 
egg,  I  notice  that  he  does  not  make  any  reference  to 
the  food  provided  by  the  female  for  the  sustenance  of 
its  progeny,  until  they  reach  the  pupa  form.     If  Mr. 
Robson  has  kept  cats  or  dogs,  he  will  have  noticed 
at  certain  seasons  that  whatever  they  may  happen  to 
be  in  the  habit  of  making  a  bed   will  be    covered 
with  a  quantity  of  fleas'  eggs  ;  he  will  also  find   a 
number   of  small   objects,   of  a  deep  red  or  black 
colour,  having  a  curled  or  spiral  form.      These,  no 
doubt,  are  composed  of  coagulated  blood,  which  has 
been  vomited  by  the  female  for  the  provision  of  its 
young.      In   hatching   out   eggs   of    Pulex   for    the 
purpose   of  watching   their  development   under  the 
microscope,    I    have   always    placed    a   quantity   of 
these   "preserved  meats"  in  close  proximity  to  the 
eggs,  and  have  been  much  amused  in  watching  the 
eagerness  and  avidity  with  which  the  young  larvos 
devoured    them,   and   the  rapidity   of  their   change 
from   a   pearly  white   to   a   bright   red  colour. — A. 
Jenkins,  ATrM  Cross. 

Instinct  in  Parrots. — The  two  instances  of 
peculiar  conduct  on  the  part  of  a  parrot  adduced  by 
Mr.  Lovett  in  the  January  number  (p.  15)  do  not 
seem  to  admit  of  any  very  recondite  explanation. 
They  can  scarcely  be  referred  either  to  instinct  or  to 
reason,  strictly  so  denominated,  at  least  in  an  elevated 
sense.  The  whistling  business  was  rendered  possible 
by  a  very  small  effort  of  ordinary  association  of  ideas, 
grounded  upon  the  physical  capacity  of  the  bird  to 
utter  sounds  somewhat  similar  to  that  of  water 
dripping  into  a  deep  well,  or  issuing  from  a  garden 
syringe.  Whenever  the  syringe  appeared,  the  volley 
of  mellow  notes  forthwith  ensued  as  a  link  in  the 
association.  The  feat  of  planting  the  seed-tin  on  the 
top  of  the  water-tin,  in  order  to  get  rid  of  the  former, 
was  not  marvellously  clever.  If  the  cage  had  been 
■open,  the  encumbrance  would  probably  have  been 
pitched  outside  altogether,  notwithstanding  the 
•danger  of  starvation  or  penury  thereby  incurred. 
The  end  that  the  bird  proposed  was  simply  to  shuffle 
•off  what  was  in  its  way — no  very  lofty  aim  certainly. 
The  means  adopted  were,  firstly,  a  bungling  attempt 
at  the  impossible,  and  secondly  a  very  simple  ex- 
pedient indeed,  considering  the  confined  sphere  of  a 
.closed  cage.  We  may  safely  aver,  that  no  general 
notion  is  required  for  the  direction  of  actions  such  as 
these.  The  very  lowest  animal  has,  we  believe,  a 
faculty  or  function  (call  it  "instinct,"  if  you  like) 
of  avoiding  obstacles  which  interfere  with  its  life- 
progress.  It  is  a  faculty  bound  up  and  inseparably 
connected  with  life  itself. — P.  Q.  Kegan. 


To  Correspondents  and  Exchangers. — As  we  now 
•publish  Science-Gossip  earlier  than  formerly,  we  cannot  un- 
dertake to  insert  in  the  following  number  any  communications 
which  reach  us  later  than  the  8th  of  the  previous  month. 

To  Anonymous  Querists. — We  must  adhere  to  our  rule  of 
not  noticing  queries  which  do  not  bear  the  writers'  names. 

To  Dealers  and  others. — We  are  always  glad  to  treat 
dealers  in  natural  history  objects  on  the  same  fair  and  general 
ground  as  amateurs,  in  so  far  as  the  "  exchanges  "  offered  are  fair 
exchanges.  But  it  is  evident  that,  when  their  offers  are  simply 
disguised  advertisements,  for  the  purpose  of  evading  the  cost  of 
advertising,  an  advantage  is  taken  of  our  gratuitous  insertion  of 
"  exchanges  "  which  cannot  be  tolerated. 

We  request  that  all  exchanges  may  be  signed  with  name  (or 
initials)  and  full  address  at  the  end. 

M.  E.  Pope. — Your  specimen  is  the  long-tailed  field  mouse 
{Mus  sylvaiicus). 

T.  Simpson. — Your  specimens  are:  No.  1,  a  growth  of  Cali- 
thamnion  (a  sea-weed),  attached  to  the  bladder  of  a  larger  sea- 
weed {Fucus  vesiculosus).  No.  2  is  quite  another  object,  a 
zoophyte,  known  as  the  "  bottle-brush  coralline,"  from  its  shape 
(I'/utiaria  thuia). 

F.  Hrndry. — We  are  sorry  your  specimens  have  been  waiting 
to  be  named  so  long,  but  the  remarks  made  elsewhere  will 
account  (or  the  delay.  They  are  fossil  shells  imbedded  in  a 
piece  of  coal  measure  shale,  and  their  name  is  Anthracosia 
cvalis.     See  Taylor's  "  Our  Common  British  Fossils." 

F.  Harding. — Your  shells  are  as  follows  :  1,  Helix  cantiana  ; 
2,  Helix  Z'irgata;  3,  Helix  rufescens ;  4,  Helix  obvoluta; 
and  5,  Cyclostoma  elegaiis. 

C-  H.  Johns. — We  are  sorry  to  have  delayed  your  answer, 
but  our  trip  to  the  Antipodes  will  have  to  excuse  us  in  this 
respect  to  all  our  friends.  The  slide  you  sent  us  contains  one 
or  two  mycelial  threads,  but,  as  this  is  the  initial  growth  of 
most  funguses,  it  is  impossible  to  tell  the  species. 

F.  C.  King. — Many  thanks  for  your  excellent  suggestions. 
We  are  always  glad  to  have  the  advice  of  "  candid  friends  " — if 
not  too  "  candid  "  !     Your  remarks  shall  be  remembered. 

C.  A.  N. — The  special  number  of  Science-Gossip  devoted 
to  Hepaticae  was  published  at  the  ordinary  rate.  It  is,  we  fear, 
out  of  print;  but  if  not,  will  very  likely  be  obtainable  of  Messrs. 
Allen,  Waterloo  Place. 

M.  S.  Many  thanks  for  the  correspondence  you  have  sent  us. 
We  have  put  the  name  of  the  person  in  our  "  Black  List,"  and 
will  take  care  no  more  exchanges  from  him  are  inserted  in  our 
columns  again. 

W.  Turner. — The  fungus  on  upper  surface  of  leaf  of  Cistus 
labilifcra  was  only  in  the  mycelium  stage,  and  therefore  we 
cannot  denote  the  species.  The  best  work  on  the  Mucorini 
is  Dr.  Cooke's  "  Handbook  of  the  British  Fungi,"  2  vols. 
Several  articles  (illustrated)  on  the  smaller  British  Fungi 
appeared  in  the  vol.  of  Science-Gossip  for  1880.  "  Grevillea  " 
can  be  obtained,  we  believe,  by  ordering  it  from  the  Editor, 
146  Junction  Road,  London,  N. 

Verb.  Sap. — If  our  friends  who  send  exchanges  will  kindly 
put  their  addresses  at  the  bottom  of  their  lists  instead  of  the  top, 
we  shall  be  obliged. 


Humming-birds' skins  in  good  preservation,  Science-Gossip 
vol.  for  1884  in  numbers,  clean.  Desiderata:  Microscopic 
slides,  works  on  Natural  History,  pupae  of  Lepidoptera,  British 
birds'  eggs,  or  '  offers. — Joseph  Anderson,  jun.,  Aire  Villa, 
Chichester,  Sussex. 

Wanted,  No.  2  of  "  Knowledge  "  to  purchase,  or  exchange 
for  British  Lepidoptera. — Joseph  Anderson,  jun.,  Aire  Villa, 

British  and  American  birds'  eggs  for  others  not  in  collection  ; 
British  Algae  and  American  shells,  for  Lepidoptera,  Minerals, 
Fossils  or  Shells. — Dr.  J.  T.  T.  Reed,  Ryhope,  near  Sunderland. 
Wanted,  vols,  of  Science-Gossip  from  1868-1872,  bound  or 
unbound  ;  also  other  scientific  books.  Will  give  good  micro- 
slides  in  exchange. — Samuel  M.  Malcomson,  M.D.,  55  Great 
Victoria  Street,  Belfast. 

Science-Gossip  1883  bound,  1884-5  loose  :  what  offers  in 
science  books? — Thos.  Hendry,  it  Poplar  Street,  Bolton. 

Hooker's  "  Students'  Flora  of  the  British  Islands  ;  "  "  Wild 
Life  in  a  Southern  Country;"  "Naturalist,"  1878-79:  "Pro- 
ceedings of  Nat.  Hist.  Soc.  of  Dublin  "  ;  "  Sermons  in  Stones," 
etc.  etc.,  in  exchange  for  "  Popular  Science  Review,"  or  other 
books,  or  offers. — Rev.  W.  W.  Flemyng,  Coolfin  House, 
Portlaw,  co.  Waterford. 

Wanted,  members  for  an  ever-circulating  magazine  devoted 
to  astronomy  and  general  physics. — Albert  H.  Waters,  B.A., 
F.S.Sc,  etc.,  Willoughby  House,  Mill  Road,  Cambridge. 
•  Maclear's  "Old  Testament  History"  (4s.  6d.),  Bantam's 
"Extempore  Speaking"  {2s.  6d,),  Sauer's  "Italian  Grammar, 
with  Key"(8j.  6d.),  Elwall's  "  Spanish  Grammar "  {:s.  6</.), 
Elwall's  "  Italian  Triglot  Dictionary,"  vol.  1  (2s.  6d.),  "  Logic 
Primer"  {is.),  "English  Literature  Primer"  {is.),  all  new. 
Offers  in  microscopic  and  lantern  slides,  skeletons  or  any  natural 
history  objects. — C.  Rowland,  Brampton,  Cumberland. 

A  few  good  micro-slides,  including  stomach  of  sea-mouse, 
T.  S.,  stained  stem  of  sun-flower,  T.  S.,  double-stained,  and 
other  good  slides  and  unmounted  material  ;  also  foreign  stamps, 
and  specimen  of  the  African  weaver-bird's  nest,  for  good 
machine  drawings  or  other  offers  in  books,  etc. — Peter  Kilgour, 
11  Stirling  Street,  Dundee,  N.B. 

Micro-slides.  Duplicates  (chiefly  foreign  diatoms)  in  ex- 
change for  others. — R.  T.  Ditchfield,  Chorley,  Lancashire. 

Wanted,  for  a  beginner,  imagos  of  Edusa,  Cardamines, 
Sybilla,  Cardui,  Atalanta,  Io,  Argynnidas,  Lycasnidae,  and 
other  common  species  ;  also  some  common  moths.  I  will  give 
in  exchange  a  neat  book  store-box,  15  by  11  in.,  corked,  gold 
lettered,  or  choice  flower-seeds.  All  offers  answered. — R. 
Laddiman,  Hellesdon  Road,  Norwich. 



Wanted,  Davis's  "  Practical  Microscopy,"  Carpenter's, 
Hogg's,  or  Beale's,  newest  editions.  W  ill  give  good  micro- 
slides  in  exchange  for  any  of  the  above. — W.  Sim.  Gourdas, 
Fyvie,  N.  B. 

Well-mounted  palates  of  periwink,  L.  littorea,  land  and 
freshwater  snails,  and  other  mounts.  Wanted,  good  anatomical 
and  botanical  slides,  selected  diatoms,  and  good  unmounted 
material,  micro,  apparatus,  etc. — J.  C.  Blackshaw,  4  Ranelagh 
Road,  Wolverhampton. 

L.  C.  7th  edition.  Oblata :  33,  39,  40,  95,  97,  129,  15*,  179, 
183,  189,  201,  206,  2ii,  216,  273,  274,  281,  317,  360,  366,  375, 
383,  386,  39^,  475.  487.  489.  5°i.  534.  c48,  553.  568,  57°.  571. 
573.  581,  595.  6'4.  644,  653,  654,  660,  608,  695,  711,  717,  738, 
741.  757^.  841,  853,  858,  873,  895,  913,  915,  917,  928,  931,  934, 
957,  968,  1029,  1032,  1039,  1040,  1053,  J°SS.  1056,  1092,  1132, 
1137,    1148(1,   1210,    1249,    1258,    1263,    1267,    1274,    1290,    I29r, 

1294.  I3'5.  1317.  1326.  1341.   '349.  I354.   1377.  1381,  1382,  1383. 

1405,  1409,   1411,  1420,  1447,   1450,  1452,  1455,  1459,  1469,  1482, 

1520,   1525,   1542,  1568.  1569,  15S8,  1607,  1617,  1627,  1634,  1636, 

1640.     For  exchange  :  send  list  to  C.  Copineau,  Juge  a  Doullens 

(Somme),  France. 

Science-Gossip,    4    vols.,    1882-1885,    and    "  Knowledge," 

vols.   i.  ii.  iii.,  all  bound  plain  cloth.     What  offers  in    Herbert 

Spencer   or   Darwin's   works? — W.    Hardie,    1    Fingal   Place, 


Duplicates:  Flanorbis  lineatus,  Ancylus Jluviatilis,  Helix 

Cartusiana,  H.  caterata  v.  major,  H.  ericetorum  v.  minor, 
Pupa  secale,  Vertigo  pygmaa,  Balea  perversa,  and  Clausilia 
Rolphii.     Desiderata:    British  Land  and  Freshwater  Shells. — 

C.  H.  Morris,  School  Hill,  Lewes. 

Wanted,  museum  specimens  of  an  ethnological  and  anthro- 
pological character.  A  large  selection  of  microscopic  slides  of 
marine  life,  etc.  ;  North  American  and  British  shells  ;  Crustacea, 
and  other  specimens  offered  in  exchange. — Ed.  Lovett,  West 
Burton  House,  Outram  Road,  Croydon. 

Wanteh,  Nos.  102,  190,  193,  194  196,  197,  220,  22i,  222,  223, 
of  Newman's  "  Entomologist,  '  also  "Entomological  Monthly 
Magazine,"  Nos.  from  49  to  55,  inclusive  of  vol.  5,  and 
"  Archajologia  Cantiana,"  vol.  1. — F.  Frohawk,  Park  Place, 
Eltham,  Kent. 

Wanted,  Nos.  203,  Nov.  '81  :  20S,  May  '82  :  213,  Sept.  '82  : 
215,  Nov.  '82  ;  219  to  237  inclusive,  March  to  Sept.  '84;  in  all 
23  Nos.  Science-Gossip,  to  complete  set.  Offered  duplicates 
from  co.  Dublin  of  Helix  aspersa,  ntmoralis  and  vars.,  rufescens, 
■piscina  and  var.,  alba,  virgata  and  vars.  albicans,  macu/ata, 
leucozona  and  alba,  caperata,  and  Bulimus  acutus  and  vars., 
or  will  collect  and  forward  specimens  of  Land,  Freshwater  and 
Marine  Shells. — J.  Roland  Redding,  103  Seville  Place,  Dublin. 
Wanted,  deep-sea  soundings,  shore  gatherings,  foreign  or 
English  chalks,  or  other  material  coma  ning  Foraminifera  or 
Polycystina  First  class  micro-slides  or  cash  in  exchange. — 
Jackson,  Hillfold,  Bolton. 

What  offers  in  exchange  for  a  Geological  Show-case,  3  ft. 
10  in.  X  2  ft.  2  in.,  11  in.  deep,  with  6  slanting  shelves,  glass  doors, 
lock  and  key,  also  Woodward's  "  Geology  of  England  and 
Wales,"  and  "  Manual  of  Mollusca." — Geo.  E.  East,  jun.,  10 
Basinghall  Street,  London,  E.C. 

Scotch  Graptolites  offered  in  exchange  for  tropical  shells, 
or  for  rare  fos-ils. — Miss  F.  M.  Hele,  Fairlight,  Elmgrove 
Road,  Cotham,  Bristol. 

A  limited  number  of  first-class  microscopical  mounts  in 
balsam,  of  portions  of  elytron  of  scarce  diamond  beetle — most 
beautiful  object — for  other  first-class  mounts  of  insects  or  bota- 
nical sections. — A.  B.  Hoskings,  Ventnor  Cottage,  College  Park, 

Wanted,  British  and  foreign  books  on  marine  algae. 
Offered,  scientific  and  other  books,  excellent  slides  of  marine 
algae  in  fruit,  or  cash. — T.  H.  Buff  ham,  Hughenden  Villa, 
Comely  Bank  Road,  Walthamstow. 

Micko-slides:  a  series  of  Exotic  Ferns,  showing  the  sori.  etc., 
in  exchange  for  other  good  slides.  Also  three  or  four  different 
fern  spores  for  exchange.  —  W.  Henshall,  The  Hollies, 
Bred'oury,  near  Stockport. 

Wanted,  Hartmg's  or  other  good  book  on  British  land  and 
freshwater  shells,  in  exchange  for  the  first  20  parts  of 
"European  Butterflies  and  Moths"  including  this  month's. — 
A.  E.  Dodridge,  7  Wharton  Street,  W.C. 

Wanted,  a  good  case  of  dissecting  instruments  for  micro- 
scopic and  other  purposes.  Apply  stating  requirements  to — 
F.  R.  Rowley,  60  Lower  Hastings  Street,  Southfields,  Leicester. 

Fou  exchange.  JT.  cornenm,  A.  cygnca,  Bythinia  tenta- 
culata,  Flanorbis  vortex,  Flanorbis  comptanatus,  L. 
peregra,  H.  hortrnsis,  //.  virgata,  H.  tricttorum,  Clausilia 
rngesa,  Cyclostoma  tlegaus.  Desiderata  :  land  and  fresh- 
water shells,  //.  pisana,  H .  lapicida,  L.  auricularia,  Paludina. 
contecia,  and  others. — Frederick  Harding,  Shipley  House,  York 
Road,  F^astbourne. 

Many  slides  of  foreign  Polyzoa  well  mounted,  and  true  to 
name,  in  exchange  for  other  slides  :  good  diatoms  preferred. 
Send  lists  to— Rev.  A.  C.  Smith,  3  Park  Crescent,  Brighten. 

For  disposal,  small  collection  of  British  shells,  on  tablets  ; 
Gosse's  "  Marine  Zoology,"  Rimmer's  "  Land  and  Freshwater 
Shells,"  and  Pascoe's  "  List  of  British  Coleoptera,"  all  clean. — 
J.  B.  Mayor,  5  Queen's  Terrace,  Long^ight,  Manchester. 

W-vnted,  nests  of  magpie,  tree  pipit,  lesser  whitethroat, 
kingfisher,  yellow  wagtail,  dipper,  redstart,  and  house  martin, 
complete;  good  exchange  given  in  eggs. — A.  A.  Shaw,  Market 
Buildings,  Ashton-under-Lyne. 

L.  C.  7th  edition,  offered  :  85,  261,  232^,  196,  406,  315,  316, 
931,  1056,  1125,  693,  T614,  1615.  1596,  etc.  :  many  desiderata. — 
W.  S.  Harrison,  15  Park  Place  East,  Sunderland. 

Well-mounted  micro-slides  of  fi«h-scales:  Sudak,  and 
species  of  Corregonus,  from  Russia  ;  Ballan  wrasse  and  others  ; 
to  exchange  for  other  good  mounts. — Rev.  H.  W.  Lett,  M.A., 
Loughbrickland,  co.  Down. 

A  number  of  duplicate  flint,  greensand,  and  other  fossils  for 
disposal. — J.  A.  Floyd,  18  Whiting  Street,  Bury  St.  Edmunds. 

"Zoological  Atlas"  (vertebrata)  by  D.  M'Alpine  ; 
"  British  Fossils,"  by  Morris  ;  "  Fossil  Merostomata,"  part  1,  by 
H.Woodward.  Land,  freshwater  and  marine  shells  from  Ceylon 
and  India.  Several  osteological  specimens  offered  in  exchange 
for  a  good  series  of  Continental  fossils  or  offers. — Miss  Linter, 
Arragon  Close,  Twickenham. 

What  offers  in  exchange  for  two  years'  "  Northern  Micro- 
scopist  "? — Henry  Vial,  Crediton. 

Various  injected  tissues,  either  uncut  or  in  sections,  fot 
magic-lantern  slides,  stereoscopic  slides,  or  offers. —  Henry  Vial, 

What  offers  for  Bulimus  labia  in  good  condition  ? — Chemicus, 
8  Trinity  Street,  Hastings. 

Wanted,  living  Hydrozoa  and  Polyzoa,  also  good  works  on 
British  Zoophytes:  state  wants. — Chemicus,  8  Trinity  Street, 

Wanted,  a  i  inch  O.  G.,  and  a  stand  condenser,  in  exchange 
for  a  6  large-cell  granule  battery. — G.  H.,  8  Tothill  Street,  S.W. 

Wanted,  the  following  numbers  of  Science-Gossip:  195,  202, 
203  (1881),  205,  209,  210,  211,  214,  216  (1882),  in  exchange  for 
well-mounted  micro-slides.  — Herbert  Spencer,  10  Avenue  Road, 
Regent's  Park,  N.W. 

Wantrd,  British  Marine  Shells  or  back  numbers  of  the 
"Journal  of  Conchology,"  in  exchange  for  land  and  fresh- 
water, including  Pis.  font  itiale,  Pis.  pusillum,  Pal.  vivipara,  V. 
antivcrtigo,  Balea  perversa,  CI.  biplicata,  etc. — F.  Fenn, 
20  Woodstock  Road,  Bedford  Park,  Chiswick.  W. 

Objectives:  two  excellent  new  objectives — J-inch  by  Swiit. 
900,  -I-inch  by  Crouch,  400 — to  exchange  both  for  a  good  J-inch. 
Mutual  approval. — E.  B.  Fennessy,  Pallasgreen,  Limerick. 


"Topography  and  Natural  History  of  Lofthouse,"  2  vols.,  by 
Geo.  Roberts  (Leeds:  printed  for  the  author). — "Practical 
Bacteriology,"  by  E.  M.  Crookshank,  MB.  (London:  H.  K. 
Lewis). — '"  The  Light  of  Life,"  by  Joseph  John  Kain  (London  : 
Wyman  &  Sons). — "  List  of  British  Marine  Shells,"  by  A. 
Somerville,  F.R.S.  (Glasgow). — "  Polarised  Light  as  applied 
to  the  Microscope,"  by  Edwin  A.  Holmes.  —  "  Geology, 
Chemical,  Physical  and  Stratigraphical,"  by  Joseph  Prestwich, 
F.R.S.  (Oxford:  Clarendon  Press).— "  Reports  of  the  Gold 
Fields  of  Victoria."  1885. — "The  Gentleman's  Magazine," — 
"  Belgravia." — "  Hooper  &  Co.'s  Spring  Catalogue." — 
"Change  in  Land  and  Sea,"  by  C.  S.  Whiting. — "The 
Naturalist." — "  The  Journal  of  Conchology." — "  The  Illus- 
trated Science  Monthly." — "The  American  Florist." — "The 
American  Monthly  Microscopical  Journal."  —  "Cosmos." — 
"Science." — "The  Amateur  Photographer. "■ — "Ben  Brierley's 
Journal."  —  "  The  Rochdale  Field  Naturalists'  Journal."  — 
"  I'euilledes  Jeunes  Naturalistes." — "The  Garner." — "Animal 
World."— "The  Naturalist."— "  The  Midland  Naturalist." — 
"  The  American  Naturalist." — "  Canadian  Entomologist,"  &c. 

Communications  received  up  to  the  12TH  ult.  from  : — 
J.  J.  H.  T.— W.  H.— E.  W.— F.  N.  W.— A.  E.  D.— B.  P.— 
G.  F.  H.— G.  R.— J.  M.  R.— M.E.  P.— J.  F.— J.W.— E.  A.  S. 
_W.  H.— Dr.  J.  W.  W.— E.  D.  M.— W.  L.  S.— C.  P.— W.  B.  G. 
—Dr.  G.  M.  G.— J.  F.— A.  C.  C  —J.  T.— W.  C.  H.-T.  H.  B. 
— S.  H.  D.— A.  B.  H.— J.  J.  W— H.  W.  K.-D.  W.  B.— 
E.  B.  L.  B.— F.  M.  H.-C.  A.  N.— Dr.  P.  Q.  K.— E.  A.  H— 
A.  W.  P.— W.  T.  C— P.  Q.  L.-H.  C.  F.-W.  M.  W.— L.  J. 
— C.  L.  J.— S.  C.  C— T.  S.— J.  H.  B.— J.  R.  R.— H.  F.— 
G.  E.  E.— J.  C.  H.— R.  T.  G.  R.— T.  D.  A.  C— F.  F.— T.  F. 
—  E.  L.— W.  W.— A.  H.  W.— G.  W.— W.  W.  F.— R.  P.— C.  R. 
_j.  w.  O.— R.  H.  N.  B.  -  J.  A.  jun.— W.  H.— J.  T.  T.  R.— 
Dr.  S.  M.  M— C.  H.  M.— M.  S.— T.  H.— M.  L.  S.— C.  C— 
J.  C.  B.— W.  S.— R.  L.— R.  T.  D.— P.  K.— J.  T.— M.  E.  A.— 
\V.  S.— C.  L.  S.— G.  I.  E.  H.— W.  H.— H.  S.— F.  F.— C.  F.  W. 
— H.  V.— H.  W.  L.— A.  A.  S.— F.  R.  R.— F.  E.— J.  A.  F.— 
W.  S.  H.— J.  W.  0.— F.  H.— A.  C.  S.— J.  B.  M.— G.  F.  H.— 
E.  B.  F.-W.  S.— F.  C.  K.— C.  S.  W.— A.  S.-J.  F.— 0.  A.  S. 
— E.  M.— &c.  &c. 





By    AGNES    CRANE. 

{Continued from  p.  40.] 

j«1^w^^  HIRTV  species  of 
Dinocerata,  all 
from  the  middle 
Eocene  deposits  of 
Wyoming,  the  only 
locality  in  which 
their  remain  have 
been  hitherto  foun  d , 
either  in  the  New 
or  the  Old  World,* 
are  fully  described 
and  illustrated  in 
the  present  memoir. 
They  are  all  re- 
ferred by  Marsh  to 
three  well-marked 
genera,  and  of  two, 
Dinoceras  and  Ti- 
noceras,  he  has 
been  able  to  give 
The  least  known  is  the 
Uintatherium  of  Leidy  (Uintat,  Indian  name,  and 
6-qpiov,  a  wild  beast).  This,  the  smallest  and  the 
most  generalised  form,  occurs  in  the  lowest  beds  of 
the  series.  Dinoceras,  Marsh,  in  the  succeeding  de- 
posits, and  Tinoceras  (tiVcc,  to  tear,  itepas,  horn), 
the  most  specialised  form  in  the  upper  beds  only. 
All  the  dinocerata  are  shown  to  have  the  smallest 
proportionate  brain,  with  the  most  reptilian  characters 
of  any  known  mammalian  animals.  Of  ponderous 
build,  and  slow  in  movement,  but  well  armed,  they 
held  their  own  while  the  conditions  of  life  were 
suitable,  but  could  not  battle  with  changed  or  adverse 
surroundings.  Thus  their  total  disappearance,  leav- 
ing no  immediate  successors,  Professor  Marsh  holds 
to  be  fully  accounted  for  by  the  elevation  and  drainage 
of  the  lake  basin,  and  subsequent  drying  up  of  the 
swampy  soil  into  hard  ground  on  which  they  were 
ill-adapted  for  progression. 

*  Unless  the  Coryphodoatidae  be  considered  Dinocerata. 

No.  255. — March  1886. 

complete    restorations. 

Such  was  the  life  history  of  the  extinct  Eocene 
dinocerata  as  revealed  by  Marsh  in  a  magnificent 
monograph  which  adds  to  the  high  renown  of  its 
author,  and  is  in  every  way  creditable  to  the  Geo- 
logical Survey  of  the  United  States  Government,  long 
famed  for  the  value  and  surprising  excellence  of  its 
publications.  Here  we  may  briefly  refer  to  another 
publication  just  to  hand,  and  representing  the  topo- 
graphical branch  of  the  same  Survey,  i.e.  the  new 
sheet  of  "  the  geological  map  of  the  United  States, 
exhibiting  the  present  status  of  knowledge  relating  to 
the  areal  distribution  of  geological  groups,  a  prelimi- 
nary compilation,  by  W.  J.  McGee,  1884."  This 
embodies  the  published  results  of  the  different  inde- 
pendent State  surveys,  with  those  of  careful  re-study 
of  difficult  points  in  the  field,  and  as  all  doubtful 
and  uncertain  matter  is  excluded,  it  may  be  considered 
accurate  so  far  as  it  goes.  It  is  a  work  of  which 
Americans  may  well  be  justly  proud,  as  showing  the 
immense  efforts  that  have  been  made  in  grappling  with 
so  vast  a  portion  of  the  New  World,  in  tracing  the 
outcrops  of  the  great  geological  formations,  and 
defining  their  exact  boundaries.  For  the  geological 
structure  of  rather  more  than  four-sixths  of  the 
United  States  has  been  thus  accurately  determined, 
that  is  to  say,  all  that  portion  stretching  eastward 
from  the  outfall  of  the  Colorado  river  to  the  Atlantic 
seaboard,  and  northwards  from  the  Gulf  of  Mexico 
to  the  forty-ninth  parallel.  Washington  Territory, 
Idaho,  Oregon,  U.  and  L.  California,  three-fourths 
of  New  Mexico,  and  half  of  Nevada  and  Arizona, 
with  a  small  extreme  S.W.  portion  of  the  empire 
state  of  Texas  are  left  uncoloured.  But  it  must  not 
hence  be  inferred  that  nothing  is  known  of  the  geology 
of  the  Pacific  coast.  The  investigations  of  Cope  in 
Oregon  have  revealed  the  presence  there  of  miocene 
deposits,  and  the  independent  State  surveys  of 
California  have  accumulated  much  published  and 
unpublished  material ;  but  this  knowledge  was  not 
sufficiently  defined  as  regards  limit  of  outcrops,  and 




junction  of  formations  for  incorporation  in  the  present 
map.  The  general  appearance  of  the  sheet,  largely 
aided  by  the  vast  areas  covered  by  many  formations, 
is  most  pleasing  to  the  eye.  Its  execution  leaves 
nothing  to  be  desired,  for  the  colouring  is  refined  and 
clear,  a  reference  letter  renders  consultation  easy  and 
error  impossible,  and  it  is  altogether  creditable  to  the 
energy  and  talents  of  Mr.  W.  J.  McGee,  its  compiler, 
and  the  topographical  staff  of  the  Government 
Geological  Survey,  which  has  its  headquarters  at 
Washington,  D.C.,  with  Major  J.  W.  Powell,  the 
ethnologist  and  earliest  explorer  of  the  cafions  of  the 
great  Colorado  river  as  director-in-chief.  The  nomen- 
clature adopted  for  the  respective  groups  of  the 
Cainozoic,  Mesozoic,  Palaeozoic,  Azoic  and  Volcanic 
systems  necessarily  differs  somewhat  from  that  in  use 
in  Europe. — i,  Quaternary ;  2,  Neocene  (which 
includes  the  Pliocene  and  Miocene) ;  3,  Eocene  (and 
the  Oligocene) ;  4,  Cretaceous  ;  5,  Jurasso-Triassic  ; 
6,  Carboniferous  ;  7,  Devonian  ;  8,  Silurian  ;  9,  Cam- 
brian ;  10,  Archaean;  11,  Volcanic.  A  glance  over 
the  map  shows  that  the  peninsula  of  Florida  is  not 
such  a  recent  product  of  gulf  sand  as  Agassiz  once 
reasoned,  for  it  is  largely  composed  of  a  well-marked 
ridge  of  Eocene  rocks.  The  immense  extent  of  the 
central  carboniferous  tract  is  reassuring,  and  the  great 
stretch  of  cretaceous  affords  plenty  of  ground  for  the 
hope  that  the  former  shore-lines  of  those  extensive 
chalk  oceans  may  yet  be  discovered  with  the  buried 
land  fauna  of  that  epoch,  and  that  somewhere  or 
other,  sooner  or  later,  Professor  Marsh  may  yet 
disinter  the  remains  of  the  first  ungulate  ancestors  of 
the  Eocene  dinocerata  mammals,  whose  forms  he  has 
so  fully  restored  to  us. 

1 1  Wellington  Road,  Brighton,  Sussex. 


IN  last  April's  number  of  Science-Gossip,  several 
instances  are  given  showing  that  fasciation  is 
often  perpetuated  by  seed,  and  amongst  the  plants 
mentioned  is  that  of  the  ox-eye  daisy  (C.  Leucan- 
themum).  The  seedlings  from  the  plant  mentioned 
have  flowered  during  the  past  season,  and  out  of  fifty- 
five  plants,  about  twenty  developed  fasciated  and 
abnormal  flowers,  some  very  mis-shapen,  others  only 
slightly  fasciated-  This  result  has  to  be  taken  with 
the  fact  that  the  seedlings  have  been  growing  in  a 
much  richer  soil  than  the  older  plant  was  found  in, 
and  I  have  no  doubt  that  the  change  of  soil  influenced 
to  some  extent  the  development  of  abnormal  flowers  ; 
still  the  proportion  of  plants  having  abnormal  flowers 
to  those  having  no  trace  of  fasciation  shows  that 
fasciation  is  perpetuated  by  seed.  The  extent  to 
which  soil  influences  abnormal  growth  is  shown 
by  the  following  cases.  This  summer  a  vine  having 
its  roots  in  a  border  outside,  and  its  stem  inside 
a    glass    house,  developed   a   number    of   curious, 

flattened  stems,  or  rather  shoots,  from  the  common 
stem  ;  these  shoots  have  proved  very  abortive,  a  con- 
dition due  to  their  fasciated  state.  An  examina- 
tion of  the  border  has  shown  it  to  be  in  a  very  wet 
condition  due  to  the  stopping  up  of  a  drain,  the  roots 
therefore  have  been  feeding  too  rapidly  on  the  rich 
wet  soil,  with  the  result  that  very  sappy  wood  has 
been  developed,  a  condition  which  is  highly  conducive 
to  abnormal  developments.  In  previous  years,  when 
the  soil  was  in  a  normal  state,  no  such  development 
was  noticed.  On  p.  86  of  the  volume  for  1885, 
there  is  a  case  given  of  an  herbaceous  plant  [Sedunt 
glaucum),  taken  from  a  dry,  rocky  position  to  that  of 
a  damp  loam,  with  the  result  that  fasciation  quickly 
affected  the  stem.  I  have  been  able  to  note  again  a 
similar  effect  with  a  totally  different  plant  :  tubers  of 
Tropczolum  tuberosum  (a  native  of  Peru)  were  planted 
out  last  April  in  a  strong  clay  loam,  with  just  enough 
light  soil  to  give  them  a  fair  start ;  the  result  was  very 
curious.  At  first  the  ordinary  terete  stems  were 
developed,  but  as  the  season  advanced  the  stems 
began  to  assume  a  ribbon-like  shape,  and  in  some 
instances,  curvatures,  and  shapeless  masses  of  stem  ; 
flower  buds  have  been  developed  on  the  flattened 
stem,  but  have  not  yet  opened. 

A  few  bulbs  of  the  same  plant  were  inserted  in  a 
light  sandy,  dry  soil,  in  another  part  of  the  garden, 
with  the  result  that  they  have  developed  the  ordinary 
terete  stems,  and  have  flowered  freely,  one  stem  only 
showing  slight  traces  of  fasciation ;  this  stem  with 
examples  of  the  two  previous  stems  are  sent  with 
these  notes. 

If  the  condition  of  fasciation  was  common  with  the 
ancestors  of  these  plants,  then  its  influence  must  have 
been  transmitted  through,  first  the  seed  and  afterwards 
the  tubers,  the  plants  having  been  perpetuated  for 
several  years  by  the  latter,  as  a  means  of  reproduc- 
tion, and  in  any  case  the  condition  of  the  soil  has 
been  an  active  agent  in  the  development  of  these 

John  W.  Odell. 

Barroto  Point,  Pinner. 


[Continued  from  />.  11.] 

WITH  the  revival  of  learning,  however,  towards 
the  end  of  the  middle  ages,  a  few  persons  re- 
sumed the  pursuit  of  Natural  Science.  Among  these 
the  foremost  was  Conrad  Gesner,  a  man  born  of  poor 
parents  at  Zurich,  A.D.  1516,  but  who  seems  to  have 
been  the  most  apt  and  indefatigable  of  men ;  His 
various  biographers  are  full  of  admiration  for  his 
personal  qualities,  and  his  learning  in  all  branches 
seems  to  have  been,  as  Hallam  says,  "simply 
prodigious."     The   same   author   speaks    of  him  as 



"probably  the  most  comprehensive   scholar   of  his 
age."     Gesner  wrote  on  many  subjects,  yet  his  fame 
rests  chiefly  on  his  almost  incredible  achievements  in 
Natural  History,  on  which  he  wrote  many  volumes, 
all  illustrated  by  thousands  of  figures  drawn  by  his 
own   hand   from    specimens    in    his    collection,    or 
executed  under  his  own  eye  by  his  assistants.     His 
museum   of    animals,    plants,    fossils,    &c,    brought 
visitors  from  all  parts,   and  his  correspondence  was 
carried  on  with  the  learned  men    of  every  nation. 
When  we  consider   that   he   accomplished   all   this 
while  obtaining  his  living  as  a  medical  man,  that  he 
was  always  of  delicate  health,  and  died  under  fifty 
years  of  age,  his  achievements  seem  truly  wonderful. 
He  died  in  the  scene  of  his  many  laborious  studies, 
amongst  the   objects   he  had    spent   his  lifetime   in 
collecting — being  carried   at   his   own    request   to  a 
couch   prepared   for  him  in  his    museum.     Gesner's 
"Natural  History  "  contained  all  that  was  previously 
known  relative  to  animals.     He  filled  up  many  gaps 
by  his  own  personal  observations,  and  thus  completed 
five   large  folios   with   merely   the    History   of  the 
Vertebrata ;    before   he    reached     the    Invertebrata, 
death   carried   him    off,    a.d.     1565.     Entomology, 
however,  was  not  destined  to  come  to  the  front  just 
yet,  for  Gesner's  posthumous  papers  on  the  subject 
fell    into   the    hands   of   the   well-known    Joachim 
Kamerarius,    with   whom   we   leave    them    for    the 

About  this  time  several  other  books  on  Natural 
History  and  Botany  were  published,  one  or  two  of 
which  contained  some  slight  notices  bearing  on  the 
objects  of  our  study. 

The  various  books  in  which  we  may  look  with  hope 
of  success  for  any  mention  of  insects,  may  be,  for 
convenience,  classed  under  the  following  heads  : — 1st, 
Medical  works ;  2nd,  General  histories  of  various 
countries,  including  books  of  travel ;  3rd,  Works 
on  Natural  History  generally  ;  and  lastly,  books  on 
certain  species  of  insects,  conspicuous  for  their  utility 
or  otherwise.  Under  the  first  head — medical — we 
find  many  writers  noticing  insects  briefly,  mostly 
however  in  connection  with  their  injurious  effects  on 
the  bodies  which  they  wound  or  sting,  and  the 
remedies  for  such  attacks ;  and  many  species  were 
also  then  used  in  medicine.  Chief  among  such 
writings  is  the  "Materia  Medica "  of  Dioscorides 
of  Anazarba,  the  first  printed  edition  of  whose 
works  was  not  however  published,  till  Conrad 
Gesner  edited  it  at  Frankfort,  A.D.  1549.*  Then 
followed  Mathioli's  "Materia  Medica,"  which  first 
appeared  in  fol.  at  Venice,  A.D.  1554.  This  great 
Italian  physician  was  much  prone  to  credulity,  yet 
his  work  had  a  long  reputation.  Also  in  Jodoc 
Willich's  "  Anatomie,"  f  published  in  the  same 
year,  we  find  a  dialogue  on  locusts. 

*  Another  edition  in  Svo.,  Parisiis,  1549. 

f  Dialogus  de  Locustis,  in  his  Anatomie,  Svo,  Argent.,  1544. 

In  the  next  class,  including  general  histories  of 
countries  and  books  of  travel,  we  find  the  works 
of  the  great  doctor  and  naturalist,  Pierre  Belon,  who 
published  a  book  at  Paris  a.d.  1554,  "On  many 
singularities  and  notable  things  found  in  Greece  "  ;  * 
and,  three  years  afterwards,  a  volume—"  Portraits  of 
Animals  and  Birds  of  Arabia  and  Egypt,"  f  — both 
of  which  describe  the  most  remarkable  insects  of  the 
countries  of  which  they  respectively  treat.  Gesner 
has  been  called  the  "compiler,"  and  Belon  the 
"  observer "  of  nature  ;  the  latter  certainly,  by  his 
laborious  research,  made  many  additions  to  Zoology  ; 
he  went  on  an  expedition  to  the  Levant,  on  purpose 
to  collect  specimens  there. 

In  the  third  class,  the  first  book  on  the  list  is  that 
of  Peucer,   whose  work  on   "  Quadrupeds,   Insects, 
&c,"  was  first  brought  out  at  Leipzig  a.d.  1550,  and 
went  through  many  subsequent  editions.  %     Next  we 
find  one  of  our  own  countrymen,   the  learned   Dr. 
Wotton,    publishing   at    Paris,  in  1552,   a  work  on 
"Natural    History "§    in    ten    books,  dedicated   to 
King  Edward  VI.     Dr.   Wotton  subsequently   pur- 
chased Gesner's  posthumous  papers   on   insects,    of 
which   I  spoke   above,    from  Joachim   Kamerarius. 
Another  writer,  according  to  Percheron,  treats  about 
this  time  of  water  insects,  viz.,  Guillaume  Rondelet, 
who  filled  a  large  folio  in  1554  at  Lyon,  on  "  Fishes, 
&c."  ||     I  cannot  say,  not  having  seen  the  volume, 
whether    it   contains  very   much    of   note    entomo- 
logically,   but  Rondelet  had  a   great   knowledge   of 
fishes — so  much   so,  that   his   work  has  formed  the 
foundation  of  all  subsequent  ones  on  the  same  subject, 
and  indeed  it  is  said  that  very  little  of  importance 
has  been  added  since  to  the  natural  history  of  the 
fishes   of  the  Mediterranean.     In  the  last  class  we 
find  several  small  works  on  various  species  of  insects 
noticeable  for  their  utility,    their  ravages   or  other- 
wise.    The  first  is  a  small  volume  by  Chr.  Hagen- 
drophinus,^    published   A.D.     1526  ;     the    next,    in 
point  of  time,  is  by  the  Latin  poet  Marcus  Hieronimus 
Vida,    who  was   born  at  Cremona  A.  D.    1490 :    he 
wrote  a  long  poem  on  "The  Culture  and  Use  of  the 
Silkworm,"  **     which   first    appeared   at  Rome    in 
1537,  and  went  through  as  many  as  nine  subsequent 
editions,    thus  showing  that  there   was   no   lack  of 
interest   in   the   silkworm  at   that   time.     Then  the 
bees  have    their   turn,    for   Giovanne   Rucellai,    an 

*  Observations  de  plusieurs  Singularites  et  Choses  memorables 
trouvees  en  Grece,  Asie,  Indee,  Egypte,  Arabie  et  autres  pays 
estranges— in  4to,  Paris,  1554;  in  8vo,  Anvers,  1558;  in  8vo, 
1589  (woodcuts). 

f  Portraits  d'Oiseaux,  Animaux,  etc.,  d'Arabie  et  d'Egyte, 
in  4to,  Paris,_i557  (woodcuts);  another  edit.  1618. 

+  Appellationes  quadrupedum,  insectorum,  etc.  etc.,  in  Svo. 
Lipsiae  1550,  Wittemberg,  1551,  1556,  and  1558 ;  Leipzig,  1559 
and  1564. 

$  De  differentiis  animalium  libri  decern  ;  in  fol.  Parisiis,  1532. 

||  De  piscibus  marinis,  universal  aquatilium  historiae  pars 
altera  (with  good  wood  engravings)  in  fol.,  Lugduni,  1534-55, 
and  a  French  Translation  in  fol.,  Lyon,  1558. 

IT  Declamatio  in  laudem  ebrietatis  et  encomium  Muses,  in 
8vo.  Hagenose,  1526. 

**  De  Bombycis  cura  et  usu,  libri  2,  in  4to,  Roma,  1537  ;  in 
Svo,  Lugduni,  1537;  in  8vo,  Basil,  1537;  in  ismo,  Antwerp, 
1585  ;  in  Svo,  Cremona,  1560. 

D  2 



Italian,  filled  an  8vo  volume  with  a  poem  describing 
their  economy,  which  was  first  published,  after  his 
death,  at  Venice,  A.D.  1539;*  this,  like  the  last, 
was  evidently  a  popular  work,  for  it  went  through 
five  other  editions,  and  we  find  it  said  by  a  con- 
temporary writer  that  the  "Bees,"  an  imitation  of 
the  4th  Georgic  of  Virgil,  was  esteemed  "a  poem 
of  exquisite  sweetness."  Two  years  after  this  (a.d. 
1 541)  we  find  in  volume  i.  of  a  book  by  Erasmus 
Ebernerus,  a  description  headed  "The  Praise  of 
Ants."  f  The  next  year,  a  German  of  the  name 
of  Ruscheyt  brought  out  a  volume  %  describing  the 
"  Grasshoppers  seen  in  Silesia  in  1542  "  ;  two  years 
later,  we  find  a  small  work  on  "Fleas,"  by  Mos- 
chetti,§  and  in  the  year  1546  one  Ant.  Thylesius 
brought  out  a  book  on  "  Spiders  and  Glow-worms."  |[ 
(To  be  continued.) 

The  very  contrary,  however,  is  the  case,  as  the 
expenditure  of  a  few  shillings,  and  a  little  ingenuity, 
are  all  that  are  required  in  the  way  of  outfit ;  and  the 
hire  of  a  boat  during  a  few  days'  stay  at  the  seaside 
will  give  amply  sufficient  opportunity  of  collecting  to 
enable  the  naturalist  to  accumulate  materials  for 
weeks — nay,  months — of  study.  It  is  with  the  view  of 
showing  this,  as  well  as  of  publishing  some  improve- 
ments in  appliances  for  the  purpose,  that  the  present 
paper  is  written. 

The  form  of  tow-net  hitherto  used  has  been  a 
simple  bag  of  bunting  held  open  by  a  metal  ring. 
The  word  "tow"  is  rather  a  misnomer,  as,  if 
towed  at  all,  it  must  be  at  a  very  low  rate  of  speed, 
as  anything  above  a  knot  or  a  knot  and  a-half  an 
hour  would  be  sure  to  result  in  the  destruction  of  the 
necessarily  flimsy  material  of  which  it  is  constructed. 



Fig.  36.— Long  Section  of  Tube.     One-third  real  size. 

Fig.  37. — End  of  Net,  with  Tube  fitted  ready  for  use. 


By  G.  W.  M.  Giles,  M.B., 

Surgeon,  Bengal  Med.  Service  ;  Naturalist,  Indian 

Marine  Survey. 

MOST  of  the  readers  of  Science-Gossip  are 
well  acquainted  with  the  fact  that  the  surface 
of  the  sea,  especially  near  the  coast,  swarms  with  an 
immense  variety  of  organisms,  belonging  mostly  to 
the  animal  side  of  animated  nature.  Not,  however, 
that  vegetable  forms  are  by  any  means  wanting  ; 
for  few  hauls  of  the  tow-net  can  be  made  which  do 
not  include  a  more  or  less  considerable  proportion  of 
Diatomacere  and  other  Algce  ;  but  these  do  not  pre- 
sent the  wonderful  variety  that  characterises  the  sur- 
face fauna.  Few,  however,  I  am  convinced,  of  the  ever- 
increasing  army  of  field  naturalists  are  aware  of  the 
simplicity  of  the  appliances  required  for  the  work  of 
collecting  in  this  really  delightful  field,  being  apt  to 
regard  it  as  within  the  resources  only  of  expeditions 
of  the  "  Challenger  "  sort. 

*  Apes,  in  8vo,  Venezia,  1539. 

-)•  Encomium  Formicarum,  Amphitheatr.,  Dornanii,  t.  1,  and 
with  "  Melanchthon"  in  4to,  Argent.,  1541- 

%  Wahrhaftige  Zeitung  in  Schlesien  geschehen,  1542,  von 
unerhijrten  Heuschrecken  wie  viel  der  gewessn,  und  was  sie 
gehaden  gethan  haben,  in  4to,  1542. 

}  De  Pulice,  in  8vo,  1544. 

||   De  Araneola  et  Cicindela,  8vo,  Lutet.,  1546. 

On  this  account,  by  far  the  best  way  of  employing  it 
is  to  fasten  it  to  some  fixed  object,  such  as  an 
anchored  ship  or  buoy,  in  a  moderate  tideway.  But, 
even  used  thus,  a  situation  should  be  chosen  where 
the  currents  are  not  too  strong,  as,  apart  from  the 
risk  of  damaging  the  net,  the  organisms  most  com- 
monly taken  are  so  delicate  that  they  become  irre- 
trievably spoiled  if  subjected  for  any  length  of  time 
to  the  action  of  a  strong  tide. 

About  twelve  months  ago  the  writer  was  appointed 
naturalist  to  the  Indian  Marine  Survey.  As  ships 
engaged  in  topographical  work  are  necessarily  em- 
ployed, for  the  most  part,  in  the  shallow  waters  of 
the  littoral  zone,  opportunities  for  deep-sea  dredging 
occur  only  occasionally  ;  and  accordingly  more  at- 
tention was  paid  to  the  surface  and  littoral  faunae. 

A  very  few  days'  trial  of  the  ordinary  bunting  bag 
sufficed  to  show  that  it  is  a  most  imperfect  piece  of 
apparatus.  The  difficulty  with  it  lies  not  so  much  in 
"catching  your  hare,"  as  in  getting  him  out  of  the 
trap  for  cooking.  The  method  adopted  is  to  invert 
the  bag,  and  wash  it  in  a  bell-glass  or  bucket  of  sea- 
water.  Not  only,  however,  does  a  large  portion  of  the 
catch  remain  sticking  to  the  bunting,  but  that  which 
is  washed  off  is  generally  much  mixed  up  with  hairs 
and  "fluff"  from  the  material,  and  is  moreover 
diffused  through  so  large  a  volume  of  water  that  one 
is  only  one  step  better  off  than  when  they  were  free 



in  the  ocean,  the  task  of  catching  any  individual 
specimen  being  much  like  the  traditional  quest  for 
the  needle  hidden  in  a  truss  of  bay. 

After  several  experiments  the  under- described 
form  of  drift-net  was  devised,  and  it  answers  so  well 
that,  for  surface-work,  it  leaves  little  to  be  desired. 
The  essential  point  of  the  improvement  lies  in  the 
tail  of  the  net  being  composed  of  a  glass  tube,  into 
which  the  whole  of  the  catch  is  carried  by  the  gentle 
current,  which  constantly  flows  through  the  net  as  it 
hangs  in  the  tideway. 

Fig.  38. — Outline  section  of  Net  and  Tube. 

do  is  to  obtain  a  circular  block  of  cork,  about  2 
inches  thick  and  4-5  inches  in  diameter.  A  hole  large 
enough  to  admit  the  narrow  part  of  the  tube,  but  to 
hold  it  tightly  near  the  shoulder,  is  then  cut  through 
the  centre  of  it.  Having  fitted  the  cork  thus  on  to 
the  tube,  place  them  together  in  a  bucket  of  water, 
when,  unless  your  lube  be  exceptionally  thick,  the 
whole  will  be  found  to  float.  Now  gradually  pare 
away  the  outer  edge  of  the  cork  until  the  two  together 
will  just  sink.  The  point  should  next  be  ascertained 
and  noted  at  which  the  cork  just  balances  the  tube 
in  the  water  in  a  horizontal  position. 

Now  make  a  tube  of  strong  calico  long  enough  to 

reach  from  this  point  to  the  end  of  the  small  part  of 

the  tube,  and   fitting  it  closely,  and  sew  on  to  its 

upper  end  a  funnel-shaped  piece  of  the  same  material 

spreading  out  rapidly  to  6  or  8  inches  in 

diameter.     Cover  your  cork  with  a  tight 

calico  jacket,  and  then  pass  the  lower  end 

of  the  calico  tube  through  the  hole  in  its 

centre,  and  stitch  its  edge  firmly  to  the  calico  forming 

the  margin  of  the  aperture  in  the  jacket. 

We  come  now  to  the  construction  of  the  net 
proper.  Bunting,  though  commonly  used  hitherto, 
is  a  bad  material  for  this,  being  too  "  fluffy."     The 

Fig.  39 — Showing  Net  suspended  from  bowsprit  end  of  ship. 

The  tubes  employed  for  the  purpose  were  chimneys 
from  a  large  argand  lamp,  and  these,  though  they 
might  be  improved  in  certain  details,  on  the  whole 
answer  very  well.  Such  lamp-glasses  consist  of  a 
long  tube  about  1 J  inches  in  diameter,  terminating  in 
a  shoulder,  which  unites  this  to  a  shorter  piece  of 
considerably  larger  diameter. 

For  our  especial  purpose  it  would  be  better  to 
have  the  long  portion  slightly  narrower,  and  the  part 
below  the  shoulder  considerably  wider  than  at  present, 
say  3-4  inches  in  diameter.  A  thickened  rim  to  the 
edge  of  this  would  be  a  further  advantage.  Such  a 
tube  would  appear  in  long  section  as  seen  in  Fig.  36. 

Having  selected  a  suitable  tube,  the  first  thing  to 

material  that  answered  best  was  a  very  coarse  but 
strong  unbleached  muslin,  of  native  manufacture. 
I  have  no  doubt,  however,  that  something  of  the 
same  sort  is  obtainable  at  home.  Of  this  a  conical 
bag  is  made,  18  inches  in  diameter  at  the  mouth, 
6  inches  below,  where  it  is  sewn  on  to  the  top  of  the 
calico  funnel,  and  3  or  4  feet  long.  The  mouth  is 
kept  open  by  a  ring  of  brass  wire  about  the  thick- 
ness of  a  penholder.  An  inner  conical  bag  about  18 
inches  long,  opens  below  into  the  main  bag.  The 
opening,  being  5  or  6  inches  in  diameter,  is  added  to 
act  as  a  trap  to  prevent  any  animals  that  may  have 
entered  from  escaping. 

In  practice  I  have  the  two  conical  bags  made  in 



one  piece  as  a  double  cone,  one  seam  of  the  smaller 
being  left  uncompleted,  so  that,  when  a  net  is  worn 
out,  all  that  is  necessary  is  to  turn  this  small  cone 
over  the  ring,  close  the  seam,  and  sew  lightly  together 
below  the  ring.  The  lower  calico  portion  outlasts 
several  changes  of  muslin.  Three  short  lengths  of 
cod-line  are  secured  to  equidistant  points  on  the 
circumference  of  the  ring  and  knotted  together  into 
a  loop,  about  three  or  four  feet  from  the  net,  which 
serves  to  bend  on  a  piece  of  log-line,  by  means  of 
which  the  net  is  hung  in  the  water. 

All  being  now  "  ready  for  sea,"  a  piece  of  fine 
muslin  is  stretched  over  the  large  end  of  the  glass 
tube,  and  tied  behind  the  shoulder  or  rim  with  a 
piece  of  fine  string,  the  ends  of  which  are  left  a  few 
inches  long.  The  small  end  of  the  glass  tube  is  now 
introduced,  through  the  cork,  into  the  calico  tube  ; 
and,  unless^ very  tightly  held,  for  extra  security,  the 
free  ends  of  the  string  used  to  lash  on  the  muslin 
are  knotted  together  and  tied  behind  the  cork.  Then, 
by  means  of  the  log-line,  the  whole  is  lowered  over- 
board into  the  tide. 

Fig-  37  shows  the  tube  in  place  ready  for  use ; 
Fig.  38,  a  long  section  of  the  entire  apparatus. 

And  now  as  to  the  method  of  using  it.  By  far 
the  best  plan  is  to  make  it  fast  to  a  small  buoy  in  a 
place  as  little  frequented  by  shipping  as  possible. 
For  this  purpose  a  small  keg  or  beaker,  anchored  by 
means  of  a  heavy  stone,  is  sufficient,  or,  in  harbours, 
advantage  may  be  taken  of  the  large  buoys  used  to 
mark  out  the  channels.  Of  course,  when  used  from 
a  rowing-boat,  nothing  more  is  necessary  than  to 
bring  this  to  an  anchor  in  a  suitable  situation,  or  to 
row  her  gently  so  as  to  make  her  just  hold  her  own 
against  the  tide  ;  but  in  a  ship  at  anchor  it  is  very 
difficult  to  find  a  situation  where  the  net  can  be  kept 
clear  of  the  rubbish  that  is  continually  being  thrown 

The  "Investigator,"  the  vessel  belonging  to  the 
Indian  Marine  Survey,  is  a  paddler,  and  by  rigging 
out  a  20-ft.  bamboo  from  the  paddle-box,  one  is 
enabled  to  get  pretty  clean  hauls  ;  but  in  a  screw- 
ship  a  much  longer  spar  would  be  required.  Perhaps, 
all  considered,  the  best  situation  on  shipboard  is  from 
the  bowsprit  end.  But,  in  this  case,  to  prevent  the 
net  from  being  carried  aft  against  the  bows,  a  141b. 
sounding  lead  must  be  made  fast  to  the  line,  about  a 
yard  from  the  net,  as  in  Fig.  39.  In  this  situation 
none  of  the  ship's  rubbish  can  possibly  get  into  the 
net ;  but  to  trust  its  application,  and  more  especially 
the  operation  of  drawing  it,  to  one  of  the  crew,  is  a 
somewhat  hazardous  experiment  ;  and  it  requires  a 
certain  amount  of  nautical  experience  to  enable  one 
to  go  out  on  the  spar  with  confidence.  Moreover,  in 
a  passenger  ship,  one  would  certainly  "get  one's  toes 
chalked,"  and  have  to  "pay  one's  footing"  for  the 
exploit ;  but,  these  difficulties  overcome,  the  perfect 
cleanness  of  the  haul  well  repays  the  small  extra 
trouble  and,  perchance,  expense. 

In  withdrawing  the  net  from  the  water,  care  should 
be  taken  not  to  do  so  too  suddenly,  as,  unless  raised 
slowly,  so  as  to  give  time  for  the  water  to  run  out 
through  the  interstices  of  the  muslin,  the  weight  of 
water  taken  up  is  apt  to  burst  the  net.  Before 
finally  withdrawing  the  tube  part  from  the  water  the 
ring  should  be  once  or  twice  dipped,  so  as  to  take  up 
a  little  water,  which  washes  through  the  bag  and 
carries  anything  that  may  be  left  adhering  to  the 
muslin  on  into  the  tube.  As  soon  as  the  net  has 
been  hauled  aboard,  the  tube  end  should  at  once  be 
immersed  in  a  bucket  of  sea- water  ;  and,  holding  it  in 
this  position,  the  bag  part  is  removed  by  drawing  off 
the  cork  ring.  Now  raise  the  tube  until  only  about 
half  or  three-quarters  of  an  inch  of  water  is  left  in 
the  large  end.  Insert  a  well-fitting  indiarubber  cork 
into  the  small  end,  and  smartly  invert  the  tube ; 
after  which  the  muslin  may  be  removed  from  the 
large  end. 

On  holding  the  tube  up  to  the  light  it  will,  as  a 
rule,  be  found  to  completely  swarm  with  organisms 
of  the  most  varied  descriptions  ;  and  any  individual 
that  may  be  especially  remarked  may  be  captured  at 
this  stage  by  means  of  a  section-lifter  provided  with 
a  very  long  handle,  and  put  aside.  If,  however,  as 
is  most  commonly  the  case,  the  crowd  is  so  dense 
that  it  is  impossible  to  follow  the  motions  of  any 
individual  specimen,  the  catch  must  be  examined  in 
successive  small  portions,  in  a  large  flat  glass  cell 
under  the  simple  microscope.  For  work  on  ship- 
board, on  account  of  the  motion,  it  is  necessary  to 
have  these  cells  deep  in  proportion  to  the  depth  of 
fluid  they  are  intended  to  contain  :  3  X  2  X  f  inches 
is  a  useful  size. 

(To  be  continued.) 


By  J.  W.  Williams,  D.Sc,  &c 

TO  me  the  slugs,  with  their  near  relatives  the 
snails,  stand  as  the  greatest  living  protests  to 
the  promulgation  of  Linne  of  the  stability  of  species. 
In  one  of  his  occasional  addresses,  contained  in  the 
"  Amoenitates  Academica:,"  and  entitled,  "  Oratiode 
tellure  habitabili,"  the  great  Swede  says :  "  Initio 
rerum  ex  omni  specie  viventium  unicum  sexus  par 
fuisse  creatum  suadet  ratio  ;"  and  this  maxim  held  its 
ground  until  Cuvier  followed  him,  and  with  a  tincture 
of  philosophy  questioned  the  persistence  of  species ; 
and  the  observations  and  logical  deductions  made  by 
naturalists  since  his  time,  such  as  Geoffrey  St.  Hilaire, 
Lamarck,  Oken,  Goethe,  Wallace,  Darwin,  Haeckel, 
and  others,  have  furnished  data  to  conclusively  nega- 
tive any  adherence  to  the  old  doctrine  of  Linnaeus. 
To-day  in   our   own  country   the   conchologists   are 



showing,  with  an  assiduity  which  of  itself  commands 
the  highest  praise,  the  variations  to  which  the  species 
belonging  to  their  special  group  are  liable,  and  they 
are  doing  this  not  only  from  this  one  point,  but, 
taking  their  distribution  in  space  into  consideration, 
they  are  prosecuting  their  labours  to  the  utmost  in 
order  to  reduce  all  these  variations  down  to  the 
causes  that  have  produced  them.  And  it  has  occurred 
to  me  that  in  working  out  the  etiology  of  these 
variations  there  would  be  great  aid  rendered  were 
the  general  distribution,  both  of  themselves  and  of 
the  type-forms,  taken  into  account,  and  especially  so 
where  the  geological  formation  of  the  several  countries 
has  been  fully  worked  out.  For  this  reason  this 
paper  has  been  written ;  and,  in  order  to  make  it  the 
more  useful  to  collectors  in  this  country,  I  have 
described  in  full  all  the  named  varieties  of  the  slugs 
that  are  indigenous  to  this  country,  those  that  have 
as  yet  been  recorded  as  British  being  denoted  by  an 
asterisk.  And  for  those  especially  working  at  the 
slugs,  I  have  appended  a  bibliography  for  further 

Arion  ater,  Linn. — This  slug  is  generally  dis- 
tributed over  the  Continent,  ranging  from  Norway 
over  France  (particularly  in  this  country  it  occurs  in 
the  north  and  centre)  and  Germany  to  Spain,  Corsica, 
Italy,  Sicily,  and  even  into  Africa  and  the  islands  of 
Madeira  and  the  Azores.  Its  varieties  with  their 
distributions  are  as  follows  : — 

Var.  virescens,  Mull. :  animal  greenish,  with  two 
lateral  bands  of  an  orange-yellow  colour  ( =  A.  vi- 
rescens, Mull.).     French. 

Var.  rubra,  Moq. :  animal  reddish  or  dull  red, 
unicolor.     French. 

Var.  Draparnaudi* ,  Moq.  :  animal  dark  red,  foot- 
fringe  yellowish  or  reddish.     Also  French. 

Var.  succinea*',  Mull.  :  animal  yellowish,  unicolor 
(=  L.  succineus,  Mull.).     Also  French. 

Var.  bicolor*  (V.-Broek),  Moq.  :  animal  dark 
brown,  sides  yellowish  or  orange.  (This  variety  has 
been  recently  found  at  Louth  by  Mr.  Wallis  Kew.) 
Also  French. 

Var.  nigrescens*,  Moq.  :  animal  blackish,  foot- 
fringe  reddish  or  yellowish.  Moquin  describes  this 
variety  as  French,  and  Locard  has  recorded  it  from 
Dauphine  and  the  Savoy. 

Var.  marginata* ,  Moq.  :  animal  black,  foot-fringe 
yellow,  orange,  or  of  a  red-lead  colour.     French. 

Var.  Miilleri,  Moq.  :  animal  black,  keel  pale 
greenish.     French. 

Var.  pallescens  *,  Moq.  :  animal  dirty  white,  a  little 
reddish  or  yellowish.     Also  French. 

Var.  albida*,  Roebuck  :  animal  white,  unicolor. 
Not  yet  recorded  for  any  other  country  but  England. 

Var.  rtifa*,  Linn.  :  animal  red  or  brownish,  uni- 
color {—  L.  ricfus,  Linn.  ;  "  Syst.  Nat."  edit.  x. 
1758,  p.  652).     Also  French. 

Var.  albolatcralis  *,  Roebuck  :  animal  dark  brown 
or  blackish,  with  the  sides  white  and  the  foot-fringe 

orange ;  the  two  last  colours  being  very  sharply 
defined  from  one  another.  (This  beautiful  variety, 
which  was  described  in  1883,  is  only  known  from 
North  Wales  and  Sussex.) 

Var.  pallescens  *,  Roebuck  :  animal  light  yellow. 
This  variety  is  closely  identical  with  var.  succinea, 
Mull.,  and  ought  perhaps  to  be  associated  with  it. 

Var.  cinerea,  Westerl.  :  animal  ashy,  with  three 
lateral  pale  black  bands.     Scandinavian. 

Var.  grisco-?)ia)-gi?iata,  Dumont  and  Mortillet :  ani- 
mal pale  blackish,  foot-fringe  grey.  Locard  found 
this  variety  in  the  woods  of  Mount  Saxonnet  at  1000 
metres  altitude.     French. 

Var.  nigra  *,  Dumont  and  Mortillet  :  animal  black 
or  blackish  (=  type). 

Var.  aterrima,  Dumont  and  Mortillet :  animal  en- 
tirely black  (=  type). 

M.  Mabille  records  Arion  ater  from  the  following 
French  districts,  which  show  well  the  distribution  of 
this  species  in  that  country  :  La  Seine,  Champagne, 
Haut-Rhin,  Haute-Garonne,  Agenais,  Var,  Dau- 
phine, Hautes-Pyrenees,  Lozere,  Ariege,  Aude, 
Savoy,  the  Oriental  Pyrenees,  and  the  Vosges. 

Arion  flavus,  Miill. — This  is  a  very  doubtful 
species.  Moquin-Tandon  in  his  "  Histoire  naturelle 
des  Mollusques  de  France,"  records  three  varieties  as 
French,  viz.: — 

Var.  normalis,  Moq.  :  animal  yellow,  head  and 
tentacles  black. 

Var.  pallida,  Moq.  :  animal  pale,  back  slightly 
ashy,  mantle  yellow. 

Var.  albida,  Moq.  :  animal  whitish,  mantle  and 
sole  of  foot  yellowish,  tentacles  blackish. 

Arion  hortensis,  Fer. — This,  the  garden  slug, 
is  a  generally  distributed  species,  both  in  England 
and  on  the  Continent. 

Var.  dorsalis,  Moq.  :  animal  grey,  with  a  black 
band  on  mantle  and  back.     French. 

Var.  leucophaca,  Moq.  :  animal  bluish-grey,  striped 
and  spotted  with  black.  French.  Drouet  records 
this  from  Troyes,  and  Normand  from  Valenciennes. 

Var.  fasciata*,  Moq.:  animal  grey,  black  bands. 
Also  French. 

Var.  nigra,  Moq.  :  animal  black,  with  lateral  grey 
bands.     French. 

Var.  Pyrena'ica,  Moq.  :  animal  deep  grey,  with  a 
blackish  band  on  each  side.  Locard  took  this  at 
Luchon.     French. 

Var.  grisea  *,  Moq. :  animal  pale  grey,  unicolor. 
Also  French. 

Var.  limbata,  Moq.  :  animal  black  or  blackish,  foot- 
margin  orange  or  pale  yellow.     French. 

Var.  alpicola,  Moq.  :  animal  reddish-grey,  black 
bands.  French.  Charpentier  found  this  variety  on 
the  Alps.  Found  also  by  Lessona  on  the  Lombardian 
and  Piedmontese  Alps. 

Var.  rufescens  *,  Moq.  :  animal  reddish,  black 
bands.     Also  French. 

Var.  subfusca,  Pfeiff.  :  animal  brownish,  with  a  black 



band  on  each  side.  This  variety  has  been  recorded 
for  Britain,  but,  I  believe,  on  unreliable  authority. 

Var.  viresccns,  Moq.:  animal  greenish,  black  bands. 

Var.  aurea,  Lessona  and  Pollonera  :  animal  white, 
back  yellowish,  mantle  white,  foot-margin  yellowish 
gold  ;  bands  of  back  and  mantle  obsolete.  Italian. 
("  Questa  varieta  non  si  rinvenne  finora  che  a  Riva- 
rossa  in  Piemonte." — Lessona  and  Pollonera.  See 

Var.  nemoralis,  Dumont  and  Mortillet :  animal  of 
pale  colour,  with  the  sides  scarcely  coloured,  with 
the  mantle  often  of  a  lighter  colour  than  the  back. 

I  first  noticed  it  upon  this  coast  in  1882,  when  I 
took  three  or  four  specimens  in  St.  Clements  Bay. 
I  sent  these  to  various  friends  for  identification,  but 
without  result. 

In  1884,  while  collecting  in  the  same  locality  with 
Dr.  Kcehler  (of  the  Faculte  des  Sciences,  Nancy),  I 
called  his  attention  to  a  specimen,  which  he  at  once 
recognised  from  the  description  of  Signoret  as  the 
insect  recorded  from  Rhe,  and  named  sEpophilus 

We  were  fortunate  in  obtaining  about  a  dozen 
specimens  in  that  one  tide ;  Dr.  Kcehler  was  thus 
enabled  to  make  some  observations  on  its  anatomy 

Fig.  40. — sEfophilus  Bonnairei    (X  16). 

French.     Locard    found   this  variety   in  Savoy   and 

Var.  alpestris,  Dumont  and  Mortillet :  animal  of  a 
very  deep  colour,  so  that  the  bands  on  the  mantle  are 
not  discernible.  This  was  also  found  by  Locard  in 
Savoy  and  Haute-Savoie. 

(To  be  continued.) 


THIS  marine,  or  rather  submarine,  insect,  which 
appears  to  have  escaped  the  attention  of 
English  naturalists,  is  not  uncommon  on  the  coast  of 
Jersey.  Hitherto  it  has  been  recorded  in  one  instance 
only  (1879),  as  taken  in  the  Isle  of  Rhe,  in  the  Bay  of 
Biscay,  and  described  by  Signoret  in,  I  believe,  the 
transactions  of  the  Paris  Academy  of  Science. 

Fig.  41. — ,-Epophilus  Bonnairei    (under- 
side X  16). 

which  are  very  interesting,  and  have  now  appeared 
in  his  "  Recherches  sur  la  Faune  narine  des  lies 

The  following  is  a  description  of  the  insect : 
Length,  one-sixth  of  an  inch  ;  breadth,  one-twelfth  ; 
colour,  deep  reddish-brown ;  body,  limbs,  and 
antennas  closely  covered  with  fine  silky  hairs  of  a 
yellowish  tint ;  eyes  which  are  compound  and  very 
brilliant,  ruby-red ;  wings,  the  horny  portion  (it 
must  no  doubt  be  classed  with  the  Heteroptera) 
alone  developed.  It  lives  under  stones  which  are 
rather  deeply  set  in  the  loose  gravel,  in  proximity  to 
rocks.  That  it  is  unquestionably  marine  is  shown 
by  the  fact,  that  it  is  invariably  found  in  company 
with  such  animals  as  Nereis,  Phascolosoma,  Astemma, 
and  Gammarus.  Upon  some  of  these  it  no  doubt  de- 
pends for  its  subsistence.  It  is  a  nimble  little  insect, 
running  with  great  rapidity,  and,  among  the  bits  of 

HARD  WICKE '  5  5  CIE  NCE  -  G  O  SSI  P. 


stone  and  coarse  gravel,  not  by  any  means  easy  to 

The  two  or  three  localities  in  which  I  have  taken 
it  are  covered  at  high  tide  by  about  three  and  a-half 
to  four  fathoms  of  water.  How  respiration  is  carried 
on  during  the  period  of  submergence,  which  amounts 
during  average  tides  to  about  seven  hours  out  of 
twelve,  and  during  neap  tides  to  some  sixty  or 
seventy  consecutive  hours,  is  not  easy  to  determine  ; 
for,  from  specimens  which  I  have  kept  in  a  bottle  and 
carefully  observed,  ^Epophilus  does  not,  like  the 
aquatic  Coleoptera,  enclose  air  either  among  its  hairs 
or  under  its  rudimentary  wings.  Dr.  Kcehler  is  of 
opinion  that  it  must  be  able  to  suspend  that  function 
entirely  during  submergence. 

It  has  but  poor  natatorial  powers,  and  when  put 


By  Dr.  A.  B.  Griffiths,  F.C.S.  (Lond.  &  Paris). 

THE  so-called  green  glands  of  the  fresh-water 
crayfish  lie  in  the  cavity  of  the  head,  below  the 
front  part  of  the  cardiac  division  of  the  stomach. 
The  openings  of  these  organs  are  to  be  found  at  the 
base  of  each  antenna.  The  organ,  carefully  dissected 
out  of  the  head  of  a  freshly  killed  crayfish,  is  seen  to 
consist  of  two  principal  parts  :  an  uppermost  one, 
which  is  a  transparent  and  delicate  sac-like  body 
filled  with  a  clear  fluid,  and  an  underlying  portion  of 
a  green  colour,  glandular  in  appearance,  containing 
granular  cells. 

Fig.  42. — From  a  photograph  of  some  of  Uric  Acid  crystals  isolated 
from  the  secretion  of  the  green  glands  of  several  crayfishes,  and 
mounted  to  form  a  slide  for  the  microscope.  In  the  above  figure 
the  urinary  pigments  coating  some  of  the  crystals  are  to  be  seen. 

Fig.  43- — From  a  slide  of  Murexide,  prepared  by  the  action  of  nitric 
acid  and  ammonia  on  the  uric  acid  obtained  from  the  secretion  of 
the  green  gland  of  Astacus  Jluviatilis. 

into  a  bottle  of  water  seems  quite  helpless,  unless  it 
can  get  hold  of  some  small  stone  or  loose  gravel  in 
the  bottom,  under  which  it  quickly  disappears. 

The  figure  which  I  send  herewith  gives  a  very 
good  idea  of  the  insect  ;  but,  as  I  have  not  a  micro- 
meter,  I  cannot  give  the   exact   enlargement ;  it  is 

about  X  16. 

Joseph  Sinel. 

David  Place,  Jersey. 

The  "  Surrey  Garner,"  edited  by  Mr.  A.  Ramsay, 
F.G.S.,  of  which  No.  I  has  just  appeared,  com- 
mences with  the  mollusca  of  that  lovely  county, 
and  also  contains  the  editor's  address,  on  "  Surrey 
Scientific  Researches,"  delivered  as  the  presidential 
address  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Lambeth  Field 
Club  last  June. 

Formerly,  as  is  well  known,  these  green  glands  were 
looked  upon  as  the  auditory  organs  of  the  animal ; 
but  in  1848  Professors  Will  and  Gorup-Besanez  (see 
"  Gelehrte  Anzeigen  d.  k.  Baierischen  Akademie," 
No.  233,  184S)  said  that  this  organ  probably  con- 
tained guanin,  and  from  this  time  it  has  been  con- 
sidered as  a  secretory  organ. 

Having  made  a  careful  study  of  the  secretion  of 
this  organ  from  a  chemical  and  microscopical  point 
of  view,  this  memoir  details  my  work  and  conclusions 
arrived  at  concerning  this  green  gland. 

The  secretion  of  this  gland  is  acid  to  litmus  paper. 
On  treating  the  secretion  obtained  from  a  large 
number  of  green  glands  with  hot  dilute  sodium 
hydrate  solution  and  then  adding  hydrochloric  acid, 
a  slight  flaky  precipitate  was  obtained ;  and,  on 
examining  these    flakes  under  the   microscope,  they 



were  seen  to  consist  of  small  crystals  in  rhombic 
plates.  On  treating  the  secretion  with  alcohol  these 
rhombic  crystals  are  deposited,  which  are  soluble  in 
boiling  water.  When  these  crystals  precipitated  from 
the  secretion  are  moistened  with  dilute  nitric  acid, 
alloxanthine  (C8H4N407)  is  produced  ;  and  this  body 
treated  with  warm  ammonia,  reddish  purple  murexide 
or  the  ammonium  purpurate  (C8H4(NH4)N506)  of 
Prout  is  obtained.  This  murexide  so  obtained  crys- 
tallises in  prisms,  which  by  reflected  light  exhibit  a 
splendid  green  metallic  lustre,  and  by  transmitted 
light  they  are  a  deep  reddish-purple.  On  running  in 
a  solution  of  potassium  hydrate  on  to  a  microscopic 
slide  containing  some  of  these  murexide  crystals,  they 
were  dissolved. 

From  these. reactions  it  is  evident  that  these  rhom- 
bic crystals  are  deposits  of  uric  acid  (C5H4N403), 
from  the  secretion  of  the  green  gland  of  the  crayfish. 
On  examining  the  uric  acid  crystals  (deposited  from 
the  secretion  by  means  of  alcohol)  by  means  of  the 
microscope,  they  are  seen  to  be  covered  more  or 
less  with  a  very  thin  and  superficial  coating  of  some 
brown  colouring  matter,  probably  some  urinary  pig- 

But,  beyond  this  discovery  of  uric  acid  in  the 
secretion  of  the  green  gland  of  Astacus  fluviatilis, 
I  have  found  that  on  treating  the  secretion  with 
boiling  hydrochloric  acid,  a  solution  was  obtained 
containing  in  suspension  flaky  uric  acid,  which  was 
filtered  off;  and,  on  allowing  the  filtrate  to  cool,  a  few 
crystals  of  guanin  hydrochlorate  (CsH5N50,  HC1, 
H20)  separate  which  are  soluble  in  hot  water  ;  and 
on  the  addition  of  ammonia  to  this  hot  aqueous  so- 
lution, a  precipitate  is  obtained  of  guanin  (C5H3N50), 
the  precipitated  guanin  being  made  up  of  numbers 
of  minute  crystals.  On  running  in  warm  dilute  nitric 
acid  (on  to  the  slide),  these  crystals  disappeared,  but 
were  precipitated  again  on  adding  a  drop  of  silver 
nitrate,  in  the  form  of  the  nitrate  of  silver  compound 
(C5HsN50,  AgNO,)  of  guanin. 

I  think  this  investigation  proves  that  this  so-called 
green  gland  of  Astacus  fluviatilis  is  a  true  urinary 
organ,  its  secretion  containing  uric  acid  and  very  small 
traces  of  the  base  guanin.  So  the  green  gland  is 
physiologically  the  kidney  of  the  animal ;  the  delicate 
sac-like  body  is  the  bladder,  and  the  small  duct 
between  them  answers  morphologically  to  the  ureter 
of  the  higher  animals. 

In  conclusion,  I  may  mention  that  the  crayfishes 
were  obtained  from  Messrs.  Jowett  &  Co.,  of  Cor- 
poration Street,  Manchester.  I  wish  here  to  tender 
my  best  thanks  to  Mr.  F.  J.  Deakin  (a  pupil  of  mine 
in  the  laboratories  of  the  Technical  College,  Man- 
chester) for  the  beautiful  photographs  he  has  taken 
of  the  microscopic  crystals  of  uric  acid  and  murexide. 

Mimulus  luteus. — We  have  had  notification  of 
this  plant  having  been  found  wild  on  the  banks  of 
the  Ribble,  near  Mytton,  by  M.  E.  A. 

By  W.  Mattieu  Williams,  F.R.A.S.,  F.C.S. 

LOUIS  AGASSIZ.—  The  biography  of  Agassiz, 
edited  by  his  widow,  and  lately  published  by 
Macmillan,  describes  the  career  of  a  genuine  student: 
of  one  who  struggled  into  science  in  spite  of  serious 
difficulties  ;  who  encountered  poverty  in  consequence 
of  his  devotion ;  who  finally  overcame  all,  and  by 
dint  of  his  own  moral  and  intellectual  energy  rose 
to  a  high  place  among  the  prophets  of  Nature. 

One  of  the  days  that  are  written  in  very  bright  red 
letters  on  the  tablets  of  my  memory  is  that  which  I 
spent  on  the  Aar  Glacier  (August  21,  1S42),  where 
Agassiz  and  his  merry  men  were  encamped  on  a 
great  boulder  in  a  hut  surmounted  with  a  bold  in- 
scription, "  Hotel  des  Neufchatelois."  They  were 
studying  Nature  from  her  own  text-book,  in  the  midst 
of  many  hardships,  which  they  heartily  enjoyed. 
The  great  phenomena  of  glaciers  were  then  but 
recently  revealed,  and  some  of  the  most  important  of 
the  revelations  were  the  work  of  Agassiz  on  this  spot. 
No  less  than  ten  of  us,  eight  tourists  and  two  guides, 
started  from  the  Hospice  of  the  Grimsel,  and  invaded 
his  glacier  sanctuary  rather  rudely  and  unceremoni- 
ously (as  I  now  think) ;  but  he  received  us  most 
genially  and  hospitably,  supplying  coffee  and  welcome 
all  round.  We  were  chiefly  students  with  one  pro- 
fessor, Pictet— if  I  understand  rightly,  the  only  one  of 
the  party  previously  known  to  Agassiz. 

The  most  interesting  points  of  the  glacier,  the 
glacier  tables,  cones,  baignoires,  trous  meridionaux, 
etc.,  were  visited.  We  descended  a  great  crevasse  to 
a  smoking  saloon  hewn  out  of  the  ice  about  twenty 
feet  below  its  surface,  and  I  learned  more  about 
glacier  details  in  one  day  than  any  amount  of  reading 
could  supply. 

A  little  incident  displayed  the  earnest  enthusiasm 
of  Agassiz.  I  had  come  just  fresh  from  attending 
Jamieson's  class  on  natural  history  in  the  Univer- 
sity of  Edinburgh,  the  old  man  having  taken  up  the 
new  and  startling  doctrine  of  glacial  extension  very 
warmly,  in  spite  of  his  general  conservative  tendencies. 
This  had  opened  my  eyes,  and,  in  the  course  of  a 
walk  from  Paris  to  Switzerland,  I  had  made  some 
observations  and  theories  of  my  own.  One  of  them, 
which  appeared  then  to  be  monstrously  daring,  was 
that  certain  mysterious  heaps  of  stones  I  had  seen  in 
the  forest  of  Fontainebleau  were  moraines  of  ancient 
glaciers.  I  timidly  ventured  to  propound  this  wild 
speculation  to  mine  host.  He  grasped  my  hand 
most  genially,  telling  me  that  he  knew  them,  and 
was  satisfied  that  I  was  right,  but  I  must  not  expect 
anybody  outside  of  the  Hotel  des  Neufchatelois  to 
agree  with  me  :  the  time  had  not  yet  arrived  for  belief 
in  die  full  truth  of  glacier  extension. 

Remembering  this  and  the  impression  made  upon 
me  by  the  enthusiastic  go-ahead  temperament  of  the 



author  of  "  Les  Poissons  Fossiles,"  and  "  Etudes  sur 
les  Glaciers,"  I  must  "improve  the  occasion"  by  a 
preachment  of  warning  to  my  readers.  Beware  of 
the  first  symptom  of  second  childhood  ;  the  first  film 
which  old  age  spreads  over  the  intellectual  vision ; 
that  blind  conservatism  that  repels  progressive  inno- 
vation int  he  region  of  your  own  speciality.  Louis 
Agassiz,  the  great  progressive  naturalist  of  fifty  years 
ago,  died  in  darkness,  having  during  his  latter  years 
stubbornly  shut  his  eyes  against  the  new  light  of 
biological  evolution. 

Solidifying  Gravel-drift. — On  sinking  the 
shafts  for  a  coal-mine,  many  difficulties  are  encount- 
ered. Outsiders  commonly  suppose  that  the  hardness 
of  the  rocks  to  be  penetrated  is  one  of  the  greatest. 
This,  however,  is  far  from  being  the  case.  When 
the  sinkers  are  going  through  what  they  call  the 
"metal,"  i.e.  the  hardest  rocks  of  the  district,  they 
are  paid  at  a  higher  rate  per  yard  for  their  work,  but 
this  does  not  practically  increase  the  cost,  as  such 
rock  may  remain  bare,  without  the  ordinary  brick 
lining.  Softer  shaly  rock  requires  such  lining,  and 
in  some  cases  "  tubbing  "  with  iron.  But  the  worst  of 
all  is  loose  ground — gravelly  deposits  which  run  in 
from  the  sides  of  the  sinking,  filling  up  the  shaft  as 
the  men  sink  it,  and  imperilling  the  whole  super- 
structure of  internal  brickwork,  as  the  subterranean 
tower  formed  by  the  ordinary  lining  must  necessarily 
rest  on  something  below.  When  such  running  ground 
is  encountered,  this  internal  tower  has  to  be  supported 
by  chains  or  scaffolding,  or  both,  while  the  battle 
with  the  loose  ground  is  fought  below  at  hourly  risk 
of  life,  until  a  solid  substratum  is  reached  upon  which 
a  lower  tower  is  built  to  reach  up  to  the  one  that  is 
undermined  and  suspended. 

The  same  difficulty  may  be  encountered  in  tunnel- 
ling— has  been  lately  in  making  a  tunnel  at  Stockholm 
which  passes  through  a  hill  of  light  wet  gravel.  The 
contractor,  Captain  Lindmark,  has  successfully  over- 
come the  difficulty  by  a  novel  and  ingenious  device. 
He  employs  refrigerating  machinery  similar  to  that 
which  is  used  in  supplying  us  with  New  Zealand  and 
Australian  mutton.  With  this  he  converts  the  wet 
gravel  into  solid  rock,  cuts  it  accordingly,  and  while 
it  yet  remains  frozen  builds  up  the  excavated  portion 
with  suitable  supporting  masonry.  We  are  told  that 
"  the  results  have  been  in  every  way  satisfactory,  and 
already  several  large  houses  have  been  safely  passed 
under."  This  being  the  case,  but  a  small  step  further 
is  necessary  in  order  to  apply  the  same  principle  in 
sinking  pit-shafts  through  similar  ground. 

Seeing  the  Invisible. — This  apparent  paradox 
has  actually  been  achieved — is  in  fact  now  becoming 
quite  easy  of  achievement  ;  and  the  invisible  objects 
displayed  to  sight  exist  both  in  the  heavens  above, 
and  in  the  earth  beneath.  Our  eyes  can  only  show 
.us  the  impressions  that  are  made  instantaneously  on 

the  concave  plate  of  nervous  matter  which  lines  the 
back  of  the  camera-obscura,  constituting  the  forward 
portion  of  our  organic  optical  apparatus.  But  the 
silver  retina  at  the  back  of  the  photographic  camera- 
obscura  has  the  faculty  of  accumulating  the  impression 
it  receives  ;  and  thus,  by  long  exposure  to  an  object  too 
faint  to  make  a  picture  at  once,  either  on  a  silver  salt, 
or  on  the  rods  and  cones  of  the  organic  camera,  the 
continuously  repeated  throbs  of  otherwise  obscure 
radiations  ultimately  coincide  to  produce  a  visible 
picture.  Stars  still  fainter  than  the  debilissima  of 
Herschel,  below  the  sixteenth  magnitude,  and  beyond 
the  reach  of  telescopic  vision,  have  been  revealed  by 
photography ;  a  nebula  in  the  Pleiades,  of  which  the 
most  powerful  telescopes  gave  no  indication,  has  been 
discovered,  and  all  have  been  accurately  mapped. 

Leaping  at  a  bound  from  the  inconceivably  great 
down  to  the  marvellously  small,  the  photographic 
retina  applied  to  the  eyeplace  of  the  microscope 
displays  markings  on  the  siliceous  frustules  of  Dia- 
tomaceas  which  the  human  eye  similarly  applied  is 
unable  to  see.  Verily  a  new  world  is  opened  out 
hereby.  What  mysteries  of  organic  structure  may 
yet  be  revealed  ? 

Photographs  of  Speech. — As  an  appendix  to 
the  above,  I  may  direct  attention  to  a  note  presented 
to  the  Academy  of  Sciences  on  January  18,  by  M. 
Leon  Esquille,  who  claims  to  have  succeeded,  by 
means  of  the  photophone,  in  fixing  on  a  photographic 
plate  the  modulations  of  the  voice,  afterwards  re- 
producing the  words  by  the  telephone,  and  projecting 
in  oxyhydric  light  the  positive  image  of  the  plate  on 
Mercadier's  selenium  receiver.  Such  is  the  announce- 
ment of  this  exploit  given  in  "Nature" — vague  at 
present,  and  liable  to  the  disappointments  that  have 
befallen  Edison's  phonograph,  that  was  very  much 
announced.  A  little  time,  however,  will  show  to 
what  extent  the  expectations  thus  suggested  may  be 

Botanical  Communism. — At  the  annual  meeting 
of  the  Association  of  German  Naturalists,  held  at 
Strassburg  in  September  last,  a  subject  of  considerable 
interest  to  students  of  natural  history  was  discussed. 
Several  eminent  continental  botanists  agree  in  affirm- 
ing that  a  considerable  number  of  phanerogams, 
especially  forest  trees,  do  not  draw  their  soil  food 
directly  from  the  soil,  but  are  clothed  and  fed  by  the 
agency  of  an  investing  layer  of  fungus-mycelium,  to 
which  the  name  of  Mycorhiza  has  been  given. 

The  investing  fungus  is  not  a  parasite,  properly  so 
called,  though  it  appears  to  feed  upon  the  rootlets  it 
clothes.  There  is  a  mutual  dependence,  an  equitable 
giving  and  taking,  going  on  between  the  root  and  the 
fungus — that  kind  of  friendly  proceeding  known  as 
symbiosis.  In  many  of  the  cases  named  the  coating 
of  fungus  completely  envelops  the  root,  and  is 
especially  well  developed  at  its  apex,  the  thickness 



of  the  fungus  often  being  two  or  three  times  as  great 
as  that  of  the  epidermis. 

Dr.  Frank  states  that  all  our  native  oaks,  beeches, 
hornbeams,  chestnuts  and  hazels  are  covered  with  a 
dense  cortex  of  this  Mycorhiza,  organically  associated 
in  growth  with  the  root,  completely  enveloping  it, 
even  to  the  growing-point.  He  found  it  present  on 
every  root  he  examined  of  trees  belonging  to  the 
Cupuliferre,  occasionally  on  Salicacefe  and  Coniferse, 
but  not  on  woody  plants  belonging  to  other  natural 
orders,  nor  on  any  herbaceous  plant. 

Here  is  a  good  subject  for  observation  by  our 
amateur  naturalists  during  the  coming  season,  who 
may  be  able  to  communicate  some  interesting  results 
to  this  magazine. 

Do  Snakes  swallow  their  Young?— A  very 
positive  confirmatory  contribution  to  this  question  is 
supplied  in  a  letter  from  "  A  Creole  "  to  "  Nature  "  of 
January  21.  The  usual  evidence  is  that  of  seeing 
the  snake  open  its  mouth  and  the  young  enter  it, 
which,  considering  the  rapidity  of  movement,  the 
smallness  of  the  objects,  and  the  distance  at  which 
they  are  observed  (in  the  case  of  venomous  snakes),  is 
by  no  means  satisfactory,  the  alternative  of  taking 
shelter  under  the  mother  being  an  open  one.  The 
writer  in  "  Nature,"  however,  states  a  case  which 
leaves  no  possibility  of  mistake.  A  snake  of  the  species 
locally  known  as  the  labaria,  was  killed  at  Demerara 
by  a  coolie  ;  its  head  cut  off  and  buried,  and  its 
body  interred  in  a  separate  grave,  according  to  the 
prevailing  coolie  custom,  thereby  securing  two  objects 
considered  very  desirable  :  the  first,  that  no  bare- 
footed bushman  shall  tread  upon  the  head,  and  thus 
be  wounded  by  the  poison  fangs  ;  and,  second,  that  the 
head  shall  not  reunite  with  the  body  and  thereby 
effect  a  resurrection  !  The  writer  of  the  letter  had 
the  buried  body  dug  up  for  examination  by  the  coolie 
that  killed  and  buried  it.  When  disinterred  thus,  the 
coolie  slashed  his  old  enemy  with  his  cutlass  or  long 
knife,  when,  to  the  astonishment  of  the  writer,  "  out 
through  the  wound  came  seven  young  ones,  varying 
from  five  to  ten  inches  in  length,"  as  roughly 
estimated.  "  They  were  all  quite  lively,  though 
covered  with  a  sort  of  thin  film  of  saliva."  Several 
were  killed.  The  body  of  the  parent  snake  had  been 
buried  at  a  depth  of  eight  or  ten  inches  from  sixteen 
to  eighteen  hours.  A  few  more  observations  of  this 
kind  would  settle  the  question. 

A  Domestic  Thermometer. — Most  of  the  readers 
of  these  Notes  are  doubtless  observers  of  familiar 
natural  phenomena,  and  therefore  I  may  venture  to 
direct  their  attention  to  a  very  simple  fact  that  I 
have  long  been  in  the  habit  of  observing  as  a  readily 
obtainable  demonstration  of  sudden  and  desirable 
change  of  wintry  weather.  As  we  all  know,  the 
condensation  of  moisture  on  the  inside  of  our  window- 
panes  is  an  indication  of  colder  weather  outside  than 

inside,  and  the  freezing  of  this  condensed  water  in 
feathery  crystals  is  a  proof  that  it  is  colder  still.  The 
converse  of  this  is  not  so  common,  though  more  so 
than  many  suppose.  I  am  now  writing  on  Feb- 
ruary 12,  just  as  a  severe  frost  is  going.  Early  this 
morning  the  windows  of  every  room  in  the  house 
excepting  the  kitchen  were  obscured  with  a  dense 
outside  deposit.  I  was  thus  able  to  learn  immediately 
on  rising  in  the  morning  that  the  weather  had  greatly 
and  rapidly  changed  during  the  night,  by  simply 
looking  at  my  bed-room  window. 


By  C.  Parkinson,  F.G.S. 

THE  development  of  the  Lower  Greensands  at 
Atherfield,  as  compared  with  the  same  forma- 
tion in  Kent  and  Surrey,  is  remarkable.  Sir  Charles 
Lyell  says  that  the  Lower  Greensands  of  Kent  measure 
but  three  hundred  feet  in  thickness,  whereas  in  the 

Fig.  44. — Scafhites  aqualis. 

Island  they  suddenly  acquire  dimensions  of  more  than 
eight  hundred  feet,  the  intervening  distance  being 
barely  one  hundred  miles.*  A  great  deal  has  been 
written  on  this  series  of  rocks  by  writers  of  wide 
reputation,  such  as  Mantell,  Fitton,  E.  Forbes,  and 
others,  from  which  it  might  be  gathered  that  the 
characteristic  fossils  are  to  be  found  merely  for  the 
trouble  of  a  day's  hunting  along  the  beach.  The 
locality  has  become  famous,  sections  of  the  cliff  have 
been  drawn,  and  catalogues  of  mollusca  repeatedly 
published  ;  in  spite  of  this,  there  is  something  dis- 
appointing to  geologists  who  visit  Atherfield  ;  and  I 
have  known  many  cases  in  which  the  enthusiastic 
collector  has  returned  empty-handed,  or  nearly  so, 
either  from  inability  to  find  the  fossiliferous  rocks,  or, 
worse  still,  having  found  himself  unable  to  extract 
specimens  from  the  hard  material.  The  truth  is,  one 
single  day  is  insufficient  to  obtain  accurate  knowledge 
of  the  formation  ;  one  requires  a  week  or  two  in 
order  to  get  accustomed  to  the  stratification  of  the 
district.  It  may  be  of  service  to  geologists  to  give 
the  experiences  of  an  occasional  worker  among  the 
Atherfield  clays.  In  the  first  place,  it  is  necessary  to 
indicate    the    precise   locality  for   studying   the  best 

*  "  Elements  of  Geulogy,"  p.  293- 



sections — that  is,  between  Compton  and  Blackgang 
Chines ;  between  these  points  all  the  beautiful 
Atherfield  fossils  have  been  found.  Hard  work  is 
indispensable  for  extracting  organic  remains  from  the 
rock,  some  of  the  concretionary  limestones  being  of 
the  hardest  texture.  Referring  to  the  monograph  of 
Professor  E.  Forbes,*  on  the  Atherfield  series,  it  will 
be  found  he  estimates  the  thickness  of  the  entire 
formation  at  843  feet,  dividing  the  whole  into  sixty- 
three  substrata,  on  account  either  of  their  fossil 
contents  or  difference  in  composition.  Mantell 
statesf  tnat>  although  the  sections  exposed  are 
vertical,  they  are  in  an  oblique  direction  to  the  plane 
of  stratification,  and,  from  the  slight  angle  at  which 
the  strata  dip  to  the  N.E.,  the  cliffs  as  far  as  Black- 
gang  are  composed  of  Greensand  deposits. 

For  full  details  of  the  substrata  we  must  refer  the 
reader  to  the  monograph  of  Professor  E.  Forbes, 
and  to  Dr.  Fitton's  memoir,  "Geological  Journal," 
vol.  i.,   p.   179.     Here  we  can    deal    only  with   the 

(5.)  Further  deposit  of  blue  clays  with  lobster,  etc. 
(fig.  1). 

(6.)  Zone  of  Terebratula,  full  of  fossils. 

(7.)  Band  of  Gryphese  and  Scaphites. 

It  is  in  these  lower  beds  the  collector  must  search, 
leaving  the  ferruginous  sands  as  entirely  unproductive. 
A  large  geological  hammer  and  a  couple  of  strong 
chisels  are  indispensable  ;  even  with  these  tools  it 
will  be  found  hard  work  extracting  fossils.  The  best 
place  for  descending  the  cliff  is  a  path  a  few  paces 
beyond  the  flag-staff  which  indicates  the  coast-guard 
station ;  this  is  indeed  almost  the  only  safe  place 
where  a  descent  can  be  made.  Supposing  the  tide  to 
be  receding,  it  will  be  advisable  to  walk  a  short 
distance  round  Atherfield  Point  to  the  westward ; 
here  we  at  once  see  several  feet  at  the  base  of  the 
cliff  of  a  brown  colour,  numerous  lumps  of  the  same 
being  strewn  along  the  beach  ;  from  these  lumps 
well-preserved  fossils  may  be  obtained,  the  section 
corresponding  to  Nos.  1  and  2  of  the  above  list. 

Fig.  46. — Grevillia  anceps. 

Fig.  47. — Meyeria  Vectensis,  McCoy. 

'fossiliferous  bands,  which  are,  after  all,  those  of  the 
greatest  interest  to  the  geological  student.  It  is  after 
high  tides  and  heavy  seas  that  the  cliffs  are  most 
exposed,  and  it  is  better  to  fix  a  day  so  that  the  tide 
shall  be  on  the  ebb  during  the  five  or  six  hours  it  is 
is  intended  to  study  the  rocks.  The  whole  of  the 
Atherfield  Greensand  is  divided  into  three  main 
divisions,  in  the  lowest  of  which  the  fossils  chiefly 
occur.  The  substrata  of  the  lower  section  care  thus 
given  by  Mantell — 

(1.)  Lowest  Greensand  clay,  brown,  3  feet  thick. 
(2.)  Perna  Mulleii  beds,  2  feet. 
(3.)  Atherfield   clay   strata,    100   feet,    abound   in 
fossils  in  lower  portion,  few  in  middle,  a  small 
species  of  lobster  in  upper  part.      This  clay 
is  blue. 
(4.)  Cracker  rocks  ;  beds  of  sandy  clay  with  two 
bands  of  concretionary  masses  of  hard  calci- 
ferous  sandstone. 

Palaeont.  Soc. 

f  "  Geology  of  the  Isle  of  Wight." 

With  regard  to  the  blocks  which  lie  on  the  beach, 
I  have  found  that  the  best  fossils  are  usually  visible 
on  the  outside  ;  nevertheless,  by  splitting  up  such 
blocks,  we  frequently  obtain  different  mollusca. 
Perna  Mullet i  (Desh.)  is  the  characteristic  fossil  to  be 
met  with,  excessively  difficult  to  extract  on  account 
of  the  protruding  valve,  which,  in  five  cases  out  of 
six,  snaps  off.  Gryphea  sinuata  abounds  everywhere, 
and  is  easily  obtained  ;  also  Terebratula  sella  (Sow.), 
Rhynconella  (sp.),  Panopcea  plicata  (Sow.),  Cordis 
corrugata,  Venus  substriata,  Pecten  quinquecostatus 
(Sow.),  Trigonia  caudata  (Agass.),  Trigonia  dcedalia, 
Area  Raulini,  Nucula  seap/ia,  ATatica  rotundata,  and 
many  other  well-preserved  shells.  In  one  day  I  defy 
anybody  to  collect  even  half  these  fossils  ;  in  a  fort- 
night one  might  procure  these  and  many  others.  The 
loose  blue  clays  will  easily  be  identified  as  we  walk 
eastward  from  Atherfield  Point ;  here  it  is  that  the 
small  lobster,  a  species  of  Astacus,  is  to  be  found. 
After  rain  I  have  found  several  specimens  lying 
washed  out  of  the  saponaceous  clay.     Larger  Crus- 



taceans    have    also    been    discovered   in    the  upper 

The  Cracker  rocks,  so  called  from  the  noise  the  sea 
causes  when  dashing  against  them,  are  the  next 
series,  and  are  usually  the  most  difficult  to  identify. 
From  Atherfield  Point  it  is  half  a  mile  eastward  to 
the  precise  spot  where  we  can  find  this  substratum. 
It  consists  of  two  layers  of  hard  nodular  calciferous 
sandstone  imbedded  in  sands  and  clays,  the  hard 
masses  usually  studded  with  a  profusion  of  fossils, 
beautifully  preserved,  but  shockingly  difficult  to 
extricate ;  it  requires  the  strength  as  well  as  the 
weapons  of  a  blacksmith  to  make  any  impression  on 
these  rocks.  On  one  occasion  the  writer  was  fortunate 
enough  to  split  a  large  piece  of  Cracker  rock,  that 
one  piece  alone  repaying  the  trouble  and  expense  of 
a  fourteen-mile  drive  to  reach  the  coast ;  in  it  were 
a  perfect  mass  of  the  elongated  bivalve  Gervillia 
anccps  (Desh.)  ;  also  Solen,  Ammonites  Dcshayesii 
(Seym.),  Venus,  Thetis,  Tornatella,  and  a  fine  spe- 
cimen of  Pteroceras,  its  wing  admirably  preserved. 
This  mass  took  two  hours'  steady  hammering  before 
the  best  fossils  were  secured  ;  out  of  a  dozen  Gervillia 
anceps  only  one  perfect  specimen  was  obtained  ;  as  to 
the  other  shells,  they  were  taken  home  in  rough 
blocks,  and,  after  a  thorough  soaking  in  water, 
scraped  clean  with  old  pen-knives,  etc.  It  is  said 
170  species  of  mollusca  have  been  found  in  the 
Atherfield  Greensands.  The  beds  in  which  the 
celebrated  ScapJiitcs  gigas  (D'Orb.)  occur  are  met 
with  at  the  foot  of  Ladder  Chine,  but  it  depends 
very  much  on  the  state  of  the  beach  ;  the  rule  is,  if 
the  prevailing  winds  have  been  east  the  rocks  are 
exposed ;  if  westerly,  the  rocks  are  covered  over 
with  shingle,  etc.  I  have  never  been  fortunate 
enough  to  hit  upon  this  Scaphite  or  any  large  Am- 
monite, but  I  have  found  a  large  Nautilus  pliealus 
(Sow.).  Associated  with  the  lowest  Perna  bed  is  a 
thin  layer  of  brown  sand,  in  which  are  considerable 
numbers  of  small  bones,  vertebrae  of  fishes  ;  these 
require  remarkably  sharp  eyes  to  detect  the  small 
fragments.  It  is  astonishing  to  find  such  numbers  of 
fossils  crowded  together  in  single  blocks  of  stone,  as 
in  the  Cracker  rocks,  and  I  have  for  some  time 
sought  an  explanation  of  this  :  it  may  be  the  sea 
currents  were  chiefly  instrumental  in  causing  this  sort 
of  thing.  If  we  imagine  a  number  of  living  shells 
carried  along  by  the  force  of  the  ocean  tide,  till  from 
some  local  cause,  such  as  rocks,  a  whirlpool  is 
formed  ;  this  eddy  will  create  a  small  hole  in  the 
mud  at  the  sea-bottom,  in  which  the  mollusca 
ultimately  get  buried  in  considerable  numbers.  In 
course  of  time  such  layers  of  mud  become  hardened 
by  pressure,  and  possibly  altered  by  heat.  In  after 
ages  the  mass  is  upheaved  to  form  the  Atherfield 
cliff,  and  the  puzzled  geologist  gropes  in  the  dark, 
finding  rock  with  certain  portions  crowded  with 
organic  remains.  Speculation  commences ;  theory 
after  theory  is  broached  ;  we  may  be  in  the  right, 

or  we  may  be  wrong ;  but,  as  that  remarkable  man 
Robert  Dick  wrote  to  Hugh  Miller,  "We  must 
patiently  go  on  collecting  facts,  and  in  course  of 
time  geology  may  develop  into  an  accurate  science." 
In  that  same  letter  of  Dick's  is  advice  which  ought 
to  be  studied  by  all  geologists;  he  says,  "  When  I 
want  to  know  what  a  rock  is,  I  go  to  it,  I  hammer 
it,  I  dissect  it ;  then  I  know  what  it  really  is." 

With  plenty  of  hard  work  and  perseverance  any 
one  may  make  a  fair  collection  from  Atherfield,  but 
it  is  only  by  real  hard  work  that  this  can  be  done. 
There  are  several  local  fishermen  who  are  competent 
to  act  as  guides  to  the  stranger,  and  Mr.  Mark 
Norman,  of  Ventnor,  both  knows  the  Atherfield 
ground  thoroughly  and  has  a  fine  collection  of 
Atherfield  fossils  in  his  possession.  Care  should  be 
taken  when  working  close  under  the  cliff,  as  great 
masses  of  rock  frequently  fall  without  the  slightest 
warning,  particularly  after  heavy,  rains.  It  is  also 
dangerous  to  work  on  the  beach  near  high  tide,  for 
every  inch  of  beach  is  covered  in  many  places,  escape 
up  the  perpendicular  cliff  being  impossible.  Of  the 
junction  of  Wealden  and  Lower  Greensand  I  hope 
to  write  at  a  future  time. 

The  drawing  (fig.  47)  represents  an  astaciform 
crustacean,  the  original  being  in  the  Natural  History 
Museum,  South  Kensington.  Two  specimens  have 
been  found  at  Atherfield.  It  is  perhaps  the  same 
species  as  that  figured  in  Professor  Bell's  mono- 
graph,* Meycria  Vectensis.  Probably  further  research 
in  this  substratum  beneath  the  Cracker  rock  would 
add  important  genera  to  the  Cretaceous  fauna.  The 
indications  on  the  exterior  of  the  nodules  being  ex- 
ceedingly slight,  great  care  is  requisite  in  developing 

Professor  Bell  gives  the  following  description  of 
M.  Vectensis :  Carapace  very  deep,  much  compressed, 
the  lower  sides  being  nearly  perpendicular.  The 
cephalic  portion  is  narrowed  forwards,  terminated  by 
an  acute  rostrum.  There  are  on  this  part  seven 
carinae,  three  pairs  and  one  on  the  median  line.  The 
lowest  is  short,  and  extends  backwards  ;  the  next  is 
acute,  and,  like  the  former,  has  small  tubercles ;  the 
whole  surface  is  granulated ;  the  abdomen  com- 
pressed, the  segments  long.  The  lateral  processes 
are  irregularly  sculptured  and  granulated  ;  the  legs 
are  long,  slender,  and  compressed,  the  first  pair 
having  small  spines.  Length  of  carapace,  2  "5  inches, 
height,  I "2  inches  ;  length  of  abdomen,  3-5  inches. 

It  is  stated  (Pakeont.  Soc,  1862,  p.  34)  the  species 
is  common  at  Atherfield.  This  is  apparently  an 
error,  the  small  species  of  Mantell  being  evidently 
confused  with  the  distinct  larger  form. 

This  specimen  was  found  about  twelve  months 
ago  at  Atherfield,  agreeing  with  both  drawing  and 
description  of  Professor  Bell's. 

*  PaliEont.  Soc. 



By  Dr.  P.  Q.  Keegan. 

A  CONCENTRATED  individual  force,  an  exal- 
tation of  mental,  nerve,  or  animal  force,  a 
signal  development  of  forces  operating  from  within 
upon  the  animal  framework— such,  we  apprehend,  is 
the  principal  cause  of  the  beauty  of  animals.  On  a 
piece  of  shapeless  matter  forces  act  either  from 
without  or  from  within.  A  sculptor  hewing  a 
statue  is  an  example  of  the  former ;  but  in  the  case 
of  all  animal  and  vegetable  organisms  the  forces 
which  determine  their  shape  operate  from  within, 
or  dynamically.  Now,  whether  we  accept  the 
Darwinian  hypothesis  or  not,  we  may  assume  that 
every  organism  is  developed  from  its  conception  or 
birth  in  accordance  with  a  certain  type  or  exemplar, 
to  which  at  its  maturity  it  conforms  or  resembles 
more  or  less  accurately.  When  it  does  conform 
thereto  with  exceeding  closeness,  i.e.  when  the 
forces  which  govern  its  development  have  done  their 
work  fully,  freely,  and  absolutely,  then  the  result  is 
invariably  beautiful.  It  has  been  said  that  "a 
full  development  of  any  force  or  form  is  always 
beautiful " ;  and  this  doctrine  is  based  on  the 
hypothesis,  that  all  the  originally  created  specific 
forms  or  types  or  ideals  are  necessarily  beautiful. 
It  is  only  some  constitutional  disturbance  which 
produces  those  "sports"  or  "variations"  which 
show  themselves  at  each  new  act  of  reproduction  as 
part  of  the  phenomenon  of  heredity,  and  tend  by 
selective  breeding  to  lay  the  foundations  of  what 
have  been  styled  new  species. 

There  is  beauty  of  form  and  a  beauty  of  colour  ; 
there  is  a  beauty  of  movement  and  a  beauty  of 
expression.  The  two  former  seem  to  be  related  to, 
or  to  originate  from,  the  material  or  animal  forces  ; 
the  two  latter  seem  especially  connected  with  forces 
more  strictly  mental.  The  beauty  of  form,  however, 
i.e.  the  well-ordered  relation  of  the  various  parts  of 
the  animal  frame,  seems  to  constitute  the  very 
foundation  or  indispensable  substratum,  as  it  were, 
of  all  the  other  elements  of  beauty.  All  animals, 
even  probably  some  of  the  very  lowest  of  the 
Protozoa,  exhibit  in  their  ideal  conformation  an 
approach  to  symmetry.  The  bilateral  symmetry 
of  the  mammalia,  the  fish,  the  insect,  is  equal  in 
beauty  with  the  radiate  symmetry  of  the  star-fish, 
the  sea-anemone,  etc.  No  doubt  the  perceived 
similarity  of  one  part  of  the  body  to  another  awakens 
a  sense  of  beauty,  but  if  the  separate  parts  are  not 
beautiful  in  themselves,  their  similarity  or  well- 
ordered  relationship  will  not  much  enhance  their 
attractiveness.  The  beauty  of  form  arises  in  the 
first  instance  in  the  perfection  of  the  internal 
skeleton.  Nature,  in  the  creation  of  the  limb,  etc., 
must  have  done  her  work  thoroughly.  The  bones 
must  have  been  nourished  with  an  adequate  amount 

of  inorganic  pabulum,  and  have  been  provided  with 
the  full  complement  of  muscles,  ligaments,  joints, 
blood-vessels,    etc.,    arranged   harmoniously   and   in 
the  direction  corresponding  to  the  particular  function 
which  is  alloted  to  them  respectively  ;  and,  finally, 
the    external    covering    of    skin    and    of  celluloso- 
adipose   tissue   must   have   been   so   disposed  as   to 
ensure  the  most  finished  curvilinear  beauty   of   the 
whole.      The   primordial    elements   of   every  living 
structure   consist    of  cells,    or    rather   cell-contents, 
which  are  endowed  with  the  power  of  altering  and 
appropriating  certain  matters  in  the  blood,    and  of 
imparting    to    these    matters    powers    or    properties 
similar    to    those    already   possessed   by  the   living 
structure.     These  cell-contents  or  bioplasm  originally 
spring  from  the  single  cell  or  ovum  fertilised  in  the 
womb,  and  become  as  it  were  distributed  among  the 
various  cells  which  constitute  the  foundations  of  the 
structure  of  the  bones,  muscles,  matrix,  fatty  tissues, 
etc.     This  bioplasm  is  the  seat  and  principle  of  the 
vital  energy  or  force  that  alone  lives,  and  can  change, 
convert,  mould,  and  form  the  shape  and  structure  of 
the  body  and  every  portion    thereof.     It   gradually 
becomes  resolved  into  formed  material  (the  cell-wall) 
which   becomes    the   seat    of   physical    and    chemi- 
cal change  by  the  operation  of  the  blood-corpuscles 
thereupon.      The  original  bioplasm,  however,  seems 
invested  also  with  the  power  of  causing  the  elements 
of  matter  to  take  up  definite  relations  towards  one 
another,  so  that   definite  compounds  may  result  in 
the  formed  tissue,  be  it  bone  or  fat  or  muscle,    or 
whatever  it  be.     Now,  all  that  we  can  proclaim  in 
reference  to  the  beauty  of  animals  as  related  to  their 
elemental    structure    is,    that   where    this    inherited 
vital  force,  resident  in  the  cells  of  the  organism,  is 
signal   and  individual,  and   where   no    external  im- 
pediment exists  to  its  full,  free,  and  perfect  develop- 
ment in  harmony  with  its  nature,  there  beauty  is  the 
inevitable  result. 

In  every  respect,  save  that  of  the  ideal  type  of 
shape  and  contour,  it  may  be  thought  that  the  lower 
animals  have  in  the  matter  now  indicated  an  eminent 
advantage  over  man.  Man  is  cramped  and  swayed 
by  the  "  conditions  of  existence,"  i.e.  the  conditions 
of  his  food,  light,  air,  temperature,  etc.,  and  also  by 
the  current  state  of  what  is  termed  civilisation,  so 
that  infinite  varieties  of  human  beauty  and  of  human 
hideousness  are  produced.  The  lower  animals,  on 
the  other  hand,  are  generally  free  as  the  air  ;  and  as 
their  life-history  knows  little  check,  their  vital  energy 
finds  free  scope  and  enjoys  full  swing,  so  that  among 
the  individuals  of  each  species  little  difference  of 
personal  appearance  can  be  discerned.  Their  nervous 
system,  moreover,  not  being  so  acute  or  sensitive, 
they  are  not  so  subject  to  disease  or  to  temporary 
variations  of  aspect  and  appearance  as  human  beings 

No  doubt  favourable  external  conditions  of  exist 
ence    (as   food,   air,   climate,    etc.)   must    foster  the 


growth  and  development  of  the  organism  in  closest 
accordance  with  its  perfect  type  or  ideal.  They  un- 
questionably co-operate  with  and  support  the  working 
of  the  internal  forces  ;  but  that  they  are  not  the  sole 
agencies  (as  Darwin  and  the  materialists  would  have 
it)  in  the  production  of  this  consummate  beauty  is 
manifest  by  a  study  of  our  own  species.  We  may 
aver  with  great  confidence,  that  no  amount  of  external 
or  material  comforls  and  advantages  will  alone  suffice 
to  render  a  race  or  tribe  of  human  beings  beautiful 
or  fine-looking.  The  elements  or  fundamental 
principles  of  animal  beauty  are  seated  within  the 
organism,  and  work  from  within  outwards,  not  vice 
versA.  This  was  the  doctrine  of  the  ancient  Greeks, 
a  people  more  versed  in  aesthetic  science  than  any 
other  people  before  or  since.  Plato,  believing  that 
everything  in  nature  was  a  copy  or  embodiment  of 
ideal  types  or  exemplars  existing  in  or  before  the 
Divine  Mind,  expressly  maintained  that  "the  type 
or  exemplar  of  the  beautiful  shines  through  its  sensible 
copies  more  than  any  other  idea  does,  and  that  it 
imparts  thereto  the  highest  brilliancy."  What  causes 
this  brilliant  shining  through  the  animal  figure  is 
simply  the  special  individual  exaltation  of  the  vital 
forces.  These  are  hereditary,  but  their  energy 
seems  to  be  immensely  stimulated  by  the  lungs.  It  is 
in  races  or  individuals  who  foster  humanity  and  whose 
lung  power  is  eminently  developed  that  we  find  the 
noblest  and  rarest  examples  of  human  beauty.    ^ 

(To  be  continued.) 

By  John  Browning,  F.R.  A.S. 

DURING  March  Mercury  will  be  an  evening  star, 
setting  on  the  5th  at  6  hr.  27  min.,  on  the  12th 
at  7.20,  on  the  19th  at  7.58,  and  on  the  28th  at 
8.10  P.M. 

Venus  will  be  a  morning  star. 

Jupiter  will  rise  on  the  5th  at  7. 15  P.M.  and  set  at 
7.27  a.m.,  will  rise  on  the  12th  at  6.42  r.M.  and  set 
at  6.49  a.m.,  will  rise  on  the  19th  at  6.14  P.M.  and 
set  at  6.26  a.m.,  and  on  the  26th  he  will  rise  at  5.38 
p.m.  and  set  at  6  a.m. 

Saturn  will  be  due  south  on  the  5th  at  7.13  p.m., 
on  the  12th  at  6.45  p.m.,  on  the  19th  at  6.19  p.m., 
and  on  the  26th  at  5-52  p.m. 

Venus  will  be  at  her  greatest  brilliancy  on  March 
25  th. 

Mr.  Janssen  has  been  writing  on  the  evidence  of 
photographs  as  to  the  constitution  of  sun-spots.  His 
remarks  refer  to  some  exquisite  photographs  which 
he  has  taken  in  1885.  These  show  the  continuation 
of  the  granulation  of  the  general  solar  surface  into  the 
spots.     He  particularly  directs  attention  to  a  photo- 

graph of  the  great  spot  of  June  22,  1885,  in  which 
the  bright  region  which  surrounds  the  penumbra  has 
apparently  the  same  constitution  as  that  of  the 
photosphere  in  general,  being  made  up  of  granular 
elements  mostly  spherical  in  shape.  The  photographs 
show  that  the  greatly  increased  brightness  in  such 
regions  is  due  to  the  granules  being  more  numerous, 
brighter,  and  arranged  on  a  brighter  background. 
In  the  penumbra  the  granulations  were  less  luminous 
and  more  scattered,  and  have  dark  gaps  between  the 
ranks  and  lines  of  the  granulations  which  appear  like 
beads  on  a  thread.  The  bridges  across  the  spots 
and  the  masses  of  luminous  matter  were  also  formed 
of  granules,  so  that  it  is  highly  probable  that  the 
luminous  matter  which  forms  the  solar  surface  has 
everywhere  the  same  constitution. 

In  No.  2707  of  Astronomische  Nachrichten  there  is 
an  article  by  Dr.  Weiss,  Director  of  the  Observatory 
of  Vienna,  from  which  it  appears  that  two  telescopic 
comets  now  visible,  namely  that  of  Fabry  and  that  of 
Barnard,  will  be  seen  as  very  conspicuous  objects 
during  the  latter  half  of  April  and  the  first  half  of 
May.  Fabry's  comet,  when  nearest  to  us — that  is  to 
say,  about  the  first  half  of  May — will,  it  is  calculated, 
attain  a  brightness  666  times  greater  than  at  the  date 
of  its  discovery  on  December  1st,  1SS5.  Barnard's 
comet,  about  the  middle  of  May,  will  be  265  times 
as  bright  as  when  it  was  discovered  on  December 
5th  last  year.  Both  _  these  comets  will  be  seen 
simultaneously,  and  at  the  beginning  of  May  they 
will  not  be  far  apart.  Their  brightness  will  not 
increase  materially  until  the  beginning  of  March, 
after  which  time  their  increase  of  brightness  will  be 
both  marked  and  rapid. 

The  splendour  of  these  two  comets  will  be  favoured 
by  the  absence  of  moonlight  at  the  time  of  their 
greatest  brightness.  In  the  southern  hemisphere 
Fabry's  comet  will  be  observed  without  difficulty  up 
till  the  end  of  July,  and  Barnard's  comet  up  till  even 
a  later  date. 

On  March  20th  the  sun  will  enter  Aries  :  spring 
commences  at  4  P.M. 

The  mean  temperature  of  the  week  ending  on 
January  9th  was  3  degrees  below  the  average,  and  in 
the  week  ending  the  16th,  2  degrees  below  the 
average ;  while  in  the  week  ending  the  23rd  it  fell  to 
6  degrees  below  the  average  ;  and  in  the  week  ending 
the  30th  it  was  still  three  and  a-half  degrees  below 
the  average,  so  that  it  was  the  coldest  January 
experienced  for  many  years. 

Rain  fell  on  eleven  days  in  January,  to  the  aggre- 
gate amount  of  rather  more  than  one  and  a-half 
inches — that  is,  to  nearly  160  tons  to  the  acre. 

The  average  mean  temperature  of  London  in 
March  is  420  Fahr.  The  average  rainfall  for  London 
in  March  is  only  between  one  inch  and  two  inches, 
but  it  averages  full  two  inches  at  Brighton  and  some 
other  places  to  the  west  of  Brighton  along  the  south 




[It  is  our  desire  to  bring  out  a  Scientific  Directory  in  the 
monthly  pages  of  Science-Gossip,  feeling  certain  that  it  would 
be  very  useful  for  our  readers  to  know  what  scientific  societies 
had  been  formed  in  their  own  neighbourhoods.  We  shall  there- 
fore fee!  very  much  obliged  if  Secretaries  of  any  kind  of 
Scientific  Society,  in  anv  town  or  part  of  the  country,  will  send 
us  the  full  name  and  title  of  each  Society,  together  with  the 
names  of  the  President  and  Hon.  Secretary.] 

ryiRMINGHAM  Microscopists'  and  Naturalists' 
JD  Union.  President,  M.  C.  Beale,  C.E. ;  Hon. 
Secretaries,  Messrs.  H.  Insley,  15  Mansfield  Drive, 
Mansfield  Road,  Aston  ;  and  P.  T.  Deakin,  46  Prin- 
cess Road,  Edgbaston. 

Bury  Natural  History  Society.  President,  Rev. 
Douglas  Walmsley ;  Hon.  Secretary,  Thomas  K. 
Holden,  Blackford  Bridge,  Bury,  Lancashire. 

Cirencester  Microscopical  and  Naturalist  Society, 
President,  E.  J.  E.  Creese,  Esq.,  F.R.M.S.  ;  Hon. 
Secretary,  Joseph  Matthews. 

Derbyshire  Natural  History  and  Philosophical 
Society.  President,  Rev.  J.  M.  Mello,  M.A., 
F.G.S.  ;  Hon.  Secretary,  Mr.  F.  Beddow,  Nor- 
man ton  Road. 

Dorset  Aratural  History  and  Antiquanan  Field 
Club  (established  in  1875).  President,  John  Mansel 
Pleydell,  Esq.  ;  Treasurer,  Rev.  O.  P.  Cambridge  ; 
Secretary,  Morton  Stuart,  Esq. 

East  London  Aratural  History  and  A/icroscopical 
Society.  President,  E.  I.  Lyndall,  Esq.  ;  Hon. 
Secretary,  A.  Dean,  M.Q.M.C,  57  Southborough 
Road,  South  Hackney. 

El  Toro  Cycling  and  Naticralists''  Club,  Barking 
Side,  Essex.  President,  J.  W.  Williams,  D.Sc, 
B.A. ;  Hon.  Secretary,  F.  W.  Halfpenny,  F.C.S., 
2  Fern  Villas,  Park  Road,  West  Ham  Park,  Essex. 

Greenhithe  Naturalists'  and  Archaeological  Society. 
President,  A.  B.  Farn,  Esq.,  Fair  Lome,  Stone ; 
Hon.  Secretary,  Miss  S.  Martin,  7,  The  Terrace, 

Highbury  Microscopical  Society  (founded  1878). 
President,  James  Smith,  F.L.S.,  F.R.A.S.  ;  Hon. 
Secretary,  Bernard  H.  Woodward,  80  Petherton 
Road,  N. 

ILuddersfield  Naturalists'  Society.  President,  A. 
Clark ;  Hon.  Cor.  Secretary,  Mr.  S.  L.  Mosley, 
Beaumont  Park  Museum ;  Financial  Secretary,  J. 
Tindall,  25  Union  St. 

Leeds  Y.  M.  C.  A.  Naturalists'  Club.  President, 
Mr.  E.  Hawkesworth.  ;  Hon.  Secretary,  Mr.  Joseph 

Liverpool  Microscopical  Society.  President,  Rev. 
II.  H.  Higgins  ;  Hon.  Secretary,  Isaac  C.  Thomp- 
son, Woodstock,  Waverley  Road,  Liverpool. 

Metropolitan  Scientific  Association.  President,  J. 
D.  Hardy,  F.R.M.S.  ;  Secretary,  Grenville  A.  J. 
Cole,  F.G.S.  Meetings,  second  Tuesday  in  the 
month  at  7  p.m. ;  City  of  London  College. 

New  Cross  Microscopical  and  Natural  History 
Society  (instituted  1872).     President,  W.J.  Spratling, 

B.Sc,    F.G.S. ;    Hon.    Secretaries,    M.   J.   Lindsey, 
jun.,  and  L.  M.  Biden,  11  Leadenhall  Street,  E.C. 

Sidcup  Literary  and  Scientific  Society.  President, 
W.  Law  Bros  ;  Hon.  Secretaries,  T.  S.  Stacy  and 
W.  Short. 

South  London  Microscopical  and  Natural  History 
Club,  Brixton  Hall,  Acre  Lane.  President,  T. 
Sebastian  Davis,  F.C.S.,  F.R.M.S.  ;  Hon.  Secre- 
taries, Henry  Groves  and  Robert  Briant. 

Tunbridge  Wells  Natural  History  and  Antiquarian 
Society,  Pantiles,  Tunbridge  Wells.  President,  R. 
Norton,  Esq.,  M.P. ;  Hon.  Secretary,  Geo.  Abbott, 

Youth.  Scientific  and  Literary  Society  of  London. 
Hon.  Presidents,  Prof.  H.  A.  Nicholson,  M.D., 
D.Sc,  F.R.S.E. ;  Dr.  J.  E.  Taylor,  F.L.S.  ;  Thomas 
Edward,  A.L.S.  ;  President,  Alex.  Ramsay,  F.G.S., 
F.R.G.S.  ;  Vice-Presidents,  J.  W.  Williams.  D.Sc, 
B.A.  ;  Rupert  Garry,  F.S.Sc  ;  Hon.  Secretary, 
R.  A.  Neville  Lynn,  42,  Chalcot  Crescent,  Regents 
Park,  N.W. 


The  water-plaintain  is  used  in  Russia  as  a 
remedy  for  hydrophobia.  The  roots  are  dried  and 
grated,  then  spread  on  bread  and  butter,  and  a  good 
dose  taken  night  and  morning.  Two  or  three  doses 
are  said  to  be  sufficient  to  effect  a  cure. 

The  old-fashioned  theory  about  the  formation  of 
dew,  originated  by  Dr.  WTells,  has  received  a  severe 
attack  from  Mr.  John  Aitkin,  the  distinguished 
physicist,  who  has  just  read  a  paper  before  the  Royal 
Society  of  Edinburgh  in  which  he  contends  that 
dew  does  rise,  and  that  it  is  not  distilled  from  the 
surrounding  atmosphere.  From  experiment  he 
concludes  that  the  dew  rises  as  vapour  from  the 
ground.  The  ground  was  found  to  be  actually 
hotter  than  the  air  above  it  ;  and  Mr.  Aitkin  thinks 
that  so  long  as  the  excess  is  sufficient  to  keep  the 
temperature  of  the  surface  of  the  ground  above  the 
dew-point  of  the  air,  it  will,  if  moist,  give  off 
vapour  ;  and  that  it  will  be  this  rising  vapour  which 
will  condense  on  the  grass  and  form  dew.  But  this 
theory  will  hardly  explain  why  dew  is  generally 
formed  on  the  upper  surface  of  leaves,  instead  of 
the  Imver.  If  it  always  came  from  the  ground,  it 
ought  to  form  on  the  lower  surfaces  of  leaves  rather 
than  the  upper.  That  the  moist  soil  gives  off  vapour 
no  one  doubts  ;  but  is  this  fact  sufficient  to  establish 
a  new  theory  of  dew  ? 

A  BILL  to  propagate  a  contagious  disease  among 
rabbits,  with  a  view  to  exterminate  them,  is  to  be 
introduced  into  the  South  Australian  Assembly.  The 
experiment  is  to  be  tried  on  Torrens  Island. 



A  woman  of  fashion  recently  ordered  a  dress  to  be 
trimmed  with  canaries  ! 

During  one  week  in  January  many  thousands 
of  larks  were  snared  on  Royston  Heath,  and  no  less 
than  8  cwt.  sent  to  the  London  market  from  Royston 
Station  within  a  few  days. 

On  the  nth  ult,  Dr.  J.  E.  Taylor,  editor  of 
Science-Gossip,  lectured  at  the  Chelmsford  Museum 
on  "The  Natural  History  of  Dust";  and  on  the 
15th,  before  the  Hitchin  Scientific  Society,  on 
"  Carnivorous  Plants." 

The  "Journal  of  Anatomy  and  Physiology  "  has 
a  very  able  paper  by  Dr.  Alexander  M.  M'Aldowie, 
on  "  The  Development  and  the  Decay  of  the 
Pigment  Layer  on  Birds'  Eggs." 

The  "  Journal  of  Microscopy  and  Natural 
Science "  for  January  contains,  besides  the  Presi- 
dent's address,  papers  on  "The  Mouth-organs  and 
other  characteristics  of  the  British  ground  predaceous 
Beetles,"  "  Freshwater  Alga?,"  "The  Microscope, 
and  how  to  use  it"  ;  besides  "Half-hours  with  Mr. 
Tuffen  West,"  "Notes  from  the  Postal  Society's 
books,"  etc.  The  lithographical  illustrations  are  all 

The  "  Scientific  Enquirer,"  No.  I  of  which  ap- 
peared in  February,  is  another  proof  of  the  large 
and  increasing  interest  taken  in  natural  history  litera- 
ture. It  is  edited  by  Mr.  Alfred  Allen,  and  professes 
to  be  a  monthly  medium  for  the  supply  of  information 
on  all  scientific  subjects.  Consequently  there  can  be 
no  complaint  as  to  the  narrowness  of  the  field  in- 
tended to  be  cultivated  ! 

Mr.  E.  T.  Draper,  whose  charming  micro- 
scopical illustrations  will  not  soon  be  forgotten  by 
readers  of  Science-Gossip,  is  continuing  the  papers 
from  the  1st  of  March,  price  one  shilling,  but  con- 
taining two  plates  drawn  from  nature,  with  descrip- 
tive text.  They  will  be  published  by  the  author 
at  11  Palace  Road,  Middle  Lane,  Crouch  End, 
London,  N. 

The  Annual  Report  of  the  Hemel  Hempsted 
Natural  History  Society  for  1885  is  to  hand,  con- 
taining papers  on  "Blue  Mould,"  by  Mr.  W.  G. 
Smith;  "  Characese  of  the  Midlands,"  by  Mr.  John 
Saunders  ;  a  catalogue  of  the  British  plants  in  the 
Society's  Museum,  etc.  etc. 

The  Annual  Report  of  the  Huddersfield  Natura- 
lists' Society  for  1SS5  (established  in  1847)  shows 
an  active  and  vital  state  of  things.  The  disposition 
of  officers  in  this  society  is  admirable,  and  might  be 
copied  with  advantage  by  others.  Thus,  in  addition 
to  the  usual  list,  it  has  a  curator,  librarian,  seven 
members  who  form  a  sub-committee  for  a  botanic 
garden,  and  three  who  act  as  recorders  in  botany, 
fungology,  and  entomology. 

An  unpretending  but  useful  little  journal  is  the 
"Natural  History  Teacher,"  conducted  by  Mr.  S.  L. 
Mosley,  the  lecturer  on  natural  history  in  the 
Huddersfield  Board  Schools.  Every  one  knows  what 
a  hold  natural  history  has  on  the  working  classes 
of  the  north,  in  some  form  or  another,  and  Mr. 
Mosley  is  doing  good  work  by  giving  it  a  scientific 
direction  among  the  young. 

"Changes  in  Land  and  Sea"  is  the  title  of  a 
capital  article  in  the  "Hull  Quarterly"  by  Mr. 
C.  S.  Whiting.  It  gives  an  account  of  the  marine 
denudations  which  are  going  on  along  the  eastern 

In  the  Transactions  of  the  Seismological  Society 
of  Japan,  there  is  an  elaborate  paper  of  eighty-two 
pages,  by  Professor  Milne,  giving  the  details  of  his 
admirable  series  of  experiments  and  observations  on 

The  last  number  of  the  "  Proceedings  of  the 
Folkestone  Natural  History  Society"  contains  the 
papers  read.  Among  them  is  one  on  "Develop- 
ment," on  which  there  is  a  capital  and  good- 
tempered  discussion  reported. 

The  Sidcup  Literary  and  Scientific  Society  publish 
their  Annual  Report,  in  which  there  are  some  ex- 
cellent papers  on  "Varieties  of  Life,"  "Colour," 
"The  use  of  the  Microscope  in  Geology,"  "The 
Dispersal  of  Seeds,"  "  Detection  by  the  Microscope 
of  Adulteration  in  Food,"  "The  Bexley  Deneholes," 


Colossal  Amcsba. — Observing  that  Mr.  Brayley's 
query,  as  to  a  colossal  Amoeba  which  he  found, 
remains  unanswered,  I  would  advise  him  to  consult 
Prantl  and  Vine's  "  Botany,"  where  I  think  he  will 
find  a  similar  organism  described  as  the  compound 
Plasmodium  of  one  of  the  Myxomycetes.  Saville 
Kent  also  describes  this  form :  vide  ' '  Manual  of  the 
Infusoria,"  pp.  41  and  42. — E.  C.  Bousfield,  L.R.C.P. 

Zinc  Cement. — I  have  been  using  white  zinc  cement 
lately  for  finishing  off  slides,  but  somehow  it  doesn't 
harden  properly  or  become  white,  as  it  should  do. 
Would  some  reader  kindly  give  me  a  hint  on  the 
subject?—  IV.  M.  Ratisoji. 

The  late  Mr.  J.  B.  Jeaffreson. — We  record 
with  the  deepest  regret  the  death,  on  January  12th, 
of  Mr.  J.  B.  Jeaffreson,  M.R.C.S.  He  came  of  a 
family  distinguished  for  many  generations  in  the 
medical  profession,  having  worthily  followed  his 
father  and  grandfather  in  Islington,  and  he  will  be 
succeeded  by  his  eldest  son,  who  is  on  the  eve  of 
completing  his  studies.  Mr.  Jeaffreson  had  been  for 
many  years  one  of  the  most  active  members  of  the 



Highbury  Microscopical  Society,  and  was  its  presi- 
dent in  1884.  He  had  contributed  many  papers, 
chiefly  biological.  He  was  much  beloved  on  account 
of  his  kindly,  genial  manners,  and  readiness  to  help 
others  with  his  knowledge,  being  well  read  in  most 
branches  of  natural  history  and  having  a  remarkably 
retentive  memory  ;  and  so,  being  always  on  the  look 
out  for  recruits,  had  enlisted  many  young  men  in  the 
cause  of  science.  He  was  preparing  a  paper  on 
"Mites"  for  a  meeting  to  be  held  next  November 
by  the  Highbury  Microscopical  Society,  and  had 
already  mounted  many  slides  for  that  purpose. 
He  was  interred  at  Highgate  on  January  16th,  when 
many  friends,  including  most  of  the  medical  men 
of  the  district,  assembled  to  do  him  honour. 

The  Quekett  Microscopical  Club.— The  last 
issue  of  the  journal  of  this  flourishing  society  con- 
tains the  following  papers  :  President's  inaugural 
•address,  by  A.  D.  Michael,  F.L.S.;  "Notes  on 
Palmadactylon  sztbramosum,  and  on  a  new  British 
species  of  Vaucheria,"  by  Dr.  M.  C.  Cooke  ;  "  On 
an  unusual  form  of  tube  made  by  Alclicerta  ringais" 
by  T.  Spencer  Smithson ;  "Historic  Microscopy," 
by  E.  M.  Nelson;  "On  a  method  of  equalising  the 
thickness  of  slips  when  raising  an  oil  immersion 
condenser,"  by  E.  M.  Nelson  ;  "  Final  notes  on 
the  so-called  desiccation  of  Rotifers,"  by  Henry 
Davis  ;  "  Corrigenda  to  Professor  Cleve's  paper  '  On 
some  fossil  marine  Diatoms  '  "  ;  etc.  etc. 

Cole's  "Studies  in  Microscopical  Science." 
— The  last  four  parts  of  this  ever-welcome  work, 
as  usual  cover  various  parts  of  biological  ground. 
All  are  illustrated  by  artistically  coloured  plates. 
Thus,  botanical  histology  deals  with  the  structure  of 
the  sexual  organs  of  reproduction  in  the  angio- 
sperms  ;  animal  histology  with  the  disposition  of 
the  organs  in  the  invertebrata  ;  pathological  histology 
with  Collier's  disease  (anthracosis)  ;  whilst  the  part 
devoted  to  popular  microscopical  studies  gives  an 
account  of  Trichina  spiralis.  The  slides  accom- 
panying the  above  four  parts  present  us  with  (1)  a 
transverse  section  of  the  mature  ovary  of  Lilium, 
(2)  transverse  section  of  young  lamprey,  (3)  a  slide 
showing  anthracosis  of  coal-miner's  lung,  and  (4) 
a  diatom  {Ccstodiscus  supcrbus). 

New  Slides. — We  have  been  favoured  with  an 
admirably  mounted  set  of  slides,  of  Trichina  spiralis, 
by  Mr.  Ernest  Hinton.  No.  1  shows  male  and 
female ;  No.  2,  the  worm  imbedded  in  the  muscle  ; 
No.  3,  ditto  (larva)  dissected  from  muscle,  and  freed 
from  surrounding  material  ;  No.  4,  Trichina  in 
capsules  ;  and  No.  5,  ditto  calcined  in  the  muscle. 
All  of  them  are  of  the  highest  use  both  to  teacher 
and  student.  From  Mr.  B.  Piffard  we  have  received 
several  slides  of  botanical  specimens,  some  of  them 
stained  by  his  new  process  of  iodine  vapour.  Among 
them   are    vertical    sections    of   leaf   of   carnation, 

showing  stomata ;  the  dodder  (Cuscuta)  with  its 
tissues  imbedded  in  the  host-plant  ;  Hypha;  of 
fungi,  etc.  Mr.  C.  Collins,  jun.,  has  forwarded  us 
a  well-mounted  and  valuable  slide  of  the  much- 
debated  "Dawn  animalcule"  {Eozoon  Canadcnse) 
from  the  Laurentian  rocks.  If  there  is  no  royal  road 
to  knowledge,  it  is  very  certain  that  such  available 
aids  as  the  above  make  the  path  both  easier  and 
pleasanter  for  the  student. 

The  Royal  Microscopical  Society. — At  a 
meeting  of  the  above  society,  Dr.  Dallinger,  who 
has  been  re-elected  president,  delivered  the  annual 
address.  Dr.  Dallinger  dealt  in  his  opening  remarks 
with  the  growth  of  specialisation  in  science.  This, 
he  thought,  was  at  once  a  triumph  and  a  peril.  The 
autonomy  of  the  expert  and  the  specialist  was  a 
danger  that  all  who  care  for  the  unity  and  wholeness 
of  human  knowledge  must  be  alive  to.  Dr.  Dallinger 
indicated  the  remedy  as  lying  in  the  improvement  ot 
scientific  education  so  as  to  secure  breadth  of  culture, 
and  the  careful  linking  of  each  small  and  special  area 
of  research  to,  and  viewing  it  in  the  light  of,  the 
inconceivably  vaster  realm  in  which  it  was  an  essential 
and  inalienable  factor.  The  special  subject  of  the 
address  was  an  example  of  this  connection ;  it  dealt 
with  a  problem  which  lies  at  the  base  of  all  biology — 
the  importance  of  the  cell-nucleus.  The  address  was 
a  masterly  one.  After  giving  similar  details  about 
several  organisms,  Dr.  Dallinger  summed  up  thus  : 
"  One  thing  appears  clear — the  nucleus  is  the  centre 
of  all  the  higher  activities  in  these  organisms.  The 
germ  itself  appears  to  be  but  an  undeveloped  nucleus  ; 
and  when  that  nucleus  has  attained  its  full  dimen- 
sions, there  is  a  pause  in  growth,  in  order  that  its 
internal  development  may  be  accomplished.  It 
becomes  practically  indisputable  that  the  body- 
sarcode  is,  so  to  speak,  a  secretion,  a  vital  product 
of  the  nucleus.  From  it  the  flagella  originally  arise  ; 
by  it  the  act  of  fission  is  initiated  and  in  all  probability 
carried  to  the  end  ;  the  same  is  the  case  with  fertili- 
sation and  the  production  of  germs.  We  are  thus 
brought  into  close  relation  with  the  behaviour  of  the 
nucleus  in  the  simplest  condition.  No  doubt  far 
profounder  and  subtler  changes  are  concurrently 
proceeding.  We  of  course  are  no  nearer  to  the 
solution  of  what  life  is.  But  to  come  any  distance 
nearer  to  a  knowledge  of  how  the  most  living  part  of 
the  minutest  organisms  acts  in  detail  has  for  me  and 
for  most  biologists  an  increasing  fascination."  The 
address  was  illustrated  by  original  pictures  of  great 
beauty  thrown  upon  a  screen  by  a  powerful  oxy- 
hydrogen  microscope,  and  was  greeted  with  loud 
applause  at  its  conclusion. 

The  "Journal  of  the  Royal  Microscopical 
Society"  for  February  contains  a  paper  by  Mr.  A. 
W.  Bennett,-  F.L.S. ,  "On  the  Freshwater  Algre  of 
the  Lake  District ;  "  "The  Preparation  of  Sections 
of  Pumice-stone  and  other  Vesicular  Rocks,"  by  Dr. 



H.  J.  Johnston-Lavis ;  "On  the  Cultivation  of 
Bacteria,"  by  Dr.  E.  M.  Crookshank  ;  "  The  Appear- 
ances of  Micro-organisms  as  exemplified  by  the 
Microbe  of  Chicken  Cholera,"  by  Mr.  G.  F.  Dowdes- 
well  ;  "The  'Central'  Light  in  Resolution,"  by 
Mr.  J.  W.  Stephenson  ;  besides  which  we  have 
the  usual  able  and  copious  summary  of  current 
biological  researches. 


Variations  in  Molluscs. — In  an  able  article 
published  in  the  "  Zoologist,"  Mr.  B.  B.  Woodward, 
F.G.S.,  enters  a  strong  protest  against  the  tendency 
to  "  variety-mongering  "  and  variety-naming  which 
is,  unfortunately,  so  much,  in  vogue.  It  is  quite  a 
scientific  operation  to  observe  and  note  the  differences 
in  common  species.  Mr.  Woodward  remarks  as 
follows :  "  Surely  the  state  of  our  knowledge  is 
sufficiently  advanced  to  allow  of  certain  variations 
being  admitted  as  normal,  so  to  speak,  to  every 
species,  e.g.,  unusually  fine  specimens,  dwarfed  forms, 
reversed  examples,  scalariform  individuals,  and 
albinos,  without  its  being  necessary  to  distinguish 
each  one  by  a  different  varietal  or  '  monstral '  name. 
It  should  be  enough  to  record  their  existence,  and 
that  of  such  variations  as  are  more  or  less  specific, 
i.e.,  those  of  colour,  markings,  etc.  In  short,  I 
would  advocate  the  adoption  of  the  method  followed 
by  Gray." 

New  Variety  of  Unio  tumidus. — It  may 
interest  some  of  your  conchological  readers  to  know 
that  I  have  obtained,  from  the  fish-pond  at  Wistow 
Hall,  near  Leicester,  a  variety  of  U.  tumidus,  which 
Mr.  J.  W.  Taylor  of  Leeds  has  named  for  me  : 
U.  tumidus,  var.  ponderosa,  Pascal.  Mr.  Taylor 
remarks,  "This  variety  has  not,  I  believe,  been 
published  as  British." — //.  E.  Quitter,  Leicester. 

Arrenurus.— On  August  3rd,  1S85,  I  found  a 
male  Arrenurus,  differing  greatly  from  any  I  have 
before  described,  and  also  differing  from  any  of  the 
figures  in  Miiller  or  Koch.  It  was  of  a  lemon  colour, 
with  brownish  cornu.  The  eyes  were  of  a  beautiful 
crimson,  and  the  legs  transparent  blue  ;  the  central 
projection  from  the  tail  resembles  the  same  part  in 
A.  viridis,  but  the  colour  is  yellow.  The  mite  differs 
from  this  latter  in  size  as  well  as  in  colour,  and  also 
in  the  shape  of  the  rest  of  the  tail.  The  spur  on  the 
last  joint  but  two  of  the  hind  leg  is  large.  After  the 
creature  was  killed,  and  prepared  for  mounting,  it 
was  seen  that  the  colour  was  entirely  dependent  on 
the  contents  of  the  abdomen,  the  chitinous  skeleton 
being  of  the  same  blue  as  the  legs  during  life.  When 
viewed  as  an  opaque  object  there  was  a  green  shade 
seen  occasionally,  evidently  produced  by  the  yellow 
colour  passing  through  this  transparent  blue  of  the 
exoskeleton.     If  this  creature   has   not  been  before 

described  or  named,  I  should  feel  disposed  to  call 
it  Arrenurus  luteus.  It  will  be  well  to  remember 
that  Koch  says,  "  A.  calcaratus  has  the  central  part 
of  the  tail  yellow "  ;  his  figure,  however,  I  think, 
differs  from  the  mite  now  described. —  C.  F.  George, 
Kir  ton  -in-Lindsey. 

Bulimus  obscurus. — It  may  be  of  interest  to  note 
the  occurrence  of  this  shell  in  the  Channel  Isles. 
Jeffreys,  I  believe,  gives  Devonshire  as  its  southern- 
most limit  ;  last  September  I  took  two  live  specimens 
near  the  walls  of  Fort  George  in  Guernsey.  It  is 
only  surprising  that  it  has  not  turned  up  there  before. 
It  does  not  occur  in  Cooke  and  Gwatkin's  list  in 
1878.  Its  continental  range  is  of  course  most  exten- 
sive— according  to  Clessin,  from  Sicily  to  St.  Peters- 
burg. On  the  other  hand,  Bulimus  moutanus,  Drap., 
does  not  seem  to  cross  the  Alps,  though  it  occurs  as 
far  south  as  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Pyrenees,  and, 
I  think,  on  the  Spanish  side.  Another  curious  point 
about  it  is  that,  while  not  occurring  in  Denmark,  it 
appears  again  in  the  north  of  Sweden. — Brockton 


Cardamine  pratensis,  viviparous. — Mr.  John 
Taylor  (Note  on  Floral  Varieties,  p.  20,  Science- 
Gossip)  will  find  the  following  about  C.  pratensis, 
ladies'  smock,  or  cuckoo-flower,  being  reproduced 
by  buds,  such  as  he  describes,  in  Thome's  "Botany," 
p.  83  :  "The  bodies  termed  bulbils  or  gemmae,  are 
stem-buds,  which  detach  themselves  from  the  plant, 
and  can  themselves  give  rise  to  new  individuals 
exactly  like  the  parent.  They  are  found,  for  in- 
stance, in  abundance  on  certain  species  of  Allium, 
on  the  leaves  of  Cardamine  pratensis,  &c."  I  have 
several  times  found  the  leaves  with  the  little  plants 
growing  out  of  them — a  peculiarity  which  is  not 
noted  in  any  of  the  modern  Floras  that  I  am  ac- 
quainted with,  while  it  is  given  in  Smith's  "English 
Flora,"  vol.  i.i.  p.  190,  London,  1825:  "Radial 
leaves,  several,  &c,  sometimes  viviparous."  It  is 
a  pity  that  so  much  of  the  interesting  matter  that 
is  only  to  be  found  in  those  dear  old  volumes  of 
Withering  and  Smith  has  been  removed  from  recent 
handbooks  :  it  was  attractive  and  most  helpful  to 
those  who  wished  not  merely  to  classify  their  plants, 
but  to  know  all  about  them.  I  would  add  that  the 
seed -pods  of  Cardamine  pratensis  are  seldom  perfected, 
the  plan  of  reproduction  from  the  leaves  is  provided 
by  the  Creator,  that  it  may  be  fruitful  and  multiply. 
Another  instance  of  a  gemmiparous  plant  is  Utii- 
cularia,  where  also  seed-vessels  very  rarely  come  to 
perfection,  while  the  perpetuation  of  the  race  is  pro- 
vided for  by  the  terminal  buds,  which  last  throughout 
the  winter,  when  the  old  plants  decay  away. — //  IT. 
Lett,  M.A. 



Primroses  and  Cattle. — While  turning  over 
the  pages  of Withering's  "British  Plants,"  London, 
1S01,  since  I  wrote  my  query  at  p.  20  of  Science- 
Gossip,  I  found  at  p.  229  of  vol.  ii.  the  following 
corroboration  of  my  experience  as  to  sheep  and  goats 
eating  primroses  :  "  Sheep  and  goats  eat  it,  cows 
are  not  fond  of  it,  horses  and  swine  refuse  it. — Linn." 
Here  we  have  the  great  Linnaeus  saying  the  very 
opposite  to  Dr.  Spencer  Thompson.  Some  of  your 
readers  might  give  the  ipsissima  verba  of  the  Swede. 
H.  IV.  Lett,  M.A. 

Localities  for  Dianthus  armeria. — Twelve 
years  ago  I  knew  two  localities  for  D.  armeria  near 
Castletown,  in  the  Isle  of  Man.  One  of  them  was 
in  a  field  adjoining  the  grounds  of  King  William's 
College,  the  other  near  Ballasalla.  The  former  spot, 
however,  when  I  revisited  it  in  18S0,  had  been 
converted  into  the  site  of  a  new  chapel  for  King 
William's,  and  I  fear  all  traces  of  the  plant  there 
perished.  I  hope  that  it  may  survive  in  the  second 
locality,  but  the  island  is  so  ransacked  by  tourists  in 
summer  that  the  existence  of  any  botanical  curiosity 
is  mournfully  precarious.  —  C.  B.  Moffat. 

Plants  from  the  Isle  of  Wight.— Of  the  plants 
mentioned  by  Mr.  Parkinson  (p.  45),  Ornithogahtm 
2imbellatum  and  Polemonium  caruleum  have  been 
recorded  before,  and  are  both  probably,  the  latter 
certainly,  the  remains  or  escapes  of  cultivation. 
Epipactls,  or,'as  it  is  now  usually  named,  Cephalanthera 
ensifolia,  has  never  been  authentically  recorded  as 
found  in  the  Island,  and  the  locality,  "  woods  of  the 
Undercliff,"  does  not  strike  one  as  being  at  all  a  likely 
one.  This  species,  unlike  C.  grandiflora,  is  decidedly 
rare  on  the  mainland  of  Hants,  and  I  have  never 
seen  it  or  heard  of  it,  except  in  beech  woods  on  the 
chalk.  I  cannot  help  suspecting  that  some  other 
plant  has  been  mistaken  for  it,  perhaps  E.  palnstris. 
—F.  I.  Warner,  F.L.S. 

GEOLOGY,   &c. 

Bone  Caves  in  North  Wales. — Dr.  Hicks  and 
Mr.  W.  Davies  have  just  given  the  results  of  re- 
searches carried  on  in  these  caverns  in  the  summers 
of  1883,  1884,  and  1885  by  Mr.  E.  Bouverie  Lux- 
moore,  of  St.  Asaph,  to  the  Geological  Society.  The 
enormous  collection  of  bones  belonging  to  the  now 
extinct  animals  of  Pleistocene  age  obtained  had  been 
submitted  for  examination  to  Mr.  W.  Davies,  and 
afterwards  distributed  to  various  museum-.  Several 
wall-worked  flint  implements  were  also  discovered  in 
association  with  the  bones.  The  following  are  the 
conclusions  arrived  at  from  the  facts  obtained 
during  the  explorations  : — That  abundant  evidence 
has  been  furnished  to  show  that  the  caverns  had 
been  occupied  by  hyaenas,  and  possibly  by  other 
beasts  of  prey,  as  dens,  into  which  portions  of 
carcasses  of  various  animals  had  been  conveyed  in 
Pleistocene    times.     The   very  great   abundance   of 

some  animals,  such  as  the  rhinoceros,  horse,  and 
reindeer,  and  the  frequent  presence  of  bones  belong- 
ing to  young  animals,  proved  that  the  plain  of  the 
Vale  of  Clwyd,  with  that  extending  northward 
under  the  Irish  Sea,  must  have  formed  a 
favourite  feeding-ground  even  at  that  time.  The 
flint  implements  and  worked  bones  showed  also  that 
man  was  contemporary  with  these  animals.  The 
ravine  in  which  the  caverns  occur  must  have  been 
scooped  previous  to  the  deposition  in  it  of  the  glacial 
sands  and  Boulder-clays.  This  sand  and  clay,  there 
seems  good  evidence  to  show,  must  have  filled  up 
the  ravine  to  a  height  above  the  entrances  to  the 
caverns,  and  such  sands  and  clays  are  now  found  at 
some  points  to  completely  fill  up  the  caverns.  The 
following  seem  to  Dr.  Hicks  to  be  the  changes 
indicated  by  the  deposits.  The  lowest  in  the  caverns, 
consisting  almost  entirely  of  local  materials,  must 
have  been  introduced  by  a  river  which  flowed  in  the 
valley  at  a  very  much  higher  level  than  does  the  little 
stream  at  present.  Gradually,  as  the  valley  was 
being  excavated,  and  the  caverns  were  above  the 
reach  of  floods,  hyaenas  and  other  beasts  of  prey 
occupied  them,  and  conveyed  the  remains  of  other 
animals  into  them.  Man  also  must  have  been  present 
at  some  part  of  this  period.  Gradually  the  land 
became  depressed,  the  animals  disappeared,  stalag- 
mite was  formed,  and  the  sea  at  last  entered  the 
caverns,  filling  them  up  with  sands  and  pebbles,  and 
burying  also  the  remains  not  washed  out.  Floating 
ice  deposited  in  this  sea  the  fragments  of  rocks 
derived  from  northern  sources,  and  these  became 
mixed  with  local  rocks  and  clays  brought  down  from 
surrounding  areas.  The  greater  part  of  the  Boulder- 
clay  in  the  Vale  of  Clwyd  was  probably  deposited  as 
the  land  was  being  raised  out  of  this  mid-glacial 
sea.  During  the  process  of  elevation  the  caverns 
became  again  disturbed  by  marine  action  and  the 
upper  fine  reddish  loam  and  the  laminated  clays 
were  deposited.  It  seemed  impossible  to  avoid  the 
conclusion,  that  these  caverns  must  have  been  sub« 
merged,  and  afterwards  elevated  to  their  present 
height  of  about  400  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea, 
since  they  were  occupied  by  Palaeolithic  man  and  the 
Pleistocene  animals. 

British  Petrography.  —  We  are  pleased  to 
notice  the  appearance  of  the  first  part  (price  3-r.)  of  a 
work  which  has  long  been  required,  and  which  every 
month  it  becomes  more  imperative  to  supply — Mr. 
J.  J.  Harris  Teall's  Monograph  on  the  ordinary  rocks 
of  the  British  Islands.  Every  one  interested  in  the 
study  of  rocks  will  be  glad  to  subscribe  to  this  in- 
valuable work,  particularly  as  nobody  is  better 
capable  of  bringing  it  out  than  Mr.  Teall.  The  first 
part  contains  two  exquisitely  got-up  coloured  plates, 
with  key-plates  (by  Messrs.  Watson,  of  Birmingham), 
and  they  and  the  text  deal  with  Lherzolite,  Serpen- 
tine, Picrite,  etc. 




Jackdaws. — The  following  facts  seem  of  sufficient 
interest  to  obtain  a  place  in  your  ornithological  notes. 
A    friend    of  mine    is    in  possession    of  a  jackdaw, 
which  was  taken  as  a  nestling  from  the  nest  in  the 
summer  of  1874  f"rom  Hadleigh  Castle  in  Essex  ;  it 
has  been  reared  in  a  cage  ever  since,  and  has  become 
tame  enough  to  go  about  the  room,  and  the  garden, 
but   is   always  very   spiteful  to   strangers.      It   was 
always  believed  to  be  a   male  bird  ;    as  it   had  till 
this   year  never  laid  an  egg.     On  one  occasion  last 
spring,  some  time  between  May  24  and  June  23,  on 
cleaning  out  the  cage,  my  friend  noticed  some  yelk  of 
an  egg,  and  a  few  days  afterwards  she  observed  the 
bird  to  be  sitting  about  in  an  unusual   manner,  and 
the   next  morning,  a  Saturday,  she  found  an  egg ; 
and  on  the  succeeding  Monday,  she  found  a  second 
one.     I   give    measurements   of  one   egg :    greatest 
length  if§  inch  ;  greatest  width  jjj  inch.     Since   then 
the  bird  has  laid  no  more  eggs.     The  bird  has  been 
constantly  in  the  care  of  the  same  person,  so  that  it 
would  be  impossible  for  any  previous  laying,  if  such 
had  occurred,    to  have   escaped  her  observation.     I 
should  be  glad  to  know  whether  such  an  occurrence 
as    I   have    described   is    unusual    or   not. — Herbert 

The  Water-Ouzel. — Your  correspondent  F. 
Burman,  on  p.  262,  is  quite  right  in  his  remarks  on  the 
water-ouzel.  I  have  written  on  the  same  subject 
myself  in  much  the  same  strain,  and  if  he  will  get 
"Oology,"  vol.  i.  page  78,  Sir  William  Jardine,  that 
practical  naturalist,  says  :  "  For  the  ova  of  any  kind 
of  fish  we  have  never  detected  in  their  stomachs  or 
intestines  ;  and  we  deem  it  almost  impossible  that 
they  could  reach  it  after  it  was  impregnated  and 
covered  in  the  spawning  bed." 

Accidents  to  Birds. — It  may  be  interesting  to 
many  readers  of  Science-Gossip,  as  also  serviceable 
to   any  who  have  birds  which  they  prize,   to  know 
that  I  have  been  most  successful  in  setting  a  broken 
leg.      The  particulars    are   briefly  these.     A   young 
lark,  which  I  have  reared  from  the  nest  this  year, 
accidentally  broke  its  leg.    For  a  week  I  looked  upon 
it  as  a  sprain,  but,  as  the  lameness  did  not  improve, 
but  grew  worse,  I  examined  the  leg  more  attentively, 
and  found  that  the  tarsus-bone  was  broken  high  up 
and  just  below  the  ankle,  which  is  commonly  mis- 
taken for  the  knee.     With  the  lustre  of  the  eyes  gone 
and  the  feathers  wet  and  matted  together — probably 
from  perspiration  occasioned  by  the  pain — it  looked 
a  pitiable  object.     I  doubted  if  I  could  save  its  life. 
I  resolved  to  try  the  experiment  to  set  the  bone ;  so, 
with  the  assistance  of  a  second  person,  I  cut  a  piece 
of  thin  post-card,  and,  having  damped  it,  I  folded  it 
round  the  leg  from  the  ankle  to  the  foot,  allowing 
the  edges  to  just  lap  over.     I  then  firmly  bound  a 
considerable  amount  of  darning  worsted  round  the 
card  splint,  and  put  the  bird  back  into  its  cage.     This 
I  did  about  three  weeks  ago,  and  it  is  now  so  far 
better  that    it  can  open  its  claws   and   put  its   leg 
down  to  steady  itself.     Before  I  put  this  splint  on, 
the  leg,   which  was   very  hot  and  red  and  slightly 
swollen,  was  drawn  up  and  the  claws  folded  into  a 
ball,  while  it  supported  itself  by  dropping  its  wing. 
I  hope  very  soon  to  have  the  satisfaction  of  seeing  it 
quite  well. —  I  Falter  T.  Cooper. 

The  Violet  Quotation. — In  the  course  of  my 
reading  I  have  come  across  two  passages  containing 
the  same  idea,  namely,  an  expressed  desire  that  the 

violet  should  giow  out  of  the  ashes  of  a  dead  person. 
I  cannot  find  a  note,  in  any  annotated  edition  which 
I  possess  of  either  work,  which  gives  any  reason  for 
the  birth  of  such  an  idea,  and  am  in  doubt  whether  it 
is  merely  the  result  of  chance  that  two  authors  should 
have  fixed  upon  the  same  flower — the  violet — to 
mention  in  connection  with  the  burial  of  a  corpse  ; 
or  whether  there  is  some  tradition,  or  a  natural 
peculiarity  of  choice  of  locality  connected  with  that 
flower,  which  would  lead  one  to  expect  its  appearance 
on  a  grave.  One  of  these  passages  is  from  "Hamlet," 
act  v.  scene  1  : — ■ 

"  Lay  her  i'  the  earth, 

And  from  her  fair  and  unpolluted  flesh 

May  violets  spring." 

The  other  is  from  "  In  Memoriam,"  canto  xviii.  : — 

"  We  may  stand 
Where  he  in  English  earth  is  laid ; 
And  from  his  ashes  may  be  made 
The  violets  of  his  native  land." 

Perhaps   some   of  your  readers  may  be  able  to  aid 
me  with  a  satisfactory  elucidation. — P.  Q.  Learite. 

Mean   Temperature  and   Rainfall. — I    feel 
obliged  to  Mr.  Mattieu  Williams  for  his  courteous 
reference  in  last  year's  Science-Gossip,  p.  269,  to 
my  paper  on  the  Sequence  of  Mean  Temperature  and 
Rainfall.     I  beg  leave  to  point  out  two  verbal  errors 
(possibly  printers'  errors)  which  should  be  corrected, 
for  the  sake  of  any  of  your  readers  who  may  be  in- 
clined to  follow  out  this  interesting  subject.     I.   In- 
stead  of   "It   is   very  rarely  that  a  dry  August  is 
followed  by  a  wet  September,"  there  was  shown  to 
be  a  strong  probability  for  a  very  dry  August  to  be 
followed  by  a  "more  or  less  wet  September."     This 
is  remarkable  as  being  the  only  instance  in  which  a 
tendency  towards  opposition  between  one  month  and 
the  next,  and  between  one  season  and  the  next,  is 
found  to  exist,  whether  as  regards  their  temperature 
or  their  rainfall.      2.   When  either  of  the  months, 
April,  June,  July,  August,  September,  December,  or 
January,  is  very  cold,  the  succeeding  month  tends 
to  be  cold,  not,  as  stated,  a  "  dry  one." — FT.  Conrtenay 
Fox,  M.R.C.S.,  F.R.M.S. 

Arsenic  and  Malaria. — Whatever  may  be  the 
virtues  possessed  by  Eucalyptus  as  a  protective 
against  malaria,  Dr.  Tommasi-Crudelii  is  certainly 
right  in  advocating  the  use  of  arsenic.  As  an 
employe  at  the  Cornwall  Arsenic  Company's  works 
at  Bissoe  for  nearly  forty  years,  I  have  had  every 
opportunity  for  making  observations  on  this  subject. 
During  that  time  I  have  never  known  a  single  case 
of  cholera  or  any  other  zymotic  disease  to  occur  in 
that  part  of  the  valley  where  these  extensive  works 
are  situated.  When  the  cholera,  fever,  smallpox,  Sec, 
have  visited  the  county,  many  cases  have  occurred 
in  the  same  valley  two  miles  below  the  works  and 
the  same  distance  above  it,  but  I  have  never  known 
a  single  case  nearer  the  source  of  these  deadly 
fumes. — Stephen  FT.  Davey,  Ponsanoot/i,  Cornwall. 

Lunar  Rainbows.- — It  has  been  said,  "  that  man 
is  fortunate  who  has  seen  more  than  three  lunar 
rainbows  during  his  lifetime."  If  this  be  true,  I 
have  been  favoured  in  this  matter  beyond  the  or- 
dinary race  of  mortals.  During  thirty  years  I  have 
seen  fifteen.  Referring  to  my  meteorological  note- 
book, I  find  three  of  more  than  ordinary  brightness  : 
Dec.  22nd,  1868;  Sept.  6th,  1870,  and  Sept.  27th, 
1885.  The  last  was  the  most  brilliant  I  have  ever 
seen  ;  it  was  not  only  large,  but  of  uniform  brightness 
throughout.  There  were  two  others  the  same  night, 
but  not  so  perfect  as  the  first.     Night  rainbows  are 



by  no  means  of  common  occurrence,  but  Louis 
Jarman  may  rest  assured  they  are  not  so  rare  as  is 
generally  supposed. — Stephen  II.  Davey,  Ponsanooth. 

The  Electrical  Eel. — I  was'  much  interested, 
on  looking  through  the  current  number  of  Science- 
Gossip,  to  see  a  fact  recorded  by  Professor  du  Bois 
Reymond  which  I  have  never  seen  in  print  before, 
but  which  I  observed  myself  a  few  years  since ; 
namely,  the  power  the  electrical  eel  possesses  of 
delivering  its  blow  without  actual  contact  with  the 
object  struck.  I  have  seen  it  stated  that  no  shock 
can  be  delivered  unless  the  eel  is  touching  the  object 
in  two  places  so  as  to  complete  the  circle,  but,  so  far 
from  this  being  the  case  I  have  no  doubt  the  eel  can 
send  the  shock  through  several  inches  of  water.  The 
last  time  Frank  Buckland  was  at  Southport,  we  were 
examining  the  various  creatures  in  the  Aquarium, 
and  among  others  some  fine  electric  eels.  We 
wanted  to  try  whether  the  shock  was  fatal  to  a  fish 
of  a  size  suitable  for  food  for  the  creature,  or  whether 
it  was  only  stunned.  We  therefore  put  a  fine  roach 
into  the  tank.  The  eels  became  much  excited,  and 
one  big  fellow  sailed  alongside  and  delivered  its  shock. 
The  roach  instantly  turned  belly  up  without  even  a 
quiver  of  its  fins  ;  but  what  struck  us  both  was  that 
the  eel  was  certainly  several  inches  off  the  fish  when 
the  latter  was  struck.  We  repeated  the  experiment 
with  another  roach  and  another  eel,  watching  care- 
fully to  see  the  exact  distance,  and  were  both  satisfied 
that  the  eel  was  at  least  three  or  four  inches  distant. 
We  could  not  get  another  experiment,  as  the  eels 
would  not  use  their  power,  or  else  had  exhausted  it. 
Buckland  was  highly  pleased,  but  did  not  want  to 
say  anything  about  it  without  trying  again  to  ascertain 
more  about  it  if  possible,  expecting  very  soon  to 
have  an  opportunity  of  verifying  the  observations. 
His  illness,  and  the  death  of  the  eels  shortly  after, 
prevented  the  further  observations  being  made.  I 
do  not  profess  to  be  an  electrician,  but  I  cannot  under- 
stand how  the  shock  can  be  sent  through  several 
inches  of  water,  which  we  were  both  convinced  it 
was.  The  two  unfortunate  roach,  though  so  com- 
pletely paralysedj  as  not  to  exhibit  the  slightest  sign 
of  life,  both  recovered,  having  been  removed  from 
the  tank  before  the  eels  could  seize  them.  These 
creatures  proved  to  be,  like  many  other  fishes, 
cannibals.  We  had  three  in  the  tank,  one  rather 
smaller  than  the  others.  One  day  the  smallest  was 
missing,  and  the  bloated  appearance  of  one  of  his 
companions  showed  only  too  clearly  what  had  be- 
come of  him. — Charles  L.  Jackson,  F.L.S.,  F.R.M.S., 
&*c.,  Honorary  Naturalist  to  the  Southport  Aquarium. 

"The  Shard-borne  Beetle"  of  Shakespeare  is 
in  all  probability  Geotrupes  stercorarius,  the  large 
dung-beetle.  It  flies  very  much  in  warm  weather  in 
search  of  dung,  through  which  it  bores,  and  deposits 
its  eggs.  Not  unfrequently  it  flops  into  our  faces  in 
the  dusk  in  rather  a  startling  manner.  Some  people 
have  thought  the  poet  meant  the  cockchafer  (Melo- 
lontha  vulgaris) ;  but  the  other  insect  is  certainly 
more  obtrusive  and,  in  most  British  localities,  more 
abundant,  and  therefore  more  probably  intended. — 
Rev.  W.  C.  Hey. 

The  Shard-borne  Beetle. — "The  shard-borne 
beetle,  with  its  drowsy  hum,"  is  evidently  meant  for 
one  of  the  "Dor  "  beetles,  G.  vernalis  most  probably, 
they  being  the  ungainly,  dignified  gentry  that  fly  in 
all  our  country  lanes  on  a  summer's  evening,  and  so 
thoroughly  ignore  the  presence  of  any  intruder  on 
their  happy  hunting-ground  as  to  think  it  unworthy 

of  their  dignity  to  get  out  of  the  way,  and  endeavour 
to  fly  through  them  or  knock  them  over. — Louis 

Mimulus  luteus.  — In  August,  1885,  I  also 
found  the  above  plant  growing  in  a  stream  (Whittey 
Brook),  in  the  village  of  Stockton,  near  here.  It 
covered  the  stream  for  a  mile  or  more. —  William 


To  Correspondents  and  Exchangers. — As  we  now 
publish  Science-Gossip  earlier  than  formerly,  we  cannot  un- 
dertake to  insert  in  the  following  number  any  communications 
which  reach  us  later  than  the  8th  of  the  previous  month. 

To  Anonymous  Querists. — We  must  adhere  to  our  rule  of 
not  noticing  queries  which  do  not  bear  the  writers'  names. 

To  Dealers  and  others. — We  are  always  glad  to  treat 
dealers  in  natural  history  objects  on  the  same  fair  and  general 
ground  as  amateurs,  in  so  far  as  the  "exchanges"  offered  are  fair 
exchanges.  But  it  is  evident  that,  when  their  offers  are  simply 
disguised  advertisements,  for  the  purpose  of  evading  the  cost  of 
advertising,  an  advantage  is  taken  of our gratuitous  insertion  of 
"  exchanges  "  which  cannot  be  tolerated. 

We  request  that  all  exchanges  may  be  signed  with  name  (or 
initials)  and  full  address  at  the  end. 

H.  E.  Quilter. — We  shall  be  glad  to  hear  from  you  on  the 
subject  you  mention. 

T.  W.  M.— Dr.  McNicol,  of  Southport,  has  published  a 
"  Glossary  of  Natural  History  Terms."  A  cheaper  book,  how- 
ever, is  Rossiter's  "  Dictionary  of  Scientific  Terms,"  published 
by  Messrs.  William  Collins  and  Sons,  Publishers,  London  and 

H.  P.  M. — We  are  sorry  to  say  your  box  of  shells  never 
reached  us.     Your  note  is  the  first  we  have  heard  of  them. 

W.  Hambrough.— Your  specimens  are  unquestionably  the 
eggs  of  some  lepidopterous  insect,  the  species  of  which  we  wil 
ascertain  for  you. 

G.  Forbes. — Stark's  "  British  Mosses,"  and  Lindsay's  "Bri- 
tish Lichens,"  each  price  ios.  6d.,  are  the  best  you  could  get. 
You  may  get  them  second  hand,  very  likely.jof  Mr.  W.  Collins, 
Scientific  Bookseller,  157,  Great  Portland  Street,  London,  W. 

A.  S. — Stark's  "British  Mosses"  (price  ioj.  6d.),  with  beau- 
tiful coloured  plates,  will  admirably  meet  all  your  requirements. 
See  also  article  in  Science-Gossip,  vol.  1872,  on  "  Collecting 
and  Preserving  British  Mosses." 

P.  E.  G. — Mr.  John  E.  Robson,  Hartlepool,  has  published  a 
book  of  labels  for  British  plants,  with  space  fur  filling  up  such 
as  you  require  ;  price,  we  believe,  4J.  6d. 

W.  Smith. — The  "Torrey  Bulletin,"  published  in  Indiana- 
polis, deals  with  American  Cryptogama. 


Wanted,  a  good  breech-loading  double-barrelled  gun,  any 
gauge  between  12  and  16,  either  pin  or  central  fire  ;  16  pin-fire 
preferred.  Will  give  in  exchange  collection  of  eggs,  100  species, 
also  a  few  skins  and  books.  Apply  for  list  to  C.  Forge,  South 
Sea  Farm,  Flamboro',  Yorkshire. 

A  few  good  specimens  of  Unio  tumidus,  var.  i>onderosa, 
Pascal  (new  British  variety),  U.  pictorum,  var.  rostrata,  Lam., 
and  Anodonta  cygnea,  var.  Zellensis,  for  exchange. — H.  E. 
Quilter,  4  Cedar  Road,  Leicester. 

Wanted,  a  clean  copy  of  "  Forms  of  Water,"  by  J.  Tyndall, 
vol.  i.,  or  "The  Crayfish,"  by  T.  H.  Huxley,  vol.  xxviii.,  or 
"Volcanoes,"  by  John  W.  Judd,  vol.  xxxv.  (International 
Scientific  Series),  crown  8vo,  cloth,  price  $s.  each,  in  exchange 
for  "The  Doctrine  of  Descent  and  Darwinism,"  by  Professor 
Oscar  Smidt,  vol.  xii.,  same  series,  price  $s. — T.  Fielding, 
Constable's  Tower,  Dover,  Kent. 

A  Williams  freezing  and  imbedding  microtome,  by  Swift  & 
Son,  for  good  high-power  objective  or  other  offers. — W.  Jenkin- 
son,  9  Surrey  Street,  Sheffield. 

Wanted,  to  exchange  good  typical  Liassic  specimens  from 
the  Midland  counties  for  similar  specimens  from  other  districts. 
— W.  D.  Crick,  7  Alfred  Street,  Northampton. 

Wanted,  parasites  and  their  eggs,  either  mounted  or  un- 
mounted, in  exchange  for  good  slides  and  objects. — J.  W. 
Wilshaw,  455,  Shoreham  Street,  Sheffield. 

Wanted,  vols.  i.  and  ii.  of  "  Proceedings  of  Geologists'  As- 
sociation."— B.  H.  Woodward,  80  Petherton  Road,  London,  N. 

Fertile  eggs  of  Dispar  from  fern.  2^  inches  across,  to  ex- 
change for  fertile  eggs  of  Caja,  Villica,  and  Ulmata. — L.  Jarman, 
304  High  Holborn,  London. 

Well-mounted  micro-slides  to  exchange  for  other  good 
micro  or  lantern  slides. — Dr.  Moorhead,  Cootehill,  Ireland. 



BALSAM-mounted  sections,  well  finished,  for  pathological  or 
histological  specimens  suitable  for  sections  in  chromic  acid  or 
spirit. — Thomas  Groves,  Kilburn  Dispensary,  N.W. 

Aquarium,  octagon  form,  20  inches  high,  15  inches  wide, 
slate  bottom ;  open  to  offers — no  books.  Also,  Cassell's 
"Science  for  All,"  complete,  unbound;  desiderata,  aviary, 
cage,  or  good  canaries,  or  other  birds  other  than  pigeons  or 
fowls. — Aquarium,  24  Park  Road,  Clapham,  London,  S.W. 

Wanted,  i-inch  objective,  or  other  microscopic  appliances, 
in  exchange  for  100  accurately-named  British  mosses. — G.  A. 
Barker,  1  Northwold  Road,  Upper  Clapton,  E. 

"  Lancashire  and  Cheshire,  Past  and  Present  "  (Bains  and 
Fairbairn),  25  parts,  published  at  js.  each,  one  part  missing. 
What  offers  ? — J.  Laing,  37  Main  Street,  Stapenhill,  Burton-on- 

Wanted,  first-class  botanical  and  anatomical  slides,  also 
diatom  slides  (selected),  and  good  unmounted  material  of  all 
kinds,  in  exchange  for  entomological  preparations,  mounted.— 
C.  Collins,  Bristol  House,  Harlesden,  N.W. 

Offerei',  A.  acicula,  C.  dubia,  H.  pisana,  P.  corneus, 
L.  stagnalis,  var.  fragilis,  H.  ru/estris,  C.  minimum,  and 
others,  for  L.  auric ularia,  L.  glutinosa,  Unio  margaritifer, 
H.fusca,  and  varieties  of  species. — Wm.  Webster,  Lofthouse, 

Wanted,  No.  242  of  Science-Gossip. — R.  C.  Chaytor, 
Scrafton  Lodge,  Middleham,  Yorkshire. 

Goldsmith's  "  History  of  the  Earth  and  Animated  Nature," 
with  notes  from  the  works  of  the  most  distinguished  British  and 
foreign  naturalists,  illustrated  by  upwards  of  2000  figures; 
Gosse  on  "  Evenings  at  the  Microscope  ;"  and  "  One  Thousand 
Objects  for  the  Microscope  by  M.  C.  Cooke;"  for  exchange  or 
otherwise,  unbound  vols,  of  Science-Gossip  preferred. — R. 
C.  Chaytor,  Scrafton  Lodge,  Middleham,  Yorkshire. 

Wante<>,  Eocene  fossils  from  Middlesex,  Surrey,  and  Kent 
only,  in  exchange  for  others  ;  must  be  named,  localised,  and 
perfect  specimens.  Also  wanted,  J.  W.  Lowry's  "  Chart  of 
Characteristic  British  Tertiary  Fossils  ;"  state  wants. — Geo.  E. 
East,  jun.,  10  Basinghali  Street,  London,  E.C. 

Exotic  butterflies. — Duplicates :  Orn.  Priamus,  Minos, 
Richmondii ;  Papilio  Polymnestor,  Hector,  Diphilus,  Philoxe- 
nus  (fine),  Paris,  Polyctor,  Zalmoxis,  Hesperus;  Urania 
Rhypheus  ;  Leilus  ;  Attacus  Atlas,  etc.  Wanted,  other  exotic 
Rhopalocera,  particularly  rare  Papilios  for  figuring.— Hudson, 
Railway  Terrace,  Cross  Lane,  near  Manchester. 

Lepidoptera. — Duplicates  :  Io,  Atalanta,  Cardamines,  Co- 
rydon,  S.populi,  tilue,  ligustri,  tiliaria  (=  alniaria),  Defoli- 
aria,  Dilatata,  Rhomboidaria,  Pyraliata,  Dubitata,  Piniaria, 
Rubiginata,  jEscularia  (2  ),  Bucephala,  Perla,  Elymi,  Lutosa, 
Suffusa,  Megacephala,  Lucifera,  Ferruginea  (fair),  Oxyacan- 
tha,  Lota,  Spadicea,  Rostralis,|  Hortuellia,  Pratellus.  Cerella. 
Desiderata:  Pups  of  Carmelita,  Chaonia,  Dodonaea,  or  offers. 
— George  Balding,  Ruby  Street,  Wisbech. 

Micro-slides  :  a  few  slides  of  cane-sugar  for  polariscope  (very 
brilliant),  also  some  selected  diatoms  and  miscellaneous  mounts  ; 
exrhange  for  other  good  mounts ;  mutual  approval. — Mathie, 
42  McKinlay  Street,  Glasgow. 

Well-mounted  slides  of  Diatomaceae  in  exchange  for  other 
•well-mounted  slides,  Forams.  and  Polycystina  preferred.  Send 
list.— W.  M.  Ranson,  The  Cottage,  Priory  Road,  Anfield, 

Micro-slides. — Two  beautiful  objects  for  polariscope,  viz., 
spicula  of  Synapta  in  situ,  and  leg  of  cockchafer,  showing 
muscular  structure  ;  in  exchange  for  two  good  insect  mounts. — 
J.  B.  Bessell,  Fremantle  Square,  Bristol. 

Science-Gossip  wanted,  any  No.  from  commencement  to  34, 
also  51,  52,  55  to  59,  67,  68,  72,  76,  83,  84,  "  Entomologist"  187, 
199,  202,  221,  243,  244,  248,  249,  250.  Good  exchange  given 
for  any  of  above. — W.  T.  Taylor,  Seymour  House,  Keswick. 

I  wish  to  receive  American  plants  in  exchange  for  plants 
of  Europe,  and  especially  of  France  and  Switzerland. — 
Mouillefarine,  46  Rue  St.  Anne,  Paris. 

Wanted,  coins,  medals,  tokens,  old  china  and  bric-a-brac 
generally  ;  in  exchange,  can  offer  fossils,  shells,  minerals. — F. 
Stanley,  6  Clifton  Gardens,  Margate. 

Wanted,  Huxley's  "  Crayfish  "  or  "  Practical  Biology  ;  " 
will  give  the  April,  July,  October,  1885,  and  January  1886  parts 
of  "  Journal  of  Microscopy  and  Natural  Science." — H.  Hiller, 
82  Pinstone  Street,  Sheffield. 

"Compendium  of  the  English  Flora,"  by  Sir  J.  E.  Smith, 
1884,  with  a  printed  list  of  Yorkshire  plants  by  Ibbotson  ; 
Bloomfield's  "Poems,"  illustrated  by  Bewick,  1811  ;  Inglis's 
"  Channel  Islands,"  1834  ;  Audubon's  "  Ornithological  Bio- 
graphy," 1831,  folio,  one  volume,  no  illustrations  ;  Forrest's 
"Sculptured  Rocks  on  Rombalds  Moor,"  pamphlet,  rare; 
MS.  lists  of  Wakefield  and  Pontefract  shells,  for  other  natural 
history  books  or  specimens. — Geo.  Roberts,  Lofthouse, 

Swift's  clinical  and  sea-side  microscope  with  i-in.  objective, 
spot  lens,  and  tripod  foot,  good  condition.  Also  capital  ^-in. 
objective  by  E.  Swift  (for  binocular).  What  offers?  Apparatus. 
Wanted  a  good  compressorium,  Ross  model. — E.  B.  L.  Bray  ley, 
13  Burlington  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. _ 

Wanted,  a  good  second-hand  slide  cabinet  to  hold  500  or 
750  slides,  either  oak  or  mahogany  ;  state  requirements. — W. 
Henshall,  The  Holl  es,  Bredbury,  nr.  Stockport. 

Valuable  collection  of  British  land,  freshwater  and  marine 
shells,  and  a  few  foreign  ;  360  species  and  vars.  ;  nearly  2000 
specimens,  named  and  localised  ;  offers  requested. — Thos.  H. 
Hedworth,  Dunston-on-Tyne. 

Wanted,  parts  1  to  16  of  the  "Journal  of  Conchology,"  or 
any  of  them,  also  British  land,  freshwater  and  marine  shells 
in  exchange  for  others ;  lists  on  application. — J.  W.  Cundall, 
Carrville,  Alexandra  Park,  Redland,  Bristol. 

Science-Gossip  in  numbers  for  the  years  '80,  '81,  '82,  '83,  '84, 
'85,  with  24  coloured  plates ;  to  exchange  for  coins  or  natural 
history  books. — Jas.  Windoes,  Chipping  Norton,  Oxon. 

L.  C.  7th  edition  offered:  1142,  1646,  420^,  421,  463,  464, 
464?,  468?,  i,  g,  tv,  452,  406.  Many  desiderata. — W.  S. 
Harrison,  15  Park  Place  East,  Sunderland. 

A  good  exchange  for  any  of  the  following  :  Litnna,a  glabra, 
L. glutinosa,  L.  involuta,Acme,  Vertigo  alpestris,  V. pusilla, 
or  Geomalacus  tnaculosus. — S.  C.  Cockerell,  51  Woodstock 
Road,  Bedford  Park,  Chiswick,  W. 

Science-Gossip,  January  '84  to  May  '85,  16  parts,  excluding 
March  '84.     All  clean  and  perfect,  with  plates.     Wanted,  well 
set   specimens   of  Coleoptera,   Lepidoptera   or   Hymenoptera; 
write  first. — W.,  22  Richmond  Terrace,  Clapham  Road,  London. 

Wanted,  Thecla  bettila-,  T.  Pruni,  T.  IV.  album,  T. 
Quercus,  T.  Rubi,  Leucophasia  sinapis  and  Polyonimatus 
sEgon.  Send  list  of  requirements  for  a  good  series  of  any  of  the 
alove. — F.  A.  A.  Skuse,  36  Campbell  Road,  Bow,  London,  E. 

Wanted,  ^Egeria,  Davus,  Sibilla,  Argynnidae  andLycoenidae, 
in  exchange  for  freshwater  rotifers. — W.  Hayles,  9a  Union 
Road,  Cambridge. 

I  will  send  one  dozen  micro-photographs  of  natural  history 
objects,  in  exchange  for  an  equal  number  of  slides  of  insect 
preparations  in  balsam  ;  Enock's,  Topping's  or  Norman's  pre- 
ferred.— M.  H.  Robson,  18  Albion  Place,  Newcastle-upon- 

Wanted,  museum  specimens  of  an  ethnological  and  anthro- 
pological character.  A  large  selection  of  microscopic  slides  of 
marine  life,  etc.  ;  North  American  and  British  shells  ;  Crustacea, 
and  ottier  specimens  offered  in  exchange. — Ed.  Lovett,  West 
Burton  House,  Outram  Road,  Croydon. 

Wanted,  foreign  correspondents  for  the  exchange  of  insects 
of  all  orders. — S.  L.  Mosley,  Beaumont  Park  Museum,  Hud 

Wanted,  Gottsche,  Lindenberg  and  Nees'  "  Synopsis  Hepar 
ticarum,"  clean  copy  if  possible.  Exchange  in  books. — W.  Smith, 
Ormiston  Lodge,  Arbroath. 

Wanted,  specimens  of  British  Chrysididae  or  Vespidae  in  ex- 
change for  living  chrysalides  of  Megachile  ligniseca  and  Crabro 
leucostoma. — D.  W.  Collings,  22  Balfour  Road,  Highbury,  N. 

"  The  French  Metrical  System,"  by  Christopher  Giles,  Ade- 
laide (London:  R.  Banks  &  Son).  —  "The  Definitions  of 
Euclid,"  by  R.  Webb,  M.A.  (London  :  Geo.  Bell  &  Sons).— 
"  Modern  Science  :  a  Criticism,"  by  Edward  Carpenter  (Man- 
chester :  John  Heywood). — "  British  Cage  Birds,"  parts  5  and 
6  ;  "  Book  of  the  Goat,"  part  5  ;  and  "  Fancy  Pigeons,"  part 
5  (all  published  by  L.  Upcott  Gill,  London).—"  British  Petro 

The  Illustrated  Science  Monthly."  —  "The  American 
Florist."— "The  American  Monthly  Microscopical  Journal." 
— "The  Botanical  Gazette." — "  Cosmos." — "  Science."— "The 
Amateur  Photographer." — "  Ben  Brierley's  Journal." — "  The 
Rochdale  Field  Naturalists'  Journal."— "  Feuille  des  Jeunes 
Naturalistes."  —  "  The  Garner."—  "  The  Naturalist."—"  The 
Midland  Naturalist."— "Journal  of  the  Quekett  Microscopical 
dub."— "The  American  Naturalist."— "  British  and  Colonial 
Druggist."     &c.         &c.         &c. 

Communications  received  up  to  the  uth  ult.  from: 
L.  J.-M.  A.  H.— S.  C.  C.-W.  B.  G.-J.  L.-H.  E.  Q.— 
G.  A.  B.-W.  F.,  jun.-A.-F.  C.  G.— I.  M.-T.  G.— P.  T.  D. 
T.  W.  M.—  T.  W.-W.  B.  G.— J.  E.  L.— R.  W.— R.  L.  W.— 
E.  H.-C.  C-B.  P.-W.  C.  C— E.  G.-  L.  E.  A.-F.  G.  L— 
W  M.— J.  E.  T.— R.  D.— S.  A.  M.— W.  C.  C.-J.  B.— D.  W.  C. 
-L.  E.-N.  O.  R.-A.-F.  G.  L.-C.  P.  C.-G.  F.-T.  E.— 
T.  S.  S.-L.  W.  W.  P.— G.  A.— R.  T.  J.— J.  J.  N.-W.  M.— 
L.  E.  A.-P.  Q.  K.-A.  S.-M.  T.-H.  E.  T.-M.  T.— 
T.  E.  E  — K.  M.  W.  T.— T.  M.— E.  W.-G.  H.— M.  B.— J.  M. 
F  -\v  W.— G  H.  J.— W.  S.  B.— H.  A.— Dr.  A.  M.  M'A.— 
H.  G.  W.— B.  H.  W.— C.  P.  F.— L.  B.— C.  B.  M.— W.  H.— 
H  P.  M.-B.  H.  W.-H.  M.— F.  B.— J.  W.  W.— W.  D.  C— 
J.  M.-W.  J.-J.  G.-F.  H.-T.  F.-J.  W.  C.-T.  J.  P.— 
W  H.  H.-W.-F.  S.-C  C— M.-W.  T.  T.-J.  C.  P.- 
L  K.  B.— I.  B.  B.— W.  M.  R.— B.  T.— W.  M.— S.  M.— 
B  H.  W.-G.  B.— H.— W.  E.  C.-G.E.  E.— A.  D.— M.  E.  T. 
— R.  C.  C.-E.  L.— A.  P.— F.  J.  W.-W.  W.— W.  F.,  jun.— 
C.  C.-Messrs.  S.  S.  &  Co.-S.  C.  C.-E.  C  B.-W.  S.  H.- 
J.  W.-Dr.  M.-A.  S.-J.  R—T.  H.  H.-M.  D.  H.-W.  H. 
— E.  B.  L.  B.-P.  E.  G.— J.  W.  H.-J.  T.  T.  R.-G.  R.— 
H.  H.-W.  G.-W.  H.-J.  C  T.-F.  A.  A.  S.-W.  R.- 
M.  H.  R.— &c.        &c.        &c. 




By    Dr.    P.    Q.    KEEGAN. 

[Continued from  p.  64.] 

N  the  next  place,  the 
beauty  of  colour  in 
animals  claims  our 
attention.  The 

beauty  of  form  is, 
as  we  have  seen, 
referable  to  the  in- 
ternal skeleton,  the 
muscular  and  fatty 
tissue  ;  but  it  would 
appear  that  the 
blood,  the  skin, 
and  the  liver  are 
principally  con- 
cerned in  the  pro- 
duction of  organic 
tint  and  hue.  This 
species  of  beauty 
is  in  its  effect  more 
sensuous  and  less 
"intellectual,  "than 
the  beauty  of  form.  Nothing  can  exceed  the  loveliness, 
the  gorgeous  colouring  of  the  humming-birds,  the 
sun-birds,  many  fishes,  the  trogons,  Buprestidse,  etc. 
Iridescence  produced  by  the  fibres,  and  the  deposition 
from  the  blood  of  distinct  pigments,  are  the  two 
immediate  sources  of  animal  colours.  The  chemical 
constituents  of  the  blood,  its  activity  and  richness, 
and  above  all  the  oxygen  with  which  it  is  saturated, 
contribute  to  their  production ;  and  frequently  the 
transparency  of  the  tissues  imparts  thereto  a  fairy-like 
aspect  which  is  inexpressibly  charming .  In  discussing 
the  subject  of  form  we  have  observed  how  it  is  that 
to  every  animal  configuration  there  is  set,  as  it  were, 
an  ideal  exemplar  or  model  which  it  more  or  less 
embodies  according  as  it  exhibits  more  or  less  of 
beauty.  In  the  species  of  beauty  we  are  now  review- 
ing, the  necessity  of  such  an  ideal  is  not  so  patent, 
nor  does  there  appear  therein  such  an  obvious  de- 
velopment of  force  or  such  a  thorough  elaboration  of 
structure.  When  we  see  a  hideous  or  loathsome 
shape  we  recognise  some  defect  of  harmony  or  of 
No.  256.— April  1886. 

congruity ;  when  we  see  a  pale  or  repulsive  colour, 
we  judge  it  to  be  deficient  in  itself  and  as  of  itself. 
Another  feature  worthy  of  notice  is  that,  once  an 
animal  is  made,  its  stamp  of  form  and  contour  is 
generally  preserved  throughout  its  life  ;  whereas  its 
colouring  is  frequently  subject  to  periodical  change. 

This  periodical  change  of  colour  is  observable 
especially  amongst  birds.  It  is  known  that  a  change 
takes  place  in  the  plumage  of  all  birds  at  the  beginning 
of  the  breeding  season.  The  pigment  cells  of  the 
feathers,  etc.,  either  increase  in  number,  or,  if  already 
developed,  become  expanded.  These  lovely  creatures 
are  never  more  lovely  than  in  the  spring-time,  when 
their  apparel  changes  in  a  wonderful  manner  from  the 
sombre  shades  of  the  winter  to  colours  and  tints  the 
most  gorgeous.  And  this  is  the  very  season  when 
their  life-energy  is  most  potent  and  actively  elevated  ; 
when,  almost  perpetually  on  the  wing,  they  flit 
restlessly  from  branch  to  branch,  or  make  the 
woodlands  echo  with  their  songs,  or  vigorously 
engage  in  the  active  duties  of  parentage.  Fishes, 
too,  at  the  breeding  season  assume  lovely  colours, 
and  roam  in  shoals  over  the  waters,  or  pertinaciously 
advance  up  rivers.  In  the  case  of  insects  it  is  seen 
that  so  long  as  they  remain  in  the  dull  and  lifeless 
larva  and  pupa  states  they  are  comparatively  un- 
attractive ;  but,  once  they  assume  the  imago  or  perfect 
condition,  they  become  active  and  beautiful.  The 
beetle  tribe,  which  haunts  and  moves  slowly  about 
the  ground  and  rarely  takes  wing,  is  not  very  lovely; 
but  the  remarkably  active  and  practically  energetic 
bee,  dragon-fly,  and  butterfly,  etc.,  are  among  the 
most  gorgeously  apparelled  of  animals.  All  this 
periodical  or  seasonable  change  or  modification  of 
colour  would  seem  to  indicate  that  animal  beauty  in 
this  particular  arises  not  from  any  of  the  more  solid 
and  permanent  constituents  of  the  organism,  but  rather 
from  some  (such  as  the  blood)  which  is  subject  to 
great  variation  in  respect  to  its  quantity  or  quality  or 
to  (the  most  efficient  of  all)  what  we  may  style  its 
vitalising  property.  Animal  pigment  consists  of 
granules   usually  enclosed   in   cells,  and   these  cells 



HARD  Wl  CKE '  S  S  CIE  NCE-  G  OS  SI  P. 

appear  and  fade,  and  in  some  cases  (as  in  the  cuttle- 
fish) seem  to  be  influenced  by  the  will  or  nerve-state 
of  (he  animal. 

There    can    be   little   doubt    that    the    beauteous 
colouring  of  animals  is  occasioned  primarily  by  the 
presence  of  a  large  amount  of  oxygen  in  the  blood  or 
in   the    tissues.     No  doubt  can   be  entertained  that 
this  gas  lias  the  property  not  merely  of  supporting 
life,  but  also  of  vitalising,  animating,  and  beautifying 
the  living  tissues  and  fluids.     Dark  and  dun  venous 
blood,  when  infused  by  oxygen,  immediately  becomes 
bright    and    beautifully    scarlet.       This    red    blood 
suffusing    ihe   eyes  (as  in  the   look  of  love)  <jr  the 
cheeks  (as  in  blushing)  imparts  to  the  human  face  its 
supreme  attractiveness  in  these  its  moments  of  most 
eminent  loveliness.     And  if  we  consider  for  a  moment 
the  potent  influences  in  this  respect  of  oxygen  among 
material  bodies,  then  shall  we  have  an  earnest  of  its 
sway  in  the  case  of  organic  bodies.     Most  schoolboys 
are  familiar  with  the  experiment  of  burning  a  piece 
of  sulphur    or  phosphorus  or  iron  wire  in  the  gas, 
and  the  brilliant  and  beautiful  sight  thereby  witnessed. 
Some   metals    (such   as  strontium,    barium,    copper, 
etc.)  have  the  property  of   imparting  to  their  salts 
when   ignited   tints   of  red,   green,    blue,    etc.  ;  but 
pyrotechnists   in  their  coloured  fires,  in  addition  to 
these,  always  use  nicre  or  chlorate  of  potass,  which 
are  highly  charged  with  oxygen  ;   and  thereby  the 
beautiful   effects   of  their    "stars,"    etc.,    are   much 
enhanced.     The   aspect  of    fire   in   itself  when   not 
overpowering  is  pleasurable.     Now,  what  is  fire  or 
heat?     It  is  simply  an  act  of  rapid  chemical  union 
between  oxygen   and    certain   bodies   called   inflam- 
mables.    When  an  inorganic  body  is  heated  the  atoms 
or   primary   elements   which   compose   its   mass  are 
thrown  into  a  state  of  active  motion,  and  the  presence 
of  oxygen  around  the  burning  body  serves  to  increase 
and  intensify  this  internal  agitation.     A  similar  effect 
no    doubt  occurs   in   the   case   of  living   tissues   or 
organic  bodies.     The  presence  of  oxygen  in  the  blood 
increases  the  motion  of  its  particles,  and  beautifies 
their  aspect.     The  presence  of  oxygen  in  the  tissues, 
especially  the  skin  or  epidermis,  vivifies  and  increases 
its  activity,  its  decay  and  repair,  the  special  organic 
vitality  of   its  molecules,  and   so-wise   heightens   its 
beauty.     As   the   action   of  this   gas   beautifies   and 
increases   the   motion   of    the   ultimate    particles   of 
in  iterial  bodies,  so  we  may  presume  it  beautifies  and 
perfects  the  primary  vital  motions  of  animal  tissues. 
In  the  former  case  the  oxygen,  it  would  seem,  must 
be  generated,  or   be  external  to  the  bodies ;  in  the 
latter  case,  the  oxygen  would  appear  to  be  stored  in 
the  organic  substance  itself.     Oxygen  (as  aforesaid) 
becomes  latent,  and  is  stored  up  in  every  one  of  the 
animal  tissues,  in  every  living  bit  of  protoplasm.     In 
I  is  manner  we  shall  perhaps  be  able  to  account  for 
the  wondrous  transformation  which  those  lavish  con- 
sumers of  oxygen,  viz.  birds,  undergo  in  the  spring- 
time.    It  would   seem   that   during  the  winter   the 

oxygen  is  gradually  accumulated  in  the  feathers  and 
skin,  and  on  the  approach  of  spring  it  bursts   into 
activity,  when  new  feathers  are  developed,  and  the 
exquisite  embellishment  incident  to  that  season  takes 
place.      This    magnificent    development   of    animal 
decoration   is   connected  also  with,  or  at  least  runs 
parallel  to,  the  sexual  impulse.      The  vital  energy, 
actuated    by   the   stimulating   influence   of    oxygen, 
operates  among  other  regions  of  the  body,  and  stirs 
other  functions  as  well  as  those  of  the  skin  and  its 
appendages.      In   most   animals   the   male   is   more 
beauteously   apparelled    than    the   female,    and    the 
former  is  in  the  spring-time  more  sexually  perturbed 
than  the  latter.     So  also  if  we  consider  instances  of 
animals  not  so  signally  decorated  as  birds,  we  shall 
find  their  comparatively  sombre  colouring  related   in 
some  way  to  their  small  share  of  vernal  vital  energy. 
Thus    the    mammalia    exhibit    grays,    black,    brown, 
drab,  yellow,  fawn  colours,  but  no  green,  and  scarcely 
any  blue  or  brilliant    scarlet  ;   and   their   periodical 
vernal   energy  is,  as  exhibited  by  their  sexual  pro- 
pensities, dull  and  languid  as  compared  with  that  of 
birds  or  fish.     A  few  birds  and  insects,  such  as  the 
trogons  and  some  ground-beetles,  are  dull  and  silent, 
yet    are    they   splendidly   coloured.       In   these   ex- 
ceptional cases,  however,  it  may  be  found  that  the 
animal  energy,  although  individually  concentrated,  is 
limited  in  amount,  or  is  drained  off  by  some  channel 
to  be  utilised  in  some  other  department  of  the  animal 
economy.     The  great   Darwin,  viewing,  as  was   his 
wont,  everything  from  a  material  or  sensuous  point 
of  view,    was    of  opinion    that    active   or   voluntary 
sexual  selection  is  one  of  the  chief  causes,  if  not  the 
chief  cause,  of  all  the  variety  and  beauty  of  animal 
colour.     This  agency,  however,  although  it  may  to 
some  extent  practically  account  for  the  actual  beauty 
of  certain  individuals  at  present  existing,  cannot  be 
considered   the  fundamental   cause  thereof.     Sexual 
selection  is  at  best  a  secondary  and,  as  it  were,  visible 
or  tangible  agency  that  occasions  the   primary  and 
recondite  cause  to  operate. 

{To  be  continued) 


f^EOLOGY:  Chemical,  Physical,  and  Stratigra- 
\JT  phical,  by  Joseph  Prestwich,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  etc. 
In  two  volumes  :  vol.  i.  Chemical  and  Physical  (Ox- 
ford, at  the  Clarendon  Press). 

The  stony  science  cannot  complain  now  of  the 
want  of  advanced  text-books.  The  real  difficulty  is 
which  to  select,  for  the  best  and  most  renowned 
teachers  of  modern  geology  have  devoted  themselves 
to  writing  manuals.  No  other  science  is  now  so  well 
off  in  this  respect.  Jukes,  Lyell  (a  new  edition  of 
which,  by  Duncan,  we  recently  noticed),  Phillips 
(edited  by  Etheridge  and  Seeley),  the  two  Geikies 

HARD  WICKE '  S  S  CIE  NCE  -  G  O  SSI  P. 


(Archibald  and  James),  besides  a  host  of  minor,  but 
important,  writers;  Clifton-Ward,  Jukes-Brown,  H. 
B.  Woodward,  W.  J.  Harrison,  W.  H.  Penning,  etc., 
everyone  of  whom  must  be  considered  both  a  capable 
and  authorised  teacher. 

And  now  we  have  another — two  promised  volumes, 
of  which  the  present  is  a  substantial  proxy — by  the 
veteran  geologist,  Professor  Prestwich.  Such  a  work 
ought  to  be,  is  sure  to  be,  of  the  utmost  importance. 
Those  who  personally  know  the  man — his  enormous 
and  ripened  knowledge  of  everything  geological, 
literary  as  well  as  field-work — who  are  acquainted 
with  the  almost  historical  record  of  the  innumer- 
able papers  he  has  contributed  to  various  scientific 
societies,  nearly  all  dealing  with  original  observation 
and  research — the  gentleness,  nay,  modesty,  of  Prest- 
wich (a  rare  attribute,  of  which,  in  these  days,  we 
may  be  reasonably  proud  as  still  existing  among 
English  scientists) — will  expect  that  this  new  manual 
ought  to  fill,  and  will  fill,  a  place  none  other  can. 
No  other  science  has  developed,  or  accreted  as  well 
as  exfoliated,  so  much  as  geology.  And  Professor 
Prestwich's  active  geological  life  extends  to  the  days 
of  Conybeare,  Buckland,  Mantell,  Edward  Forbes, 
Lyell,  Salter,  and  others.  What  a  treasure-house  of 
rich  geological  recollections  ! 

Moreover,  Professor  Prestwich  was  always  dis- 
tinguished for  the  lucidity  of  his  style  of  writing. 
We  are  afraid  the  literary  faculty  is  not  always 
cultivated  among  scientists  as  it  ought  to  be.  It  is 
surely  of  great  importance,  if  we  have  anything  to 
say,  to  be  able  to  say  it.  Whatever  Professor  Prest- 
wich says  in  the  present  volume  is  said  well. 

Professor  Prestwich  has  remained  consistently  con- 
servative amid  all  those  radical  changes  which  have 
succeeded  each  other  so  rapidly  that  they  have 
eventually  come  round  to  the  original  point  of  de- 
parture. He  has  always  held  aloof  from  Lyell's 
charming  theory  of  "  Uniformitarianism  " — of  natural 
forces  always  acting  as  we  see  them  now.  Professor 
Prestwich's  view  has  always  been  that  ' '  the  phe- 
nomena of  geology,  so  far  from  showing  uniformity 
of  action  in  all  time,  present  an  unceasing  series  of 
changes  dependent  upon  the  circumstances  of  the 
time ;  and  that,  while  the  laws  of  chemistry  and 
physics  are  unchangeable  and  as  permanent  as  the 
material  universe  itself,  the  exhibition  of  the  con- 
sequences of  those  laws  in  their  operation  on  the 
earth  has  been,  as  new  conditions  and  new  com- 
binations successively  arose  in  the  course  of  its  long 
geological  history,  one  of  constant  variation  in  degree 
and  intensity  of  action." 

There  are  twenty-four  chapters  in  this  volume, 
none  touching  on  fossils  except  chapter  v.,  which 
deals  with  the  "  Order,  Place,  and  Range  of  Past 
Life."  Here  Professor  Prestwich  is  too  conservative, 
notwithstanding  his  adherence  to  the  evolutionistic 
cause  ;  for  he  arranges  fhe  existing  order  of 
animals,  invertebrate  and  vertebrate,  in_  a  classifica- 

tion which  has  been  exploded  for  some  time  ;  I 
which  we  hope  the  author  will  correct  in  another 
and  a  speedily  required  edition  of  this  valuable  life- 

Catalogue  of  the  Palceozoic  Plants  in  the  Department 
of  Geology  and  Palceontology,  British  Museum,  by 
Robert  Kidston,  F.G.S.  We  are  pleased  to  notice 
this  work  (first)  because  the  trustees  of  the  British 
Museum  are  the  only  Government  authorities  who 
behave  towards  the  scientific  press  of  this  country 
after  the  generous  manner  of  the  United  States 
Government,  in  sending  out  their  publications  for 
notice,  and  in  thus  letting  the  world  know  what  they 
are  doing  ;  and  (second)  because  no  man  has  carried 
scientific  common  sense  into  the  region  of  Palaso-bo- 
tany  more  than  Mr.  Robert  Kidston.  An  enormous 
amount  of  comparative  work  is  here  condensed  into 
scientific  order,  and  the  result  is  of  the  utmost  im- 
portance to  geologists. 

The  Tourists'  Guide  to  the  Flora  of  the  Alps 
(London  :  Swan  Sonnenschein  &:  Co.).  This  is  the 
very  sort  of  book  we  are  frequently  asked  to  re- 
commend by  botanical  tourists. ,  It  was  compiled 
by  Prof.  Dalla-Torre,  and  has  been  translated  and 
edited  by  Mr.  A.  W.  Bennett,  so  that  it  comes  to  us 
with  high  warranty  of  excellence.  The  original 
work  was  issued  under  the  auspices  of  the  German 
and  Austrian  Alpine  Club  in  Vienna.  The  get-up 
of  the  work  is  artistic  as  well  as  utilitarian,  for  its 
red  morocco  cover  wraps  over  like  a  pocket-book. 
The  paper  is  thin,  but  strong ;  the  type  clear,  and 
the  book  can  easily  be  stowed  away  in  the  breast- 

Lewis's  Pocket  Medical  Vocabulary  (London  :  H. 
K.  Lewis,  136  Gower  Street).  A  capital  little  dic- 
tionary of  the  vast  specialistic  terms  in  medical 
science  which  even  the  most  distinguished  of  practi- 
tioners cannot  be  expected  to  carry  in  his  head  ; 
and  why  should  he,  when  this  little  book  of  217  pages 
carries  them  much  better  in  his  waistcoat  pocket  ? 

Handbook  of  Mosses,  by  J.  E.  Bagnall,  A.L.S. 
(London  :  Swan  Sonnenschein  &  Co.).  There  was 
unquestionable  room  for  a  popular  work  of  this  kind, 
and  we  do  not  think  any  botanist  in  England  could 
have  been  better  selected  to  compile  it  than  Mr. 
Bagnall.  It  deals  with  the  appliances  required  for 
the  study  of  mosses,  their  development,  habitats, 
classification,  geographical  distribution,  cultivation, 
uses,  preparation  for  the  herbarium,  etc.,  and  is 
profusely  illustrated  and  published  at  one  shilling. 

We  have  also  received  —  Kaffir  Folk-Lore,  by 
G.  McCall  Theal,  second  edition  (London :  Swan 
Sonnenschein  &  Co.),  a  selection  from  the  traditional 
tales  current  among  the  people  living  on  the  eastern 
border  of  Cape  Colony.  The  study  of  folk-lore  is 
now  very  popular,  and  this  work  is  therefore  both 
useful  and  interesting.  By-and-by  we  may  expect 
some  writer  will  have  genius  enough  to  establish  a 
comparative  system  of  folk-lore.     Also,  History  of  the 

E   2 



German  Language  (same  publishers),  by  H.  A. 
Strong,  LL.D.,  and  K.  Meyer,  Ph.D.  Both  the 
authors  are  connected  with  Liverpool  University 
College.  They  have  written  the  book  to  supply  a 
want  often  felt  by  professional  teachers,  to  whom  it 
will  come  very  handy.  Rudiments  of  Chemistry,  by 
Temple  Orme  (same  publishers).  Another  addition 
to  the  increasing  library  of  chemical  works.  It 
professes,  however,  to  be  only  the  merest  elementary 
introduction,  and  it  really  explains  the  nature  of 
chemical  research  rather  than  attempts  to  teach  the 
science  of  chemistry.  It  is  remarkable  for  the 
simplicity  and  lucidity  of  the  style,  and  will  be  an 
excellent  boy's  first  book  in  chemistry. 

A  Plea  for  the  Rain-band,  by  J.  R.  Capon,  F.R.A.S. 
(London  :  E.  Stanford).  This  is  a  re-issue,  in  a 
more  permanent  and  attractive  form,  of  Mr.  Capon's 
now  celebrated  pamphlet  (which  latter  has  been 
long  out  of  print),  with  additions.  Modern  Science: 
a  Criticism,  by  Edward  Carpenter  (John  Heywood, 
Manchester),  shows  extensive  reading,  but  poor 
logic,  and  contains  pages  of  such  assertions  as  that 
"  Astronomy  is  the  most  perfect  science  because  we 
kno7v  least  about  it "  .'  Life  is  too  short  for  books  of 
this  kind  to  stand  a  chance  of  success. 

The  Definitions  of  Euclid,  by  R.  Webb  (London  : 
George  Bell&  Sons).  Useful  to  teachers  in  supplying 
hints  for  explanations  of  difficulties  felt  by  beginners. 
Euclid  will  no  longer  seem  foolishness  to  a  boy  who 
has  this  book  to  help  him. 


IN  the  account  of  a  "Nettle  Fungus"  in  the 
February  number  (p.  35)  we  were  concerned 
with  that  group  of  the  Sphaeriacea;  in  which  the 
mouth  is  elongated  transversely  so  as  to  form  a  kind 
of  crest  or  ridge.  The  fungus  with  which  we  are  now 
concerned  belongs  likewise  to  the  Sphaeriaceae,  but 
to  that  group  in  which  the  ostiolum  is  elongated 
vertically  so  as  to  form  a  beak  or  rostrum.  In  more 
familiar  terms  it  may  be  compared  to  a  chimney, 
seated  usually  on  the  summit  of  the  perithecium,  up 
which  the  sporidia  have  to  climb  before  they  can 
emerge  into  the  light.  This  chimney,  like  a  real 
one,  generally  terminates  in  a  circular  opening  at  the 
top,  although  in  a  few  distantly  allied  species 
(Melanospora),  the  opening  is  surrounded  by  a  fringe 
or  tassel-like  arrangement  of  threads — is  in  fact 

The  ordinary  type  of  a  Sphaeria  has  a  more  or  less 
globular  perithecium,  which  in  by  far  the  majority  of 
cases  is  crowned  with  a  little  prominence  or  papilla, 
terminating  in  a  pore.  This  papilla  is  in  other  cases 
slightly  elongated,  and  it  is  obvious  that  what  is 
called  a  beak  is  only  a  more  exaggerated  form  of 
the  same  organ,  all  the  intermediate  stages  being 
observable  in  one  species  or  another.     The  departure 

of  the  beaked  Sphaerias  from  the  typical  form  is  less 
striking  than  is  that  of  the  long-mouthed  Lophio- 
stomaceae,  though  even  in  the  latter  case  also  the 
gradations  of  change  are  visible  in  some  species. 

This  is  probably  the  reason  that  induced  Saccardo, 
in  his  "  Sylloge  Fungorum,"  to  adopt  a  different  pro- 
cedure in  the  two  cases.  He  separates  the  crested 
Sphaerias  entirely  from  the  Sphaeriaceae,  and  con- 
stitutes them,  as  I  have  shown,  into  a  distinct  family. 
But  the  beaked  Sphaerias  he  distributes  throughout 

Fig.  48. — Leutomi/a  ampulla  sea  {in  situ),  showing  the  beaks 
emerging  from  the  bark.     X  50. 

Fig.  49. — A  Single  Perithecium.     X  100. 

the  Sphreriaceae,  according  to  the  form  and  colour  of 
their  sporidia. 

This  is,  I  think,  a  mistake.  The  two  groups 
stand  on  the  same  footing,  and  are  entitled  to 
similar  rank ;  they  should  both  be  considered  as 
sub-families  of  the  Sphaeriaceae.  In  regard  to  the 
beaked  Sphaerias,  in  fact,  this  is  what  Saccardo  him- 
self would  prefer.  In  a  note  on  p.  227  of  the  second 
volume  of  the  "  Sylloge,"  which  seems  to  have  escaped 
the  notice  of  his  critics  in  this  country,  he  recom- 
mends that  all  those  genera  which  have  a  decided 
beak  should   be    united  by  his  successors  in  a  sub- 



family  to  be  called  Ceratostomese.*  This  is  im- 
portant, as  showing  that  he  is  not  wedded  to  his 
"  carpological"  arrangement,  when  it  is  convenient 
and  just  to  depart  from  it. 

It  is  frequently  forgotten  that,  although  the 
ultimate  aim  of  systematic  arrangements  of  plants  is 
a  genealogical  one,  yet,  while  our  knowledge  is  as 
imperfect  as  it  is  in  the  case  of  the  Fungi,  we  must 
be  content  with  that  approach  to  our  ideal  which  is 
most  convenient  in  practice.  After  all,  one  of  the 
objects  of  classification  is  ease  of  reference,  so  that 
we  may  readily  identify  the  species  which  we  find. 
This  was  indeed  the  chief  object  of  the  "Sylloge," 
and  how  delightfully  it  fulfils  that  purpose  is  known 

The  contents  of  the  perithecia  (Fig.  49),  pressed  out 
in  water  under  the  microscope,  attracted  attention  at 
once  on  account  of  the  very  peculiar  outline  of  the 
asci,  which  will  be  seen  in  Fig.  53. 

This  naturally  reminded  one  of  the  figure  given  by 
Cooke,  in  the  Handbook,  of  the  asci  of  his  SpJia.  a 
ampullasca,*  p.  876.  The  perithecia  also  agreed  in 
every  respect,  except  that  the  beaks  were  scarcely  as 
long  as  he  describes  ;  but  the  sporidia  presented  a 
decided  difference.  The  sporidia  of  Cooke's  speci- 
mens were  "  narrowly  lanceolate  "  or  rather  oblong- 
fusiform,  with  a  guttula  at  each  extremity,  and  con- 
tinuous, i.e.  not  septate.  Mine,  on  the  contrary, 
although  closely  alike  in  size  and  shape,  were  some- 

Fig.  50. — Two  adjacent  ' 
Perithecia.     X  50.  j 

Fig.  51. — Hexagonal  cells'of  Perithecium.     X  1000. 

Fig.  52. — Apex  of  beak,     a,  X  300 ;  b,  X  iooo, 
showing  vermiform  cells. 

Fig.  53. — a,  Ascus  of  L.  ampullasca,  X  500 ;  b,  more  shortly 
stalked  ascus,  X  iooo,  showing  the  thickened  bilobed 
membrane  at  the  apex ;  1-6,  the  sporidia  (the  numbers 
indicate  the  presumed  stages  of  growth) ;  at  x,  two 
injured  sporidia. 

to  all  who  use  it.     Afterwards,  with  fuller  knowledge, 
a  more  natural  arrangement  still  may  be  evolved. 

It  was  on  the  last  day  of  the  just  departed  year 
that  I  found,  at  Sutton  Coldfield,  a  prostrate  trunk  of 
sycamore  from  which  the  bark  had  been  partially 
removed.  A  perfect  storehouse  of  fungi  it  turned  out 
to  be,  and  I  may  on  a  future  occasion  give  an  account 
of  the  other  riches  it  produced.  On  the  inner  side  of 
the  hanging  strips  of  bark,  nestling  among  the  fibres 
of  the  liber,  were  numerous  black  dots,  conspicuous 
under  a  lens  on  account  of  the  long  projecting 
beaks  that  looked  like  a  forest  of  smoky  chimneys 
(Fig.  48). 

*  Horn-  or  beak-mouthed. 

what  curved,  and  showed  in  the  centre  an  undoubted 
though  faint,  transverse  partition.  A  wider  search, 
however,  revealed  many  of  the  sporidia  without  this 
septum,  and  with  the  guttula  at  each  extremity. 

Others  also  were  found,  unseptate  and  furnished 
with  a  hyaline  conical  appendage  at  each  end. 
These,  however,  could  not  but  be  less  developed 
states  of  the  other  forms,  inasmuch  as  I  had  placed 
only  one  perithecium  under  the  microscope,  and  all 
the  forms  proceeded  therefore  from  one  individual. 
It  may  be  remembered  that  the  same  deciduous 
appendages  were  found  in  the  case  of  Lophiotrcma 
angustilabrum  {supra,  p.  37). 

*  Having  asci  shaped  like  an  ancient  jar  or  ampulla. 



The  septum  was,  as  I  have  said,  faint  and  delicate, 
and  perceptible  only  under  a  magnifying  power  of 
iooo ;  but  nevertheless  no  doubt  could  exist  as  to 
its  reality,  as  will  be  seen  from  comparing  Fig.  53  x. 
If  a  sporidium,  when  slightly  crushed,  separates  into 
two  parts  as  there  represented,  or  if  one  part  can  be 
empty  and  dead  while  the  other  is  still  fresh  and 
r:ninjured,  it  must  be  two-celled.  Moreover,  I  after- 
wards met  with  more  developed  specimens  in  which 
the  septum  was  a  conspicuous  feature. 

Now  the  presence  of  this  septum  removes  the 
species  from  the  genus  in  which  Saccardo  has  placed 
it.  Pie  knew  it  only  from  Cooke's  description  in  the 
Handbook  ;  so  it  appears  in  the  "  Sylloge  "  under  No. 
1549,  as  Ceratostomella  ampullasca.  But  henceforth 
it  must  be  placed  in  the  genus  Lentomita,  which  has 
two-celled  sporidia.  It  is  interesting  to  notice,  as 
confirming  the  accuracy  of  this  conclusion,  that  the 
other  species  of  Lentomita  are  said  to  have  the 
internal  membrane  of  the  asci  thickened  at  the  top. 
This  I  observed  in  my  specimens,  as  will  be  seen  in 
Fig.  53^,  where  the  thickening  is  represented  as  cre- 
nately  bilobed.  Under  a  lower  power  this  projec- 
tion of  the  membrane  appears  as  a  bright  circular 
spot  (Fig.  53rt)>  and  forms  perhaps  that  "globose 
body  "  which  Messrs.  Berkeley  and  Broome  observed 
at  the  tip  of  the  asci  of  Sphnria  pilosa,  ' '  the  nature 
of  which  "  they  "were  unable  to  determine." 

Another  point  worth  notice  in  my  specimens  is  that 
the  black  (really  dark  brown)  colour  of  the  peri- 
;  I  iecium  becomes  paler  upwards,  and  at  the  tip  of  the 
beak  almost  disappears.  Moreover  the  wall  of  the 
perithecium  is  submembranaceous  :  that  is,  the  cells 
of  which  it  is  composed  can  be  clearly  seen.  They 
ore  hexagonal  in  shape,  15  ju  in  diameter  (Fig.  51), 
but  they  become  elongated  at  the  base  of  the 
rostrum,  and  at  the  apex  they  form  a  subpellucid 
prosenchymatous  tissue,  of  vermiform  cells  30  /j. 
long  and  only  i\  n  wide  (Fig.  51). 

It  thus  appears  that  Cooke's  species,  Lentomita 
amftdlasca,  occurs  not  only  on  oak,  as  he  records 
it,  but  also  on  sycamore,  Acer  pseudo-platanus.  But 
this  is  not  all.  The  form  which  I  have  been 
describing  occurred  on  the  inner  side  of  the  liber 
ayer  of  the  bark  ;  the  perithecia  were  globose  or 
ovate,  immersed  and  scattered  (Fig.  48),  although 
here  and  there  two  or  three  could  be  found  in  close 
contact  (Fig.  50).  Occasionally,  however,  on  the 
outer  side  of  the  same  bark,  were  found  clusters  of 
perithecia  which  differed  in  two  respects — the  beaks 
were  sometimes  shorter ;  and,  when  the  outer  bark 
was  removed,  the  nearly  ovate  perithecia  were  left 
seated  just  within  the  surface  of  the  inner  bark,  i.e. 
nearly  superficial.  But  the  identity  of  the  two  forms 
could  not  be  doubted. 

Now  in  the  Handbook,  p.  877,  immediately  after 
tlie  description  of  Spkaria  ampullasca  is  found 
another  of  Splnvria  stylophora,  B.  and  Br.,  which  is 
said  to  have  the  "  perithecia  at  first  covered,  at  length 

free,  disposed  in  orbicular  patches,  ovate,  attenuated 
upwards ;  ostiola  longer  than  the  perithecia ;  asci 
broadly  clavate ;  sporidia  fusiform,  hyaline,  uniseptate, 
appendiculate  at  either  end."  Moreover  it  occurred 
on  Acer  platanoides. 

It  is  obvious  that,  so  far  as  it  goes,  this  descrip- 
tion will  apply  very  nearly  to  the  second  form  of 
L.  atnpullasca,  which  I  have  mentioned.  The  size  of 
the  sporidia  is  not  stated,  but  the  figure  given  by  the 
authors  closely  resembles  some  of  those  from  my 
specimens,  before  the  appendages  have  fallen  off.  The 
figure  of  the  perithecia  represents  them  with  short 
beaks,  but  this  is  contradicted  by  the  description. 

Except  by  reference  to  the  original  specimens  of 
Berkeley,  it  is  of  course  impossible  to  establish  the 
identity  or  non-identity  of  the  two  species  beyond 
a  doubt.  I  only  suggest  a  possibility.  But  their 
resemblance  is  so  close  that  it  will  be  better  to  put 
Berkeley's  species  as  a  variety  of  Cooke's  :  say 
Lentomita  ampullasca,  var.  stylophora.  In  some  of 
my  specimens  the  perithecia  grew  in  dense  oval 
patches,  though  in  other  respects  remaining  abso- 
lutely identical  with  the  typical  scattered  form. 

One  word  in  conclusion.  It  will  be  seen  that  the 
position  of  a  fungus  in  Saccardo's  "  Sylloge  "is  deter- 
mined partly  by  the  septation  of  its  spores,  and 
therefore  changes  if  additional  septa  are  discovered. 
This,  if  a  fault,  is  one  which  the  advance  of  know- 
ledge will  remove.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that 
many  species  are  at  present  imperfectly  known  in  this 
respect.  If  this  occurs  in  the  species  described  by 
authors  of  the  pre-microscopic  or  early  microscopic 
era,  it  can  only  be  lamented ;  but  if,  as  sometimes 
happens,  perfunctory  and  imperfect  descriptions  are 
given  by  writers  of  the  present  day,  it  would  be 
only  just  that  those  who  come  after  them  should 
altogether  ignore  their  misleading  attempts. 

W.  B.  Grove,  B.A. 



/I  PRIL  yd,  1S85. — -A-  beautifully  warm  day, 
~/jL  with  the  sun  shining  brightly — just  one  of 
those  days  on  which  out-door  work  can  be  pursued 
with  pleasure  and  comfort,  a  condition  not  always 
granted  at  this  time  of  the  year. 

At  9.30  A.M.  we  started  for  Burwell  and  Haugham 
Woods,  which  lie  on  the  eastern  foot  of  the  Lincoln- 
shire Wolds,  at  a  distance  of  about  five  miles  from 

Before  reaching  the  woods  we  had  occasion  to  take 
cut  our  pocket-book  to  note  that  frog-tadpoles  had 
emerged  from  their  ova.  Many  masses  of  ova  also 
lay  in  the  ponds  as  yet  unhatched. 

Having  arrived  at  the  woods,  we  made  our  way 
first  of  all  to  "  the  valley,"  the  principal  locality  in 
the    neighbourhood    for     the     local    marbled-white 



{Melanagria  galathea).  It  being  between  twelve  and 
one  o'clock,  we  sat  down  upon  an  old  prostrate  tree  to 
partake  of  dinner,  with  a  full  view  of  this  beautiful 
grassy  opening  and  its  steep  wooded  sides.  After- 
wards, while  walking  among  the  long  grass  at  the 
bottom  of  the  valley  which  in  July  and  August  is  to 
bring  forth  in  plenty  Melanagria  galathea,  but  which 
now  lies  in  tangled  masses  upon  the  ground,  we 
were  delighted  to  see  a  hibernated  specimen  of  the 
brimstone  butterfly  [Gonepteryx  rhainni)  come  flying 
down  the  hollow.  Not  having  a  net  with  us,  we  gave 
chase  to  this  angular-winged  insect  with  our  hat — the 
only  entomological  instrument  at  hand — but  failed  to 
capture.  In  many  parts  of  England  this  is  one  of  the 
commonest  butterflies,  therefore  it  is  nothing  unusual 
to  see  hibernated  specimens  in  the  spring  ;  but  in 
this  neighbourhood  it  is  not  so,  the  brimstone  being 
very  scarce  here.  This  was  the  first  specimen  I  had 
seen  for  several  years.  The  scarcity  of  this  usually 
common  butterfly  may  be  accounted  for,  perhaps,  by 
the  fact,  that  the  food-plant  of  its  larvse  (buckthorn)  is 
very  rare,  if  not  totally  absent,  here. 

Leaving  the  "  valley,"  we  passed  through  the  wood 
to  another  grassy  opening,  where  the  straight  stiff 
stems  of  the  ragwort  (Seneeio  Jaeobcea)  will  shortly 
rise.  This  spot  is,  we  believe,  the  only  locality  in  the 
district  for  the  elegant  black  and  crimson  Cinnabar 
moth  (Eitehelia  yacobeea),  the  yellow  and  black  larvae 
of  which  will  swarm  on  the  ragwort  in  June,  July, 
and  August. 

Plenty  of  primroses  were  in  flower,  and  here  and 
there  a  few  wood  anemones  could  be  seen  with  ex- 
panded petals  ;  in  various  places,  too,  the  pretty  but 
inconspicuous  barren  strawberry  was  in  flower ;  but 
still  it  was  evident  that  the  woods  would  have  yet  to 
undergo  great  changes  before  they  were  ready  for 
their  welcome  vernal  guests,  the  pearl-bordered 

During  the  day  we  saw  four  specimens  of  the 
small  copper  {Lyeasna  phlceas).  As  we  had  not 
heard  of  this  butterfly  hibernating,  we  concluded  that 
these  must  be  insects  of  the  first  brood.  But  still 
we  think  this  (3rd  of  April)  an  early  date.  Ento- 
mological works  differ  as  to  the  time  of  appearance, 
and  even  as  to  the  number  of  broods  of  the  insect. 
Stainton  gives  May  as  the  month  for  the  coming 
forth  of  the  first  brood.  It  is  peculiar  too  that  these 
insects  were  flying  along  at  a  considerable  distance 
from  the  ground — out  of  reach — while  those  of  the 
later  broods  are  generally  seen  skipping  over  the 
short  herbage  of  banks,  roadsides,  etc. 

In  these  woods  we  noticed  numerous  platforms, 
i.e.  rectangular  sods  supported  near  a  tree-trunk  by 
sticks,  at  about  two  or  three  feet  from  the  ground. 
These  the  keeper  informed  us,  are  used  to  capture 
jays.  On  the  top  of  the  sod  a  trap  is  placed  baited 
with  birds'  eggs,  a  few  twigs  being  stuck  into  the 
sod  to  give  the  whole  a  natural  appearance. 

It  does  seem  a  pity  that  the  jay,  along  with  other 

birds,  should  be  so  ruthlessly  destroyed,  ft  is  a 
revolting  sight  to  all  true  lovers  of  the  works  of  God 
to  see  beautifully  plumed  jays,  innocent  kestrels, 
together  with  sparrow-hawks,  stoats,  weasels,  and 
other  interesting  denizens  of  the  woods,  hung  moul- 
dering upon  the  "keeper's  trees."  In  the  case  of 
the  jay  very  little  harm  can  be  done  to  the  game, 
for,  though  it  does  occasionally  take  an  egg  or  young 
nestling,  the  principal  part  of  its  food  consist);  of 
acorns,  seeds,  fruit,  insects,  reptiles,  mice,  etc. ;  and, 
further,  the  cheerful  presence  of  this  bird  in  the  woods 
ought  to  more  than  compensate  the  sportsman  for 
the  loss  of  a  few  eggs  or  young  birds.  Speaking  of 
the  jay,  Jardine  in  the  "Naturalists'  Library"  says, 
"  Altogether  he  is  an  ornament  and  acceptable 
tenant  of  our  woods."  But  gamekeepers  cannot  be 
made  to  believe  this.  On  our  putting  the  question, 
"Do  jays  do  any  harm?"  to  the  keeper,  he  replied, 
"  Yes,  they  suck  eggs."  The  way  in  which  he  spoke 
showed  that  in  his  opinion  no  bird  that  ' '  sucked 
eggs  "  had  a  right  to  live. 

Leaving  Burwell  and  Haugham  Woods,  we  passed 
to  the  old  chalk-pit  in  Burwell  "pasture,"  familiar 
to  us  as  another  place  frequented  by  Melanagria 

Leaving  this  pit,  we  began  to  walk  in  a  homeward 

direction,   crossing   through    Maltby    Wood   on   our 

,  way.     At  5.30  we  reached  Louth  again,  after  having 

spent  a  very  pleasant  eight  hours. 

H.  Wallis  Kew. 


[Continued  from  page  54.] 

A  VERY  good  way  of  making  a  live  cell  is  as  follows  r 
The  bottom  is  formed  of  a  piece  of  "patent 
plate,"  and  the  sides  by  cutting  an  oblong  3x2  inches 
out  of  a  piece  of  indiarubber  three-quarters  of  an  inch 
thick,  and  trimming  it  so  as  to  leave  the  sidewalls 
about  a  third  of  an  inch  thick.  The  rubber  is  easily 
cut  by  means  of  a  knife  moistened  with  a  strong  solu- 
tion of  washing  soda,  and  is  cemented  on  to  the  glass 
bottom  by  means  of  marine  glue.  Such  cells  stand 
the  knocking  about,  inseparable  from  sea  life,  better 
than  those  built  up  of  glass,  and  are  less  trouble  to 
repair  when  they  get  out  of  order. 

The  handiest  form  of  simple  microscope  for  this 
purpose  is  one  in  which  the  stage  is  composed  of  a 
piece  of  glass  illuminated  from  below  by  a  large 
rectangular  plain  mirror.  The  lens — one  of  about 
1 -inch  focus  is  most  generally  useful — should  be 
capable  of  being  moved  freely  in  a  horizontal  plane 
over  the  stage,  as  it  will  generally  be  found  more 
convenient  to  move  it  than  the  cell ;  and,  when  cap- 
turing a  specimen  that  has  been  recognised  by  its 
means,  it  is  desirable  to  be  able  to  turn  it  completely 



out  of  the  way.  For  picking  specimens  out  of  the 
cell  there  is  nothing  so  handy  as  an  ordinary  section- 
lifter  with  a  rather  small  blade.  Searching  in  this 
way,  the  more  peculiar  specimens  may  be  separated 
and  set  aside.  Those  that  are  intended  for  examina- 
tion alive  must  be  placed  in  a  relatively  large  bulk  of 
water,  as  they  soon  die  if  left  for  any  length  of  time 
in  a  confined  space. 

While  this  preliminary  examination  is  going  on, 
the  process  of  preserving  the  much  larger  portion  not 
reserved  for  immediate  examination  may  be  proceeded 
with.  For  this  all  that  is  required  is  a  glass  funnel 
in  which  has  been  placed  a  piece  of  muslin,  arranged 
like  a  filter-paper,  and  a  couple  of  pickle-bottles,  one 
of  which  contains  a  few  ounces  of  rectified  spirit. 

As  soon  as  a  trayful  has  been  looked  over,  its 
contents  should  be  turned  into  this  funnel,  and  the 
water  allowed  to  drain  off  into  the  empty  bottle.  As 
soon  as  the  whole  has  been  collected  in  this  way,  a 
little  fresh  water  is  allowed  to  run  through,  to  wash 
out  the  remaining  salts,  and,  the  bottle  having  been 
emptied,  the  spirit  in  the  other  is  poured  in  and 
allowed  to  run  through.  The  funnel  is  then  shifted 
to  the  now  empty  bottle  and  the  spirit  poured  through 

less  dissolve  and  render  brittle  the  delicate  calcareous 
shells  of  Pteropods  and  other  small  mollusks.  It 
may,  however,  be  advantageously  employed  in  cases 
where  for  any  reason  a  liberal  supply  of  alcohol  may 
not  be  obtainable,  as  a  much  smaller  bulk  of  glycerine 
will  suffice  for  the  purpose. 

When  a  large  catch  has  been  made  it  is  well  to 
have  two  or  three  funnels  at  work,  as  it  is  very 
important  to  get  the  specimens  spirited  as  soon  as 
possible.  To  show  the  amount  occasionally  obtained, 
I  may  mention  that  on  one  occasion  the  mass  taken 
in  a  single  haul  of  the  net,  left  out  for  the  night,  was 
sufficient  to  more  than  half-fill  an  ordinary  pickle-jar. 

Fig.  54- — Aerating  Apparatus  applied  to  Live  Cell. 

again.  By  repeating  this  process  two  or  three  times 
the  specimens  are  very  rapidly  and  completely 
deprived  of  the  greater  part  of  their  water. 

The  muslin  is  then  gathered  into  a  bag  and  sus- 
pended in  a  jar  of  "  580  s.g.  spirit  for  twenty-four 
hours,  after  which  the  mass  may  be  removed  from 
the  muslin  and  stocked  in  small,  wide-mouthed 
bottles  of  spirit.  If  for  this  purpose  absolute  alcohol 
be  employed,  the  specimens  may  be  allowed  to  half- 
fill  the  bottle.  With  ordinary  rectified  spirit  a  more 
liberal  proportion  of  spirit  must  be  allowed.  When 
engaged  on  daily  work  a  considerable  economy  may 
be  effected,  by  keeping  the  used  spirit  and  employing 
it  to  extract  the  thick  of  the  water  from  the  next 
day's  specimens.  Prepared  in  this  way,  the  specimens 
will  keep  for  an  indefinite  time. 

An  alternative  plan  is  to  treat  the  mass  in  the 
muslin  with  glycerine  in  the  same  manner.  This 
has  the  advantage  of  preserving  the  organisms  in  a 
beautifully  clarified  condition  ;  but  the  treacly  con- 
sistence of  the  medium  does  not  lend  itself  so  well  to 
the  subsequent  process  of  sorting  the  specimens,  and, 
moreover,  the  glycerine  has  a  tendency  to  more  or 

Fig.  55. — Aerating  Apparatus. 

A  couple  of  hours  is  however  quite  long  enough  to 
leave  the  net,  as  a  rule,  as  beyond  that  time  the 
things  first  caught  are  apt  to  get  damaged. 

It  is  always  worth  while  to  examine  some  one 
species  of  each  catch  in  the  living  state.  For  this 
purpose  three  or  four,  if  obtainable,  should  be  set 
aside  in  a  good  sized  bell-glass  of  sea-water,  as  they 
die  so  rapidly  in  the  contracted  limits  of  a  live  cell 
that  several  subjects  may  be  required  for  a  complete 
examination.  Apart  from  the  wonderful  view  of  their 
internal  economy  which  their  great  transparency 
enables  one  to  obtain,  the  movements  of  the  animal 
allow  of  one's  forming  a  much  better  idea  of  the 
relations  and  functions  of  its  parts  than  can  ever  be 
got  when  dead,  as  then  it  is  kept  by  gravitation 
obstinately  in  one  position,  in  any  other  than  which 
it  will  be  found  extremely  difficult  to  retain  it. 
(To  be  continued.) 

We  regret  to  record  the  death  of  Mr.  W.  W. 
Leighton,  who  since  the  year  1867  has  filled  the 
office  of  Clerk  of  the  Geological  Society  of  London. 

HARD  WICKE '  S  S  CIE  NCE  -  G  0  SSI  P. 


By  W.  Mattieu  Williams,  F.R.A.S.,  F.C.S. 

vulgar  notion  that  scientific  men  are  all 
"  theorists  "  is  best  refuted  by  referring  the  subject 
of  such  delusion  to  a  monograph  by  a  specialist  in 
any  branch  of  natural  history.  This  will  show  with 
what  an  immense  amount  of  labour  the  details  of 
science  are  obtained.  A  treatise  recently  published 
in  Belgium  on  the  anatomy  of  one  species  of  nettle 
("  Recherches  anatomiques  sur  les  Organes  vegetatifs 
de  VUrtica  dioica,  L.,"  by  A.  Gravis,  Brussels),  which 
covers  250  pages,  with  twenty-three  plates,  and 
describes  results  obtained  by  means  of  15,000  sections 
of  this  one  plant,  supplies  a  very  good  example.  To 
an  outsider,  one  of  the  self-styled  "practical  "  people, 
who  have  never  investigated  anything  thoroughly, 
such  work  appears  miserably  slow  and  wearisome. 
In  jumping  to  this  conclusion  these  people  are  very 
dreamy  theorists  indeed  ;  for,  as  a  matter  of  practical 
fact,  no  occupation  is  more  exciting,  more  sensa- 
tionally engrossing  and  enjoyable  than  a  thoroughly 
penetrating  research  into  the  minute  details  of  anything 
in  Nature.  The  mere  slayer  of  birds  and  quadrupeds, 
the  man  who  strides  on  a  horse  and  runs  after  a  fox 
until  some  dogs  kill  it,  and  goes  over  the  same  routine 
of  shooting  and  following  again  and  again  and  again, 
is  really  a  weary  plodder,  who  leads  a  miserably  slow 
life  compared  with  that  of  the  investigating  natu- 
ralist. It  is  true  that  the  brain  must  be  trained  to  a 
very  different  condition  from  that  of  the  sportsman 
before  the  greater  excitement  of  the  chase  after  truth 
can  be  enjoyed,  just  as  the  muscles  of  the  thighs  must 
be  trained  to  enable  the  rider  to  grip  his  horse. 

Crystallization  and  the  Coagulation  of 
Blood. — If  water  that  has  been  well  boiled  to  expel 
the  air  from  it  be  placed  in  a  smooth  glass  vessel, 
and  cooled  down  without  agitation,  it  may  be  brought 
many  degrees  below  the  freezing-point  before  any 
freezing  commences  ;  but  if  while  in  this  condition  a 
grain  of  sand,  a  minute  bubble  of  air,  or  a  particle  of 
ice  be  dropped  into  it,  crystals  of  ice  suddenly  start 
from  the  nucleus  thus  introduced,  and  the  whole 
rises  to  freezing-point.  Sulphate  of  soda  (Glauber's 
salt)  is  very  soluble  in  hot  water — curiously  so,  as  at 
32°  Fahrenheit  water  will  only  dissolve  about  ten 
per  cent,  of  the  crystals;  at  91°  they  are  soluble  in 
the  water  they  themselves  contain  ;  at  higher  tempe- 
ratures their  solubility  decreases.  If  a  saturated 
solution  be  made  in  boiling  water,  and  the  air  be 
well  boiled  out,  it  may  cool  down  nearly  to  the 
freezing-point  without  re-crystallizing,  provided  the 
bottle  containing  it  is  kept  closed  ;  but  directly  air  is 
admitted,  a  sudden  crystallization  of  the  contents  of 
the  bottle  takes  place  ;  they  magically  change  from 
the  liquid  to  a  semi-solid  condition.  The  experiment 
is  very  striking. 

I  am  reminded  of  these  experiments  by  some  recent 
researches  on  the  coagulation  of  the  blood,  which 
show  that  if  it  be  poured  when  fresh  into  a  smooth 
greased  vessel  it  does  not  coagulate.  It  may  stand 
thus  for  several  days,  provided  no  dust  or  other 
points  are  presented  to  it.  It  may  be  stirred  with  an 
oiled  glass  rod  without  coagulation,  but  if  the  rod  be 
dry  coagulation  is  started  by  it.  Other  experiments 
show  curious  analogies  between  coagulation  of  blood, 
i.e.  the  formation  of  fibrin,  and  crystallization.  It 
must  not  however  be  inferred  that  coagulation  is 
actual  crystallization — that  the  fibrin  threads  are 
crystals,  but  that  the  act  of  solidification  is  in  both 
cases  subject  to  similar  conditions. 

Another  Application  of  Photography. — 
It  is  well  known  to  those  interested  that  the  issue  of 
non-transferable  season-tickets  to  exhibitions,  rail- 
ways, etc.,  is  liable  to  be  abused  by  unscrupulous 
holders.  This  is  especially  the  case  in  exhibitions. 
At  the  recent  Hungarian  Exhibition  of  the  resources 
of  that  country,  a  simple  device  for  the  prevention  of 
transfer  was  adopted.  The  tickets  were  of  leather  ; 
on  one  side  was  the  name  of  the  holder,  and  on  the 
other  his  photograph,  stamped  by  the  exhibition 

Minerals  in  Hungary. — I  learn  further  from 
Mr.  Bennett  H.  Brough's  account  of  this  exhibition, 
that,  in  spite  of  what  we  hear  concerning  the  terri- 
torial power  of  the  Magyar  aristocracy  of  that 
country,  all  mineral  deposits  of  technical  value  are 
the  property  of  the  crown,  and  that  "royalties" 
there  really  are  what  their  name  and  common  sense 
and  justice  indicate.  The  minerals  of  Hungary  thus 
belong  to  the  Hungarian  nation.  I  will  say  no  more 
concerning  what  becomes  of  the  vast  amount  of  taxes 
we  pay  upon  all  our  coal,  our  ironstone,  and  all  other 
minerals  in  this  country.  I  can  name  collieries 
where  as  much  as  is.  6d.  per  ton  has  been  paid  for 
the  privilege  of  working  the  coal.  If  I  say  more  my 
gossip  will  become  political. 

Arbor-Day. — The  great  prairies  of  Western 
America,  in  spite  of  the  fertility  of  their  soil,  are 
barely  habitable  until  planted  with  trees,  on  account 
of  the  meteorological  violences  of  all  kinds  to  which 
the  vast  seas  of  treeless,  shoreless  verdure  are  subject 
in  their  naked  state.  The  early  settlers  protected  » 
themselves  to  some  extent  by  planting  little  groves  of 
cotton-wood  and  other  quick-growing  trees  around 
their  cabins,  but  still  their  cattle  suffered  severely 
from  "blizzards,"  sirocco  blasts,  and  other  storms. 
Governor  Morton,  of  Nebraska,  struggled  with  the 
problem  of  widely  extending  such  plantations,  and 
finally  hit  upon  a  very  successful  expedient,  viz.  that 
of  making  the  1st  of  May  a  general  holiday,  on  which 
all  good  citizens  should  make  excursions  and  plant 
trees,    with   festal  accompaniments,   as   cheerful   as 



dancing  round  a  Maypole,  and  vastly  more  interesting 
and  productive.  This  suggestion  met  with  a  ready 
response,  and  in  the  first  year  of  its  adoption  more 
than  two  million  trees  were  planted.  The  Arbor-Day 
festival  soon  spread  far  beyond  the  place  of  its  origin. 
It  is  now  formally  adopted  by  seventeen  of  the 
United  States.  Even  in  the  older  northern  and 
eastern  states,  originally  over-wooded,  some  parts 
are  now  suffering  from  the  ravages  of  axe  and  fire. 
School  children,  headed  by  their  teachers,  proceed 
in  grand  procession,  with  music  and  banners,  and 
military  battalions,  to  plant  trees  by  hundreds  of 
thousands  in  suitable  spots,  dedicating  them  in  some 
instances,  as  in  the  Authors'  Grove  of  Eden  Park,  to 
favourite  authors  and  eminent  statesmen.  This 
development  among  the  children  appears  to  be  a 
most  promising  feature  of  the  movement. 

Trees  and  Climate. — The  effect  of  trees  on 
climate  has  formed  the  subject  of  a  recent  article  in 
Petermann's  "  Mittheilungen "  by  an  able  Russian 
observer,  M.  Wocikoff.  He  maintains  that  the 
diminution  of  evaporation  effected  by  forests  is  not 
due  to  the  lower  temperature  known  to  exist  under 
their  shadow,  but  that  the  most  important  factor  is 
the  resistance  to  the  winds  by  the  trees.  This  causes 
the  air  of  the  forest  to  be  changed  more  slowly,  and 
thus  the  saturated  air  is  not  so  largely  replaced  by 
dry  air,  and  the  moisture  is  less  rapidly  carried 
away.  The  vicinity  of  a  forest  increases  the  summer 
rainfall  considerably,  but  has  less  effect  in  winter. 
The  storage  of  rainwater  in  the  moss,  fallen  leaves 
and  herbage  of  the  woods,  affords  a  supply  to 
■vegetation  during  dry  seasons.  A.  striking  illustra- 
tion of  this  is  afforded  by  a  forest  on  the  western 
coast  of  the  Caspian,  where  the  vegetation  is  very 
luxuriant,  although  it  never  rains  excepting  in  autumn 
and  winter.  M.  Wocikoff  has  observed  that  forests 
lower  the  temperature  of  the  country  around  them. 
In  Bosnia  the  summer  is  five  or  six  degrees  cooler 
than  in  Herzegovina.  This  difference  is  attributed  to 
the  woods. 

Properties  of  Pure  Zinc. — All  who  have  to  do 
with  voltaic  batteries  are  acquainted  with  the  troubles 
due  to  "local  action,"  and  the  necessity  for  amalga- 
mating the  zinc  plates  to  prevent  it ;  and  students  of 
chemistry  know  that  ordinary  zinc  decomposes  water 
at  its  boiling  heat.  In  a  paper  recently  communi- 
cated to  the  French  Academy  of  Science  ("Comptes 
rendus,"  vol.  101,  p.  1153),  L.  l'Hote  has  described 
his  experiments  on  pure  zinc  prepared  by  mixing 
artificial  precipitated  zinc  oxide  (instead  of  the  natural 
ore)  with  calcined  lamp-black,  and  distilling  the 
metallic  vapour  downwards.  He  finds  that  the  pure 
metal  does  not  decompose  water  at  boiling  heat,  nor 
is  it  attacked  by  dilute  sulphuric  acid.  If  however 
the  pure  zinc  is  melted  and  stirred  with  an  iron  rod, 
it  takes  up  from  003  to  0^05  per  cent,  of  iron,  and 

the  zinc,  thus  rendered  impure  with  that  very  small 
quantity  of  iron,  decomposes  boiling  water  and  dis- 
solves in  dilute  sulphuric  acid.  Very  small  quantities 
of  antimony  or  arsenic  have  the  same  effect. 

These  experiments  confirm  the  old  theory  of  local 
action,  which  attributes  it  to  the  presence  of  such 
impurities  establishing  local  voltaic  couples. 

Poisonous  Confectionery. — The  results  of  the 
investigations  of  Messrs.  P.  Caseneuve  and  R.  Lepine, 
described  in  their  communication  to  the  French 
Academy  of  Sciences  ("Comptes  rendus,"  vol.  101, 
p.  1 167)  should  be  widely  known.  They  made  expe- 
riments on  the  action  of  three  coal-tar  yellows  which 
are  used  somewhat  largely  in  colouring  confectionery 
and  beverages,  viz.  Manchester  or  Martins  yellow 
(dinitronaphthol  yellow)  ;  N.  S.  yellow,  a  sulphonic 
derivative  of  the  Manchester  yellow,  and  solid  yel- 
low, a  sulphonic  derivative  of  amidoazo  orthotoluenc. 
Manchester  yellow,  even  in  small  doses,  was  found 
to  have  a  strong  poisonous  action,  producing  vomit- 
ing, diarrhoea,  panting  respiration,  and  a  high 
temperature,  followed  by  death.  N.  S.  yellow  has 
no  appreciable  poisonous  action,  and  solid  yellow  is 
similarly  harmless. 

Should  this  "  meet  the  eye"  of  any  manufacturer 
of  yellow  goodies  or  drinks,  he  will  doubtless  be 
guided  accordingly  in  the  selection  of  his  colouring 
ingredient,  as  no  such  manufacturer  would  wilfully 
select  a  poisonous  colour,  though  he  may  have  done 
so  without  knowing  its  properties,  as  these  are  but 
recent  investigations,  and  all  confectioners  do  not 
read  the  weekly  issue  of  the  "Transactions  of  the 
French  Academy." 

Effects  of  Pressure  on  the  Respiration  of 
Plants. — Johannsen  has  recently  made  some  in- 
teresting experiments  on  the  effect  of  supplying  plants 
with  oxygen,  first  at  ordinary  atmospheric  pressure, 
and  then  at  pressures  of  two,  four,  and  five  atmo- 
spheres, the  activity  of  vegetation  being  measured  by 
the  quantity  of  carbonic  acid  evolved.  At  first  this 
increases  as  the  pressure  of  the  oxygen  increases,  but 
the  increase  is  only  temporary ;  the  respiration 
gradually  diminishes,  more  and  more  quickly  as  the 
pressure  is  greater,  and  the  plants  soon  die.  The 
most  curious  result  is  that  which  follows  when  the 
plant  is  subjected  to  the  action  of  oxygen  at  a  high 
pressure  for  short  periods,  and  the  excess  of  pressure 
then  removed.  The  plant  thus  restored  to  the 
action  of  ordinary  pressure  shows  a  great  increase  of 
respiration,  amounting  to  as  much  as  50  per  cent,  in 
the  case  of  maize.  The  cause  of  this  after-action  is 
still  a  mystery. 

Many  of  my  readers  have  doubtless  heard  of  the 
"  Thomas-Gilchrist  process."  It  consists  in  lining 
the  Bessemer  converter  (the  vessel  in  which  the 
molten  pig-iron  is  subjected  to  the  blast  of  air),  with 


a  basic  material  which  combines  with  the  phosphoric 
acid  formed  by  the  oxidation  of  the  phosphorus  con- 
tained in  pig-iron  made  from  the  most  abundant  and 
cheapest  iron  ores.  The  phosphate  thus  obtained 
should  be  useful  as  a  manure,  and  M.  Fleischer  has 
for  some  time  past  been  working  on  the  subject  to 
determine  whether  such  theoretical  anticipation  is 
verified  in  practice.  The  compound  in  question 
fuses  readily,  and,  being  lighter  than  the  molten  iron, 
floats  on  the  top  as  a  liquid  cinder  or  slag.  M. 
Fleischer,  as  a  mean  of  several  analyses,  finds  that  it 
contains  in  ioo  parts  17*5  of  phosphoric  acid  ;  48  29 
to  49/6  of  lime  ;  47  to  4^9  of  magnesia,  with  small 
quantities  of  iron,  alumina,  manganese,  free  sulphur, 
sulphuric  acid  and  silicic  acid.  Numerous  experi- 
ments made  at  various  experimental  stations  show 
very  good  results  when  this  slag,  ground  to  pow- 
der, was  tried  against  other  manures,  and,  although 
M.  Fleischer  thinks  it  premature  to  give  a  definite 
opinion,  he  believes  that  there  is  a  good  future  for 
this  material.  Deep  cultivation  and  mixture  with 
the  soil  for  tillage,  and  early  top-dressing  in  meadow 
land,  is  recommended. 

The  subject  is  of  considerable  practical  importance, 
as  the  quantities  obtained  are  very  great  :  many  tons 
per  day  from  every  pair  of  converters  in  full  work. 


Notes  on  the  Genus  Euchlanis. 

PERHAPS  no  class  of  animals  have  been  greater 
favourites  with  microscopists  than  the  Rotifera ; 
their  minuteness,    the   beauty   and   variety  of  their 
form,  their  liveliness,  the  remarkable  transparency  of 
their  integument,  their  ubiquity,  and   the  many  un- 
solved problems  in  regard  to  their  organization  and 
life-history,  have  always  exercised  a  charm  equalled 
perhaps  by  no  other  class  in    the  animal   kingdom. 
Every  possessor  of  a  microscope  has  been  more  or  less 
of  an  enthusiast,  and  has  never  tired  of  showing  the 
wonderful  "wheel-animalcules"    to    a   circle  of  his 
admiring  friends.     This   being  the  case,  it  is  some- 
what  disappointing   that   so   little   is   done  towards 
elucidating  the  organization,  or  recording  the  habits 
and  peculiarities  of  these  remarkable  animals.     Our 
magazines,    whether     devoted     to    general    natural 
history,  or  specially  to  microscopical  subjects,  rarely 
contain  any  articles  or  notes,  either  on  this  class  or 
the  more  humble  Infusoria.     This  has  often  been  a 
matter   of    considerable    surprise    to   me,    especially 
when  one  calls  to  mind  their  wide  distribution,  so 
that  no  one  is  so  unfavourably  situated  as  not  to  be 
able,  by  carefully  working  his  district,   to  procure,  I 
believe,  at  least  50  per  cent,  of  the  species  known  to 
science.      Considering  the  amount  of  activity  being 
displayed  in  other  branches  of  microscopical  know- 
ledge, and   the  further  fact,   that   numerous   natural 

history   societies   have  been  formed  in  various  parts 
of  the  country,  that  surprise  is  certainly  not  lessened, 
but  intensified.     It  is   to  be  feared  that  too  many  of 
the    possessors    of  microscopes    apply    them,   in    the 
words  of  the  late  lamented  Dr.  Carpenter,  "in  such 
desultory  observations  as  are  of  no  service  whatever 
to  science,   and   very  little  to   the   mind   of  the  ob- 
server."    It  is  a  fact  that  all   the  advance  that  has 
been    made    in  our   knowledge  of  these  animals  in 
recent  years  has  been  due  to  a  very  limited  number 
of  earnest  workers — a  number  which  probably  might 
be  counted  on  the  fingers  of  one  hand.     We  may  not 
all,  by  philosophic  induction,  comprehensive  research, 
and  enlarged  generalisation,  be  able  to  discover  "  the 
grand  and  harmonious  plan   upon  which  all  organic 
creation  is  believed  to  have  been  formed  ;  "  we  may 
not  either  by  nature  or  education  be  competent  to 
discuss  the  zoological  position  of  the  Rotifera — whether 
they  have  most  affinity  with  the  worms,  the  crabs,  or 
the  insects ;  but  the  most  humbly  endowed  amongst 
us,  if  not  an  absolute  idiot,  can  become  a  careful  ob- 
server of  facts,  and  it  is  upon  these  only  that  a  correct 
classification  can  be  based.     Holding  these  opinions, 
and    thinking   I    might   interest   and   possibly  assist 
some  of  your  readers,  I  have  ventured  to  send  these 
notes  on  the  genus  Euchlanis,  family  Euchlanidota. 
This  family  is  one  of  the  largest,  containing,  according 
to  our  present  method  of  classification,  eleven  genera, 
and  is  second  only  to  the  family  Hydatinrea.     It  is, 
however,  more  than  probable  that  this  number  will 
be  reduced,  or  at  least  that  there  will  be  a  rearrange- 
ment ;    for    instance,    the    three   genera   Metopidia, 
Lepadella,  and   Squamella,  separated  by  Ehrenberg 
on  account  of  supposed  differences  in  the  number  of 
their    eye-specks,    were   pointed    out    years   ago   by 
Dujardin   as   forming   a   very  natural   single   genus. 
While  not  prepared  to  go  so  far,  I  may  say  that  I 
have  never  come  across  any  Rotifer  with  more  than 
two  eyes.     My  friend  Mr.  F.  Sutcliffe,  of  Bacup,  an 
experienced  microscopist  and  careful  observer,  with 
whom  I  frequently  work,   confirms  me  in  this,  and 
further  informs  me  that   he  has  frequently  found  in 
the  same  gathering  specimens  otherwise  indistinguish- 
able with  two  well-developed  eye-specks,  and  others 
in  which  these  were  quite  invisible — an  experience 
which  is  in  keeping  with  my  own.     Dujardin  also 
does  not  admit  the  genus  Monostyla,  but  places  the 
four   species  comprising  it  in  the  genus  Euchlanis- 
The  only  species  of  this  genus  I  have  been  fortunate 
enough  to  see  is  one  which,  from  my  description  and 
drawings    in    the  "Microscopical    News"  of  June, 
1884,  Mr.  Gosse  identified  as  his  Monostyla  bulla  ; 
and  it  is  confirmatory  of  Dujardin's  opinion,   that  I 
had  myself  noticed  its  many  points  of  agreement  with 
other  Rotifers  I  figured  in  the  same  number,  not  then 
identified,  but  since  clearly  proved  to  be  a  species  of 
Euchlanis.      On  the  other  hand,  the  mastax  of  all 
my  Euchlanes  are  of  the  brachionsean  type,  and  vary 
very  little  indeed,  except  in  size,  while  that  of  M. 



bulla  differs  considerably  both  in  the  mallei  and  incus. 
The  most  serious  objection  however  to  incorporating 
Monostyla  with  Euchlanis  is  that  in  that  genus  the 
foot  is  said  to  be  "simple,  styliform."  On  this 
point  Pritchard  says,  "Owing  to  the  almost  constant 
vibration  of  the  foot-like  tail,  it  is  difficult  to  observe 
the  true  form  of  its  termination,  the  motion  producing 
an  optical  illusion  ;  hence  it  appears  double,  though 
in  reality  single."  In  spite  of  this  warning,  I  believe 
that  the  tail-foot  of  my  M.  bulla  was  a  furcate  one, 
although  I  may  be  mistaken.  Further  information 
on  this  point  is  much  to  be  desired,  and  microscopists 
having  the  opportunity  would  do  good  service  by 
working  out  this  problem.  In  the  genus  Euchlanis 
the  lorica  is  more  or  less  depressed,  and  in  some 
species  is  very  diaphanous.  Ehrenberg  described  it 
as  being  "slit  inferiorly,"  and  Pritchard  figures 
E.  dilatata  as  being  quite  open  on  the  ventral  surface. 
Cohn  was  the  first  to  point  out  that  the  Danish  natu- 
ralist was  mistaken  in  this,  and  my  own  experience 

have  not  been  able  clearly  to  distinguish  the  margins 
of  the  two  plates,  owing  to  their  thinness  and  trans- 
parency ;  indeed,  this  is  often  only  made  out  by  the 
careful  and  prolonged  observation  of  numerous  indi- 
viduals. From  a  drawing  and  description  I  sent  to 
Dr.  Hudson,  he  was  inclined  to  consider  it  as  probably 
Jllouostyla  cornuta  ;  but  that  its  tail-foot  is  a  furcate 
one  I  have  not  the  slightest  doubt.  This  fact,  and 
the  further  one  of  its  dorsal  and  ventral  plates  being 
separated,  place  it  in  the  genus  Euchlanis  ;  possibly 
it  may  be  E.  Hornemanm ',  though  the  description  of 
that  species  in  "  Pritchard  "  is  too  meagre  for  me  to- 
feel  very  certain.  Fig.  57  a  :  animal  retracted,  and 
showing  its  projection  beyond  the  margin  of  dorsal 
and  ventral  plates;  Fig.  57  b :  animal  exserted,  and 
showing  trochal  wreath  and  longitudinal  muscles. 

Another  Rotifer,  slightly  larger  than  the  last,  and 
evidently  belonging  to  the  same  genus,  is  shown  in 
Fig.  58,  a  and  b.  In  this  the  lorica  is  somewhat  broader 
than  in  the  last  species,  and  is  truncated  anteriorly. 

Fig.  57«. — Animal  retracted. 

Fig.  57^. — Animal  exserted. 

Fig.  58^. — Dorsal  view. 
Animal  retracted. 

Fig.  585. — Side  view. 
Animal  retracted. 

confirms  his.  In  a  letter  to  me  Dr.  Hudson  says : 
"  No  Euchlanis  I  have  ever  seen  has  a  cleft-ventral 
surface  to  its  lorica  ;  in  all  cases  the  lorica  consists,  as 
you  state,  of  an  upper  and  lower  plate,  with  a  furrow 
between  them,  this  apparently  open  groove  being 
closed  by  a  flexible  membrane."  The  dorsal  plate, 
in  nearly  all  the  species  I  have  come  across,  is  larger 
than  the  ventral,  and  is  generally  much  more  convex. 
It  will  be  unnecessary  for  me  to  describe  the  two 
large  handsome  species,  E.  triquetra  and  E.  dilatata, 
as  they  are  fully  described  and  figured  in  most  works 
devoted  to  this  subject.  I  have  however  come 
across  four  forms,  which  will  not  be  so  familiar  to 
microscopists,  and  of  which  they  may  be  glad  to  have 
figures  and  description.  Fig.  57,  a  and  b  :  this  is  a 
small  Rotifer  I  have  frequently  been  able  to  procure 
from  a  shady  well  in  our  neighbourhood.  The  lorica 
is  ovate  and  excised  in  an  angular  manner  in  front, 
and  there  are  four,  either  ridges  or  slits,  on  the  back. 
Of  the  two  plates,  the  dorsal  one  is  the  largest,  and 
it  is  arched,  while  the  ventral  one  is  almost  fiat.     I 

Its  foot  is  very  short,  so  as  not  to  project  beyond  the 
lorica,  but  the  toes  are  long.  Fig.  58  a,  dorsal  view, 
animal  retracted ;  Fig.  58  b,  side-view,  animal  re- 
tracted, showing  the  large  arched  dorsal  plate  cover- 
ing the  sides,  and  the  small  ventral  one.  In  Fig.  59, 
a  and  b,  is  shown  a  Rotifer  with  many  points  of  resem- 
blance to  the  last.  Like  that  species,  it  has  a  depressed 
lorica,  broadly  ovate,  truncated  anteriorly  ;  but  differ- 
ing from  it  in  having  two  anterior  spines,  and  in  the 
toes  being  somewhat  shorter.  It  frequently  remains 
retracted  for  considerable  periods,  but  when  it  does- 
extend  itself  it  shows  remarkable  activity.  It  is  not 
very  transparent,  being  generally,  but  not  invariably, 
of  a  brown  colour.  Fig.  59  a,  dorsal  view,  animal 
retracted  ;  Fig.  59  b,  side  view,  animal  exserted,  and 
showing  the  considerable  interval  separating  the  two 
plates.  It  may  possibly  be  Pritchard's  E.  hippo- 
sidcros,  but  in  my  specimens  the  foot  was  not  "  armed 
with  one  pair  of  bristles,"  neither  was  the  space 
between  the  plates  exactly  of  the  character  indicated 
by  its  specific  name.     In  all  the  above  rotifers  there 



is  the  single  eye,  the  depressed  lorica,  composed  of 
two  separate  plates,  characteristic  of  the  genus 
Euchlanis,  and  in  addition  the  jaws  of  all  three  are 
identical  in  all  their  parts,  varying  only  in  size.  This 
latter  character  I  consider  as  of  the  greatest  value ; 
and  if  we  only  knew  accurately  the  structure  of  this 
important  organ  in  the  various  species,  it  would 
considerably  improve  the  chances  of  a  correct  classifi- 
cation of  the  Rotifera.  On  the  other  hand,  the  trochal 
wreath  is  not  very  obviously  made  up  of  rounded 
lobes  in  the  above  species,  and  this  fact  may  induce 
our  authorities  to  create  a  new  genus,  for  these  and 
others  of  a  similar  character. 

The  next  Rotifer,  Fig.  60,  is  an  extremely  interesting 
one,  and  is  more  like  a  typical  Euchlanis,  as  it  bears 
a  strong  superficial   resemblance  to  the  well-known 

young  specimen,  which  I  need  not  here  transcribe. 
In  reference  to  its  having  two  eye-specks  when  young, 
I  may  say  that  I  put  this  down  on  the  strength  of 
there  being  two  coloured  specks  clearly  visible  in  the 
egg  ;  it  does  not  necessarily  follow  that  they  were 
eyes,  and,  if  they  were,  it  is  remarkable  that  not  the 
slightest  trace  of  them  was  visible  in  the  adult  Rotifer. 
It  is  unfortunate  that  I  have  hitherto  been  unable  to 
clear  up  this  point ;  however,  some  authorities  con- 
sider that  the  eye-speck  possesses  less  value  as  a  basis 
of  classification  than  Ehrenberg  supposed.  On  the 
other  hand,  it  is  possible  that  it  might  have  an  eye, 
which,  from  absence  of  colour,  or  from  being  deep- 
seated,  I  failed  to  detect.  Of  this  Rotifer  Dr.  Hudson 
says,  "I  have  little  doubt  it  is  an  Euchlanis." 
Subsequently,    however,    he   expressed    some    little 

Fig.  59*1. — Dorsal  view.    'Animal  retracted. 

Fig.  59$. — Side  view.     Animal  exserted. 

Fig.  60. — Euchlanis  (?). 

E.  dilatata.  It  differs  from  it,  however,  in  being  a 
smaller  and  altogether  more  delicate  Rotifer,  and  in 
the  character  of  its  toes  and  mastax,  the  rami  of  my 
specimens  being  slighter  than  in  that  species,  and 
they  are  turned  downwards  laterally  in  a  beauti- 
ful curve.  I  take  the  following  description  from 
my  note-book :  "Lorica  hyaline,  depressed,  oval, 
excised  in  front,  rounded  posteriorly  ;  foot  long, 
cylindrical,  jointed  ;  toes  as  long  as  foot,  not  knife- 
like, but  round,  and  only  slightly  tapering  ;  eyes,  in 
adult,  none  visible ;  two  eyes  when  young  ;  jaws, 
large,  brachionsean  ;  rotatory  organ  consisting  of 
rounded  lobes  ;  water-vascular  canals,  but  no  vibratile 
tags  ;  eggs  large,  attached  to  conferva  by  a  brownish 
protecting  cover  (not  bands),  probably  chitinous." 
Then  follows  an  account  of  the  hatching-out  of  a 

doubt,  probably  on  account  of  my  not  detecting  the 
eye,  saying,  "I  know  of  nothing  like  it,  and  hope 
you  may  find  it  again,  so  as  to  complete  the  descrip- 
tion." For  myself  I  have  now  little  doubt  about  it  ; 
the  lorica,  the  trochal  wreath,  the  mastax,  the  two 
stomach  glands,  and  coiled  water-vessels,  all  point  to 
the  genus  Euchlanis,  and  it  more  resembles  E.  macrura 
than  any  other  species  whose  description  I  have  seen. 
It  is  all  but  useless,  however,  trying  to  identify  many 
of  the  free-swimming  forms  of  the  Rotifera,  as  it  is 
impossible  in  some  cases  to  make  them  agree  in  all 
points  with  any  species  described  in  our  text-book. 
In  reference  to  this  genus  Dr.  Hudson,  in  one  of  his 
letters  to  me,  very  truly  observes  :  "  The  species  of 
this  genus  are  in  wild  confusion,  and  have,  I  believe, 
been   described   under  various   names."      It   is  wel) 



known  that  this  authority,  in  conjunction  with  Mr. 
Gosse,  has  been  working  at  this  class  for  some  years, 
and  microscopists  all  over  the  world  are  anxiously 
waiting  the  completion  of  this  forthcoming  work.  Is 
it  too  much  to  ask  of  those  who  have  been  collecting 
notes,  and  who  are  in  a  position  to  throw  any  light 
upon  the  subject,  that  they  at  once  place  their  know- 
ledge at  the  service  of  brother  microscopists  ?  If 
this  is  done,  and  if  others  who  have  microscopes,  and 
have  learned  how  to  use  them,  will  make  good  use  of 
their  opportunities,  the  forthcoming  "monograph," 
or  at  least  subsequent  editions  of  it,  will  be  made 
more  complete,  and  really  indicative  of  the  state  of 
our  knowledge  of  this  remarkable  class  of  animals. 

J.  E.  Lord. 

P.S.  The  second  Part  of  Dr.  Hudson's  Monograph 
is  now  in  the  hands  of  subscribers,  and  is  really  a 
magnificent  work.     See  page  90. 


WITH  this  month  the  real  hard  work  of  the 
lepidopterist  begins,  therefore  a  few  remarks 
on  the  work  to  be  done  during  the  month  may  not 
be  out  of  place.  Especially  will  they  be  acceptable 
to  the  large  and  increasing  number  of  our  readers 
who  are  tyro-lepidopterists ;  though  to  the  "old 
hands  "  there  may  be  something  new.  In  almost 
every  writer's  experiences  we  find  something  that  we 
did  not  know  before  :  and  it  may  be  of  value  to  us 
to  know  it  and  bear  it  in  mind,  and  at  any  rate  it 
will  do  us  no  harm  to  read  it  again  if  we  already 
know  it. 

We  may  fairly  turn  our  backs  on  the  winter  now, 
and  turn  with  pleasure  to  the  work  which  the  spring 
has  brought  us.  Not  that  we  have  been  idle  during 
the  winter  months — surely  not.  I  hope  that  our  boxes 
and  cages  are  pretty  full  of  pupa;,  from  which  imagos 
should  now  be  emerging.  Those  of  my  readers  who 
have  not  yet  got  their  entomological  apparatus  in 
trim  for  the  ensuing  season  should  lose  no  time  in 
doing  so,  for  there  will  be  no  time  for  mending  or 
making  or  cleaning  up  after  now.  All  our  time  and 
attention  will  be  taken  up  with  the  collecting  of 
specimens,  preparing  them  for  the  store-box  or  cabinet, 
and  lastly,  though  most  important,  with  the  study  of 
our  captures. 

During  this  month  many  ova  are  to  be  found. 
Many  hibernating  species  deposit  their  ova  about 
now,  as  well  as  several  which  are  freshly  emerged. 
Lose  no  time  in  this  matter ;  search  constantly  for 
eggs,  as  they  will  not  be  so  readily  found  when  the 
trees  are  fully  in  leaf.  There  is  nothing  more  de- 
lightful or  more  instructive  in  our  most  interesting 
study  than  the  rearing  of  our  specimens  from  the 
egg.      Moreover,  there   is   always  something   to  be 

j  found  out,  always  something  new  to  be  noticed,  and 
all  observations  of  such  should  be  duly  noted  down. 
Females  of  hibernated  butterflies  and  moths  should  be 
captured  and  kept  alive,  supplying  them  with  sprigs 
of  the  larvae  food-plant  if  possible,  in  the  hope  of 
their  depositing  eggs  thereon.  Twigs  of  shrubs  and 
trees,  leaves  and  grasses,  should  be  minutely  examined 
for  ova. 

Of  larvae  we  shall  find  abundance,  especially 
towards  the  latter  end  of  the  month.  The  hibernat- 
ing species  now  begin  to  put  in  an  appearance,  and 
a  thorough  search  for  them  will  well  repay  the  col- 
lector ;  for,  as  they  are  in  most  cases  nearly  full-fed, 
little  trouble  is  given  by  them,  and  the  imagos  soon 
put  in  an  appearance.  Of  the  common  species,  O. 
Rotatoria  may  be  found  feeding  on  coarse  grasses  in 
hedgerows,  A.  caja  and  A.  villica  on  low-growing 
plants,  B.  querciis  on  hawthorn,  L.  ntbi  amongst 
clover,  &c,  D.  caritkccephala  will  be  found  in  plenty 
on  hawthorn.  I  mention  these  because  they  are  good 
subjects  to  try  "  preserving"  on,  and  look  well  when 
done.  Full  instructions  were  given  by  me  for  pre- 
serving larvae  in  Science-Gossip,  vol.  xix.  p.  35. 
They  add  greatly  to  the  value  and  beauty  of  a  collec- 
tion when  placed  in  the  cabinet  with  the  imagos. 
E.  Hchenea  will  be  found  in  its  old  haunts  on  the 
coasts,    full-fed   and  about    to  pupate  from   now  to 


The  lantern  must  now  be  used  to  search  for  larvae 
by  night  ;  by  this  means  the  collector  should  reap 
a  good  harvest.  Birch  and  sallow  bushes  should 
receive  due  attention,  and  undergo  a  close  inspection  ; 
in  the  catkins  of  both  larvae  of  several  species  may 
be  found.  This  should  be  thought  of  when  visiting 
the  catkins  for  moths  ;  Fimbria,  Tincta,  and  perhaps 
Ditrafezium,  may  thus  be  found.  Sloe-bushes  will 
repay  a  search — indeed,  no  bush  or  shrub  should  be 
passed  by  without  a  search  for  larvae.  Dead  leaves 
should  come  in  for  a  share  of  the  searching.  Many 
larvce  will  be  found  in  them,  and  pupae  too,  especially 
in  birch  and  sallow  leaves. 

The  sweep-net  must  be  plied  unceasingly  this 
month  in  all  low  herbage ;  valuable  captures  are 
often  the  result.  Grasses  and  rushes  are  now  produc- 
tive of  several  Elachistidas  and  Coleophorae,  and 
several  larger  tribes.  Sheltered  spots  in  woods  are 
the  best  places,  and  for  the  larger  species  wet  evenings 
the  best  time.  Hawthorn  trees  nourish  hordes  of 
common  larvce. 

Not  much  in  the  way  of  pupa-digging  will  be  done 
this  month,  but  the  pupae  from  hibernated  larvae  just 
changed  should  be  looked  for,  as  also  the  chrysalids 
of  some  of  the  early  summer  butterflies,  which,  taken 
in  this  way,  insure  to  the  collector  beautiful  and 
perfect  imagos.  If  dead  leaves  are  observed  still 
adhering  to  the  trees,  they  should  be  brought  down  if 
possible,  and  examined  ;  heaps  of  the  same  will  often 
prove  a  prize.  The  hard  brown  cocoon  of  D.  vinula 
should  be  looked  for  on  the  trunks  of  willows. 



As  the  days  lengthen  and  the  sunshine  gets  warmer, 
the  number  of  insects  on  the  wing  steadily  increases, 
and  amongst  those  due  this  month  there  are  several 
rare  species.  Sallows  are  a  great  attraction,  and 
should  be  well  worked  on  warm  evenings.  Fences, 
tree-trunks,  and  heaps  of  stones  should  be  carefully 
examined.  Hibernating  species  may  now  be  met 
with,  both  butterflies  and  moths  ;  and  though  most 
of  them  will  be  "raggy,"  some  few  good  specimens 
may  be  obtained.  Beating  thatch  is  a  method  often 
resorted  to,  and  at  this  season  many  moths  may  be 
beaten  out,  particularly  hibernating  Geometrse.  A 
little  later  on,  numbers  of  Tinere  may  be  thus  captured. 
Depressarise  and  some  other  species  are  commoner 
now  than  before  hibernation. 

The  treacling-pot  will  come  into  requisition,  and 
light  will  prove  a  good  attraction.  The  lamps  should 
therefore  be  scanned.  In  districts  where  it  has  been 
previously  taken,  my  readers  should  look  out  for 
V.  antiopa,  and  I  am  sure  we  shall  be  pleased  to  hear 
of  such  captures. 

One  great  prize  to  be  looked  for  is  Endromis 
versicolora,  which  flies  briskly  in  woods  near  heaths 
by  day.  If  any  of  our  readers  are  lucky  enough  to 
secure  a  freshly-emerged  female,  they  may  try 
"  sembling,"  and,  if  there  are  any  more  of  the  species 
about,  they  may  be  sure  of  a  good  harvest  of  males. 

Towards  the  end  of  the  month  Lcbophora  Polycom- 

mata  may  be  met  with,  and  should  be  looked  for  at 

night  on  trunks  of  trees,  with  the  aid  of  the  lantern. 

William  Finch,  jun. 

By  John  Browning,  F.R.A.S. 

IN  the  February  number  of  Science-Gossip  I 
referred  to  the  discovery  by  MM.  Paul  and 
Prosper  Henry,  at  Paris,  of  a  new  nebula  by  photo- 
graphy, which  they  had  previously  been  unable  to 
perceive  by  direct  telescopic  observation. 

Professor  Pickering  states,  in  the  "  Astronomische 
Nachrichten,"  that  certain  irregularities  had  been 
noticed  in  a  photograph  of  the  Pleiades  taken  at 
Harvard  College  Observatory  so  long  ago  as  the 
3rd  of  November,  1885. 

"They  were  supposed  to  be  due  merely  to  defects 
in  the  photographic  process ;  but  upon  re-examination 
it  appears  that  one  of  them  corresponds  so  closely  to 
what  is  described  by  MM.  Paul  and  Prosper  Henry, 
that  there  can  be  no  doubt  with  regard  to  its  origin. 
It  must  represent  light  photographically  perceptible 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  star  Maia,  as  stated  by  its  dis- 
coverers, who  are  undoubtedly  entitled  to  the  credit 
belonging  to  the  perception  and  proof  of  this  in- 
teresting phenomenon,  although  the  Cambridge 
photograph  seems  to  be  the  first  upon  which  it  is 

The  Harvard  photograph  was  exhibited  at  the 
Albany  meeting  of  the  National  Academy  of  Sciences, 
on  the  10th  of  November,  and  the  irregularities  then 
received  some  attention.  Professor  Pickering  adds, 
that  the  explanation  thus  afforded  of  one  of  the 
markings  on  the  photograph  in  question  renders  the 
others  of  more  interest  than  at  first  sight  appeared  to 
belong  to  them.  There  are  indications  of  nebulous 
light  about  Merope,  and  a  faint  narrow  streak  of 
light  projecting  from  one  side  of  Electra ;  but  no 
such  light  would  be  seen  about  Alcyone,  Atlas, 
Pleione,  or  Taygeta. 

Mercury  is  an  evening  star  at  the  beginning  of  the 
month,  and  a  morning  star  at  the  end,  setting  on  the 
2nd  at  7  hr.  44  min.  P.M.,  on  the  9th  at  6  hr.  47  min. 
P.M.,  on  the  16th  at  5  hr.  47  min.  p.m.,  on  the 
23rd  at  5  hr.  6  min.  P.M.,  and  on  the  30th  at  4  hr. 
48  min.  P.M. 

Venus  will  be  a  morning  star  throughout  the 

Mars  will  south  on  the  second  at  9  hr.  56  min.  P.M., 
on  the  9th  at  9  hr.  24  min.,  on  the  16th  at  8  hr. 
55  min.  P.M.,  on  the  23rd  at  8  hr.  28  min.  p.m.,  and 
on  the  30th  at  8  hr.  3  min.  P.M. 

Jupiter  souths  on  the  2nd,  at  11  hr.  16  min.  P.M., 
on  the  9th  at  10  hr.  45  min.  P.M.,  on  the  16th  at 
10  hr.  15  min.  P.M.,  on  the  23rd  at  9  hr.  45  min.  P.M., 
and  on  the  30th  at  9  hr.  16  min.  p.m. 

Saturn  sets  on  the  2nd  at  I  hr.  43  min.  A.M.,  on 
the  9th  at  1  hr.  17  min.  A.M.,  on  the  16th  at  o  hr. 
52  min.  A.M.,  on  the  23rd  o  hr.  26  min  A.M.,  and  on 
the  30th  at  o  hr.  2  min.  A.M. 

There  will  be  an  occultation  of  Aldeburun,  a  first 
magnitude  star,  on  April  the  8th.  The  disappearance 
will  take  place  at  5  hr.  8  min.  P.M.,  and  the  reap- 
pearance at  9  hr.  55  min.  p.m.  On  the  16th  there 
will  be  an  occultation  of  Manus.  The  disappearance 
takes  place  9  hr.  5  min.  P.M.,  and  the  reappearance 
at  9  hr.  48  min.  p.m. 

Meteorology. — The  mean  temperature  of  the  week 
ending  February  6th  was  40  below  the  average,  i.e.  40 
in  the  corresponding  week  of  the  twenty  years 
ending  1S6S  ;  in  the  week  ending  February  13th  it 
was  6  •  70  below  the  average  ;  in  the  week  ending 
February  20th  it  was  nearly  40  below  the  average, 
and  in  the  week  ending  February  27th  it  was  7  '6° 
below  the  average.  This  is  an  almost  unprecedented 
February  for  cold  ;  the  temperature  was  within  a 
fraction  of  6°  below  the  average,  for  the  whole 
month  and  the  thermometer  never  once  reached  500. 
It  only  exceeded  400  on  eight  days  in  February. 
More  exceptional  still  is  the  fact,  that  from  February 
1 6th  to  March  2nd  the  thermometer  never  touched 
400  in  London.  There  has  certainly  been  no  such 
February  for  thirty  years. 

The  mean  temperature  of  the  week  ending  March 
6th  was  7  "7°  below  the  average,  and  for  the 
week  ending  the  13th  of  March  was  8#9°  below  the 
average  ;    thus  exceptional,  as  was    February,  it  is 



probable  that  March  will  be  for  cold  still  more  so. 
Even  in  the  Tropics  the  weather  has  been  wintry. 
In  the  West  Indies  it  has  been  cold,  and  in  Calcutta 
a  thermometer  in  an  exposed  position  registered  360, 
which  is  the  lowest  temperature  ever  known  in  or 
near  Calcutta  during  any  cold  season. 

Rain  or  snow  fell  on  ten  days  in  February  to  the 
aggregate  amount  of  o-73  in.,  that  is  nearly  three- 
quarters  of  an  inch.  This  amount,  though  very 
small,  and  much  less  than  half  the  average,  is 
equivalent  to  upwards  of  S2  tons  to  the  acre.  That 
the  rainfall  has  been  so  low  has  been  advantageous, 
the  effect  of  moisture  being  on  the  whole  to  lower 
the  temperature.  Mr.  Chadwick  says  that  in  one 
instance  which  came  under  his  notice,  an  elevation 
of  six  degrees  of  temperature  had  been  effected  by 
the  drainage  of  a  thousand  acres  of  land. 

The  average  mean  temperature  of  London  in  April 
is  nearly  490  Fahr.  The  average  rainfall  of  London 
is  between  one  and  two  inches,  while  along  the 
coast  to  the  south  and  south-east  it  is  full  two 
inches,  and  on  the  south-west  coast,  west  'of  Ply- 
mouth, it  is  three  inches. 

By  John  Browning,  F.R.A.S. 

ANEW  Star  Gaide  has  just  been  published, 
which  has  been  compiled  by  Messrs  Latimer 
Clark  and  Herbert  Sadler,  who  are  both  Fellows  of 
the  Royal  Astronomical  Society.  This  guide  is 
intended  specially  for  owners  of  small  astronomical 
telescopes,  from  two  to  four  inches  aperture. 

The  authors  justly  remark,  that  many  possessors  of 
such  small  instruments  strain  their  eyes  and  waste 
their  time  in  the  fruitless  endeavour  to  catch  faint 
nebulae  and  separate  difficult  double-stars  which  are 
beyond  the  power  of  their  telescopes.  This  Star 
Guide  contains  a  carefully  selected  list  of  objects 
which  may  be  well  seen  with  telescopes  of  from  two 
to  three  inches  aperture,  and  in  all  it  includes  about 
six  hundred  of  the  most  beautiful  and  interesting 
objects  visible  in  the  northern  heavens  with  instru- 
ments of  this  description.  The  positions  and  times 
of  transit  are  given  for  each  tenth  day  in  the  year. 

With  very  few  exceptions  no  double-star  has  been 
inserted  in  the  list  the  brighter  component  of  which 
falls  below  the  seventh  magnitude — the  magnitude  of 
the  smallest  of  the  satellites  of  Jupiter — or  the  fainter 
of  which  is  not  brighter  than  a  tenth  magnitude  star, 
or  any  forms  which  are  too  close  to  be  conveniently 
seen  in  a  telescope  of  small  size.  No  red  star  has 
been  included  the  colour  of  which  cannot  be  seen, 
or  any  nebulae  or  cluster  which  cannot  be  conveniently 
observed  with  such  an  instrument. 

The  distances  of  the  double-stars  are  given  in 
seconds  and  tenths,  and  the  angle  of  position,  and  the 
magnitudes  of  the  stars  on  W.  Struve's  scale. 

Though  popular,  this  work  is  scientifically  accu- 
rate ;  its  possession  will  double  the  value  of  any 
small  telescope,  and  all  owners  of  such  instruments 
who  avail  themselves  of  it  will  feel  under  a  debt  of 
gratitude  to  the  painstaking  authors. 


[It  is  our  desire  to  brjng  out  a  Scientific  Directory  in  the 
monthly  pages  of  Science-Gossip,  feeling  certain  that  it  would 
be  very  useful  for  our  readers  to  know  what  scientific  societies 
had  been  formed  in  their  own  neighbourhoods.  We  shall  there- 
fore fee!  very  much  obliged  if  Secretaries  of  any  kind  of 
Scientific  Society,  in  any  town  or  part  of  the  country,  will  send 
us  the  full  name  and  title  of  each  Society,  together,,  with  the 
names  of  the  President  and  Hon.  Secretary.] 

Bedfordshire  Natural  History  Society  and  Field 
Club.  Hon.  Secretary,  Mr.  Thomas  Gwyn  Elger, 
F.R.A.S.,  Kempston,  Bedfordshire ;  Hon.  Treasurer, 
Mr.  J.  Ekins ;  Hon.  Secretary  of  the  Botanical 
Section,  Mr.  J.  Hamson.  Meets  at  the  Assembly 
Rooms,  Bedford. 

Bolton  Microscopical  Society  (affiliated  to  the  Royal 
Microscopical  Society).  President,  C.  L.  Jackson, 
F.R.M.S.,  F.L.S.,  F.Z.S.  ;  Hill  Fold  House,  Sharpies, 
Bolton  ;  Hon.  Secretary,  W.  Ridecout,  F.R.M.S., 
Seymour  Road,  Astley  Bridge,  Bolton. 

Dover  Field  Club  and  Natural  History  Society 
(Wellesley  Hall,  5  Townwall  Street).  President, 
S.  Webb,  Esq.,  Maidstone  House  ;  Hon.  Secretary, 
Rev.  T.  Robinson,  9  Effingham  Crescent. 

Hemel  Hempsted  Natural  History  Society.  Presi- 
dent, J.  Marnham,  Esq.,  J.P.  ;  Hon.  Secretaries, 
B.  Piffard,  Hill  House ;  J.  H.  Harley,  Herbert  Street. 
Leeds  Geological  Association.  President,  Mr.  T.  W. 
Bell ;  Hon.  Secretary,  Samuel  A.  Adamson,  F.G.S., 
52  Wellclose  Terrace,  Leeds. 

Liverpool  Science  Students1  Association.  Secretaries, 
W.  H.  Read,  24  Fern  Grove,  Liverpool ;  Miss  H. 
Fryer,  11  Tancred  Road,  Anfield,  Liverpool. 

Nottingham  Naturalists'1  Society  (established  1852). 
President,  H.  Handford,  M.D.  ;  Hon.  Secretary, 
W.  Handley  Kay,  Gresham  Chambers,  Nottingham. 
Portsmouth  and  Gosport  Natural  Science  Society 
(Protestant  Institute,  Portsmouth).  President,  Gen. 
A.  W.  Drayson,  F.R.A.S.  ;  Hon.  Secretary,  T.  H. 
Larcom,  54  Shaftesbury  Terrace,  Gosport. 

Stroud  Natural  Science  Society.  President,  Thomas 
Partridge,  Esq.,  M.K.Q.C.P. ;  Hon.  Secretary,  D. 

Sydenham  and  Forest  Hill  Microscopical  and 
Natural  History  Club.  President,  Mr.  E.  L.  C.  P. 
Hardy  ;  Vice-Presidents,  Mr.  E.  F.  Jones,  Mr. 
F.  Horniman;  Secretary,  Mr.  A.  C.  Perrins,  12 
Sunderland  Villas,  Forest  Hill. 

Warrington  Field  Club  (the  Museum,  Bold  Street). 
Secretary,  W.  H.  Woodcock. 

Wiltshire  Archaological  and  Natural  History 
Society.  President,  Nevil  Story  Maskelyne,  Esq., 
M.P. ;  Hon.  Secretaries,  Rev.  Alfred  Charles  Smith, 
Yatesbury  Rectory,  Calne  ;  H.  E.  Medlicott,  Esq., 
Sandfield,  Potterne,  Devizes. 




At  a  recent  sitting  of  the  Paris  Academy,  Professor 
Pasteur  stated  that  out  of  325  cases  of  inoculation  for 
hydrophobia,  only  one  has  failed,  namely,  that  of  the 
youth  Pelletier,  who  came  too  long  after  being  bitten, 
and  under  very  unfavourable  conditions.  M.  Pasteur 
advocated  the  establishment  of  an  international 
hospital,  to  which  patients  would  come  from  all 
parts  of  the  world.  At  the  close  of  the  meeting, 
Professor  Pasteur  announced  that  he  should  next 
investigate  whether  diphtheria  could  not  be  treated 
by  a  similar  process  to  that  which  he  had  found  so 
successful  against  hydrophobia. 

Mr.  G.  K.  Vine  has  been  contributing  an  excel- 
lent series  of  papers  to  "The  Naturalist,"  entitled 
"  Micro-Palseontology  of  the  Northern  Carboniferous 

At  the  Society  of  Amateur  Geologists,  Mr.  Henry 
Fleck  recently  read  a  paper  on  the  "Crag  Deposits 
of  East  Anglia."  Professor  Rudler  has  been  kind 
enough  to  give  the  members  a  "  demonstration  "  at 
the  Jermyn  Street  Museum  on  "Common  Rock- 
forming  Minerals." 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Entomological  Society,  Mr. 
H.  Goss  read  an  analysis  of  M.  Brongniart's  recent 
work  on  "  Les  Insectes  Fossiles  des  Terrains  Pri- 
maires  "  (Rouen,  1SS5),  and  expounded  that  author's 
views  on  the  classification  of  insects  from  geological 

The  Society  for  Promoting  Christian  Knowledge 
are  bringing  out  an  excellent  series  of  photo-relief 
maps.  We  have  received  the  map  of  Scotland. 
The  aim  of  this  series  is  to  present  the  various 
divisions  of  the  globe  as  if  in  actual  relief,  and  thus 
to  render  easily  intelligible  the  distribution  of  moun- 
tains, the  water-sheds,  the  river  valleys,  and  other 
physical  features. 

Mr.  E.  B.  Poulton  has  just  delivered  two  lectures 
at  the  Royal  Institution  on  "The  Nature  and  Pro- 
tective Use  of  Colour  in  Caterpillars." 

Professor  Morre.n,  the  eminent  Belgian  bota- 
nist, has  died  at  the  age  of  53. 

Dr.  Haast,  F.R.S.,  Director  of  the  Canterbury 
Museum,  New  Zealand,  has  been  appointed  Commis- 
sioner for  the  exhibits  of  that  colony,  and  is  now 
in  LondoD,  arranging  for  the  exhibition  of  the  geo- 
logy, fauna  and  flora,  &c,  of  New  Zealand,  at  the 
forthcoming  Colonial  Exhibition. 

Professor  Stokes,  F.R.S.,  has  been  awarded 
the  Actonian  Prize  of  one  hundred  guineas  for  his 
lecture  on  Light. 

Professor  Tacchini  has  published  the  results 
of  his  observation  of  the  solar  protuberances  at  the 

Roman  Observatory  during  1885.  The  great  pro- 
tuberances were  never  seen  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
the  poles,  but  nearly  always  between  the  equator  and 
400,  corresponding  almost  invariably  with  solar 
regions  free  from  spots  and  faculse.  As  regards  the 
protuberances,  solar  energy  may  be  considered  as 
having  been  more  active  in  1885  than  during  the 
previous  year. 

The  analysis  of  some  specimens  of  the  air  taken 
at  Cape  Horn  by  MM.  A.  Muntz  and  E.  Aubin  gives 
the  mean  result  of  20-864,  as  compared  with  20*960, 
the  mean  for  the  atmosphere  of  Paris.  The  propor- 
tion of  oxygen  appears  to  be  also  very  nearly  equal 
to  that  of  the  air  in  various  other  parts  of  the  globe, 
so  that  the  variations  in  the  quantities  of  nitrogen 
and  oxygen  in  the  atmosphere  oscillate  within  very 
narrow  limits. 

Mr.  Arthur  Bennett,  F.L.S.,  has  published 
in  the  March  number  of  the  "Journal  of  Botany" 
a  paper  giving  the  "  Recent  Additions  to  the  Flora 
of  Iceland." 

We  have  received  Part  I.  (1883-5)  °f  tne  "  Transac- 
tions "  of  the  Leeds  Geological  Association,  containing 
good  abstracts  of  papers  read,  and  brief  accounts  of 
excursions  made. 

Mr.  H.  E.  Quilter  has  published  a  paper  in 
the  "  Geological  Magazine"  on  "  The  Lower  Lias 
of  Leicestershire,"  and  Mr.  Thomas  Beesley  another 
on  "The  Lias  of  Fenny  Compton,  Warwickshire," 
in  the  "Proceedings  "  of  the  Warwickshire  Natura- 
lists' Field  Club. 

We  regret  to  have  to  announce  the  death,  although 
at  the  advanced  age  of  85,  of  Mr.  Charles  W.  Peach, 
A.L.S.,  the  distinguished  collector  and  observer,  who 
did  more  in  the  way  of  palseontological  and  zoo- 
logical discovery  than  many  men  of  much  higher  rank 
in  the  world  of  science. 


Preparation  of  Epidermis.  —  Would  some 
reader  kindly  inform  me  of  the  best  way  to  procure 
the  epidermis  of  such  leaves  as  the  Urtica  dioica,  as 
nitric  acid  is  of  no  use  ? — George  Rovert. 

Mounting  Pollen,  etc. — Can  any  reader  tell 
me  what  is  the  best  liquid  for  mounting  the  pollen  of 
flowers  for  the  microscope  ?  Also  is  it  best  to  mount 
sections  of  stems  of  plants  in  Canada  balsam? — A. 

Preparing  Insects'  Brains. — I  am  desirous  of 
preparing  some  brains  of  insects,  and  I  found  in  an 
old  number  of  this  volume  a  method  given  by  Mr. 
E.  T.  Newton  in  his  paper  on  "  Preparing  a  Model 
of  an  Insect's  Brain,"  in  which  he  speaks  of  a  solution 



of  hyperosmic  acid  for  hardening,  previous  to  cutting 
sections.  I  have  tried  in  vain  to  obtain  this  acid 
in  my  own  town,  but  the  chemists  do  not  seem  to 
understand  what  it  is.  I  should  be  very  much 
obliged  if  some  reader  could  tell  me  where  I  could 
obtain  this  solution  of  the  strength  of  \  to  \  per  cent., 
or  if  any  other  medium  would  effect  the  purpose.  I 
also  want  to  know  how  to  harden  such  tissues  as 
stomach,  intestine,  eye,  etc.,  of  insects? — W.  Henry 

Mounting  Gizzards.— If  your  correspondent 
W.  L.  Tall  (p.  17)  will  gently  "pull  the  head  from  the 
body  of  the  cricket,  he  will  find  that  the  alimentary 
canal  and  gizzard  will  come  with  it.  The  gizzard 
must  then  be  cut  open,  treated  with  liquor  potassse, 
and  mounted  in  balsam.  Should  he  not  succeed,  I 
should  be  pleased  to  prepare  one  for  him. — J.  Moore, 
86  Porchester  Street,  Birmingham. 

Cleaning  Microscopic  Cover-Glass. — I  had  a 
large  quantity  of  such  covers  on  hand,  and  was 
endeavouring  to  get  the  best  of  them  clean  again  for 
further  use  with  the  usual  great  waste  in  breakages, 
when  some  one  suggested  Why  don't  you  boil  them 
in  Hudson's  Extract  of  Soap  ?  I  never  heard  of  such 
a  remedy,  but,  as  a  last  resource,  I  thought  I  would 
try  it.  To  my  great  surprise  two  strong  solutions  of 
this  substance,  kept  at  boiling  point,  quite  dissolved 
all  the  balsam  and  cements  with  which  the  covers 
were  thickly  coated,  and  I  found  no  further  difficulty 
in  cleaning  them.  This  hint  may  prove  useful  to 
many  persons  who  throw  away  their  once  used 
covers,  in  the  belief  that,  in  the  effort  to  clean  them, 
the  breakages  will  be  so  numerous  that  "  the  game 
will  not  be  worth  the  candle." — S.  J.  Mclntire, 

Liverpool  Microscopical  Society. — At  the 
ordinary  meeting  of  this  society,  a  paper  was  read  by 
Mr.  Alexander  Barrow,  M.B.,  on  the  "Development, 
Structure  and  Functions  of  the  Eye."  The  lecturer 
first  described  the  structure  of  the  human  eye,  and 
then  gave  an  account  of  the  development  of  the  eye 
in  the  embryo,  as  exemplified  in  the  chick,  etc.,  and 
concluded  by  explaining  the  optical  functions  of  the 
eye,  its  power  of  accommodation  to  light,  distance  of 
objects,  etc.  etc. 

New  Work  on  the  Rotifera.— No  work  in 
natural  science  has  been  wanted  more  than  one  on 
the  Rotifera  or  wheel-animalcules.  These  objects  are 
so  common  everywhere,  and  so  beautiful,  that  it  is 
surprising  their  systematic  study  has  not  been  taken 
up  before.  Perhaps  it  is  as  well  such  has  not  been 
the  case,  for  both  the  hour  and  the  men  have  now 
arrived.  No  other  naturalists  could  have  been 
better  selected  for  such  a  work  than  Dr.  C.  T. 
Hudson  and  Mr.  P.  H.  Gosse,  F.R.S.  Both  these 
men  have  long  been  working  at  the  subject  inde- 
pendently of  each  other,  but  fortunately  they  have 

been  brought  together,  so  that  their  combined  labours 
are  now  appearing  in  a  magnificent  work  to  be 
completed  in  six  parts  at  \os.  6d.,  and  published  by 
Messrs.  Longman.  Parts  I.  and  II.  are  before  us, 
and  they  fully  realise  all  that  has  been  anticipated. 
This  work  on  the  Rotifera  promises  to  be  a  fitting 
companion  to  Saville  Kent's  "Manual  of  the  Infu- 
soria." Each  part  contains  forty  pages  of  text,  and 
two  uncoloured  and  five  coloured  plates,  all  crowded 
with  figures.  The  latter  are  exquisitely  drawn  and 
tinted,  and  every  detail  of  structure  is  carefully 
represented.  Altogether,  we  may  say  of  the  present 
work  that  it  is  one  which  gives  us  a  genuine  pleasure 
to  recommend  to  our  readers.  So  far  as  the  two 
parts  already  published  go  we  have  six  chapters, 
which  are  as  follows :  1st,  Introduction  to  the 
study  of  the  Rotifera.  2nd,  The  history  of  the 
literature  concerning  the  Rotifera.  3rd,  On  the 
classification  of  the  Rotifera.  4th,  On  the  haunts 
and  habits  of  the  Rotifera.  5th,  Flosculariadae. 
6th,  Melicetadre.  The  illustrations  are  devoted  to 
the  species  of  these  two  orders. 

New  Slides. — We  have  received  a  charming 
object  for  microscopical  examination  from  Mr.  Fred 
Enoch,  in  the  shape  of  an  ichneumon  fly  new  to 
Great  Britain,  Utetes  testraceus,  which  was  bred  out 
of  a  dipterous  fly,  in  whose  body  the  eggs  had  been 
laid.  Both  with  polarised  light  and  by  means  of  the 
paraboloid,  the  muscles  and  general  structure  show 
very  plainly. 


Hyalina  Draparnaldi. — Mr.  J.  H.  James  has 
lately  sent  me  specimens  of  this  species  from  Truro, 
Cornwall,  thus  adding  another  county  to  the  known 
distribution  of  this  species.  He  has  also  sent  H. 
glabra,  H.  alliaria,  H.  eellaria,  H.  nitidula,  and  H. 
crystallina  from  the  same  locality,  as  also  many  other 
interesting  shells  concerning  which  a  report  will  be 
sent  in  to  the  Practical  Naturalists'  Society  in  due 
course. —  T.  D.  A.  Cockcrell. 

Abnormal  Amceba. — Referring  to  Mr.  E.  C. 
Bousfield's  communication  in  March  Science-Gossip, 
there  is  no  doubt  in  my  own  mind  that  the  organism 
I  described  in  the  January  number  of  your  journal 
was  a  true  Amceba,  and  not  a  plasmodium  of  one  of  the 
Myxomycetes.  I  had  ample  opportunities  for  testing 
this  during  the  fortnight  I  had  it  under  observation. 
Its  behaviour  towards  other  smaller  Amoebae,  the 
absence  of  cyclosis  (Kent),  and  the  obscurity  of  its 
contractile  vesicle  (which  in  the  Myxomycetes  are 
numerous)  all  point  to  its  not  being  a  Myxomycetan. 
I  had  previously  compared  it  with  Kent,  and  have 
since  with  Prantl  and  Vine,  and  my  first  view  is 
confirmed.  My  only  query  is  to  which  species  of 
Amceba  it  belongs. — E.  B.  L.  Bray  ley,  Clifton. 



Provincial  Societies. — The  Transactions  of  the 
Hertfordshire  Natural  History  Society  and  Field  Club, 
vol.  iii.,  part  7,  contain  (besides  meteorological 
papers  relating  to  Herts),  an  important  one  on  "  The 
Nests  and  Eggs  of  Birds,"  by  Henry  Seebohm, 
F.L.S.  ;  and  the  List  of  Lepidoptera  observed  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Hitchin  and  Knebworth,  Herts, 
by  John  Hartley  Durrant.  The  catalogue  of  the 
Library  of  the  Society  (compiled  by  Mr.  John 
Hopkinson,  F.L.S.)  has  been  published.  It  shows  a 
capital  collection  of  scientific  books  and  pamphlets, 
admirably  arranged,  with  list  of  authors,  &c.  The 
Transactions  of  the  East  Kent  Natural  History  Society 
have  commenced  with  a  new  series.  The  twenty- 
eighth  Report  for  last  year  shows  a  flourishing  state 
of  things  ;  and  it  also  contains  a  capital  list  of  books 
and  periodicals.  Among  the  abstracts  of  papers  in 
the  Transactions  are  one  on  "Teredo  navalis,"  by 
Mr.  S.  Saunders ;  "  On  the  connection  between 
Plants  and  Animals,"  by  Mr.  G.  Dowker  F.G.S.  ; 
"The  Cypris  Clay  of  the  Weald,"  by  Capt.  Mc 
Dakin  ;  "  Stephanoceros  Eichornii,"  by  Mr.  T.  B. 
Rosseter  ;  "  Popular  Names  of  British  Plants,"  by 
Mr.  G.  H.  Nelson,  F.G.S. ;  "The  Marine  Aquarium," 
by  Mr.  S.  Saunders,  etc.,  besides  local  and  general 
"notes  "by  the  members.  The  ■Proceedings  of  the 
South  London  Entomological  Nattiral  History  Society 
for  last  year  contains  the  address  of  the  President  (Mr. 
R.  South),  and  also  a  paper  by  him  "  On  Protective 
Coloration  of  Lepidoptera  ;  "  besides  which  there  is 
a  series  of  entomological  notes  of  exhibits  at 
meetings,  etc.  The  Victorian  Naturalist  is  the 
Magazine  of  the  Field  Club  of  Victoria,  Australia. 
The  last  number  (9)  contains  papers  on  "  The  Fungi 
of  North  Gippsland,"  by  Mr.  H.  T.  Tisdall,  F.L.S  ; 
"  A  Collector's  Trip  to  North  Queensland,"  by  Mr. 
A.  W.  Coles  ;  and  a  "  Geological  Sketch  of  South- 
western Victoria,"  by  Mr.  J.  Dennant. 


Leaf-bloom  and  Stomata. — Mr.  F.  Darwin 
recently  read  a  paper  before  the  Linnean  Society 
"On  the  Relation  between  the  Bloom  on  Leaves  and 
the  Distribution  of  the  Stomata."  "  Bloom "  on 
leaves  is  used  by  him  to  mean  the  coating  of  minute 
particles  of  a  waxy  character,  which  is  removable 
by  hot  water  or  ether.  But  gradations  occur,  from 
a  distinct  and  appreciable  greasiness,  throwing  off 
moisture,  to  such  as  are  easily  wetted.  A  large  series 
of  leaves  of  different  groups  of  plants  have  been 
studied  by  him,  and  for  convenience  in  the  analysis 
of  data  he  has  divided  them  into  four  classes.  Leaves 
of  Class  I.  are  devoid  of  bloom  on  both  surfaces,  and 
yield  54  per  cent.,  which  have  no  stomata  on  the 
upper  surface.  In  Class  II.  bloom  is  deficient  above, 
but  present  below,  and  83  per  cent,  of  the  stomata 

are  on  the  leaves'  lower  surface.  Class  III.  possess 
bloom  on  the  leaves  above,  but  none  inferiorly,  and 
100  per  cent,  of  these  have  stomata  on  the  upper 
surface.  Class  IV.  have  leaves  with  bloom  on  both 
surfaces,  62  per  cent,  of  them  having  stomata  above. 
From  such  analysis  and  other  facts  and  data  given, 
Mr.  Darwin  concluded  that  the  accumulation  of 
stomata  accompanies  that  of  bloom,  and,  other  things 
being  equal,  that  it  is  functionally  protective  against 
undue  wetting  by  rain,  and  injury  to  the  leaf  tissue. 

Cardamine  pratensis,  viviparous. — I  have 
never  seen  a  plant  of  the  normal  single  form  of  this 
flower  that  was  viviparous,  but  I  believe  the  so-called 
double  variety  invariably  reproduces  itself  in  this 
manner,  new  plants  springing  from  the  leaves  where 
they  bend  down  so  as  to  touch  the  ground.  For  the 
information  of  those  of  your  readers  who  may  not 
have  met  with  this  variety  in  flower  I  will  mention 
that  it  has  single  blossoms,  out*  of  the  centre  of  which 
— sometimes  directly,  sometimes  on  a  tiny  stalk — 
springs  a  bud  that  opens  into  bloom  only  as  the  lower 
petals  begin  to  fade.  Your  first  thought  on  seeing  it 
is  that  some  child  has  been  there  just  before  you,  and 
has  stuck  an  unopened  bud  inside  each  flower  for  fun. 
There  may  be  other  forms  of  this  double  variety,  but 
I  have  not  myself  met  with  them.  —  G.  E.  Dartnell. 

Proliferation  of  Cardamine  pratensis. — I 
have  for  several  years  cultivated  Cardamine  pratensis 
(the  common  wild  form)  with  a  view  to  watch  the 
process  of  proliferation  from  the  leaflets,  and  my 
observations  have  led  me  to  suspect  that  this  process, 
so  far  from  being  exceptional,  as  is  commonly  sup- 
posed, is  more  likely  the  usual  method  by  which  the 
plant  is  propagated.  A  plant  on  my  lawn,  which 
has  had  no  chance  of  flowering,  has  spread  in  a  few 
years  over  several  square  feet.  Another  plant,  in  a 
border,  which  has  not  yet  flowered,  has  surrounded 
itself  with  several  young  plants,  one  of  which  I  last 
year  found  still  connected  with  the  parent  by  the 
withered  midrib  of  a  leaf.  In  that  case  the  prolifera- 
tion had  taken  place  from  a  leaflet  of  a  prostrate  leaf, 
and  the  new  plant  had  rooted  in  the  soil  without 
separation  from  the  parent.  In  other  cases  the 
proliferous  leaflet  becomes  disarticulated  and  falls. 
In  others  again  it  remains  on  the  parent  plant ;  and 
the  young  plant,  failing  to  reach  the  soil  with  its 
rootlets,  perishes.  The  favourite  site  of  proliferation 
is  close  to  the  base  of  the  leaflet,  at  the  point  where 
the  first  pair  of  veins  come  off  from  the  midrib,  and 
in  this  situation  a  careful  scrutiny  will  often  detect 
minute  tubercles,  which  represent  the  first  stage  of 
proliferation,  and  which  may  or  may  not  develop 
into  young  plants.  The  process  of  proliferation  is 
greatly  helped  by  damp,  and  is  best  observed  on 
plants  kept  under  glass. — G.  F.  Burder. 

Plants  from  the  Isle  of  Wight. — I  beg  to 
thank  Mr.  Warner  for  his   note  in  the  March  No. 



(p.  69).  The  white  Cephalantheras  (Epipactis,  Sow.) 
could  hardly  be  mistaken  for  E.  palustris  (marsh 
helleborine).  The  only  doubt  with  regard  to  the 
plant  under  consideration  can  be  whether  it  is  the 
C.  grandiflora  or  C.  ensifolia  ?  I  believe  it  to  be 
the  latter,  because  of  the  narrow  leaves  and  minute 
bracts ;  at  the  same  time  I  only  have  the  dried 
specimen  as  forwarded  to  me.  I  have  before  me  a 
series  of  both  species,  gathered  at  Raveno,  Maggiore, 
some  years  ago.  The  leaves  of  C.  grandiflora  are  so 
much  broader  and  the  bracts  more  prominent  than 
with  C.  ensifolia ;  the  flower-spike  of  the  latter  is 
smaller,  with  a  few  loose  flowers.  But  when  I  come 
to  study  the  whole  series,  some  variety  is  noticeable 
in  the  different  specimens  ;  the  two  species  appear  to 
run  gradually  into  each  other.  As  a  matter  of  fact  I 
believe  neither  C.  grand/flora  nor  C.  ensifolia  have 
been  recorded  from  the  Isle  of  Wight.  "  Woods  of 
the  Undercliff "  was  a  near  enough  locality  for  my 
purpose,  but  I  may  add  the  information  that  the 
character  of  rock  is  chalk  marl  at  the  precise  spot. 
May  I  take  this  opportunity  of  stating  that  the  rare 
Swertia  was  found  in  the  north  of  England  last 
summer  ?  I  dare  not  say  more,  except  that  I  saw  it, 
and  that  it  shall  not  be  exterminated  through  me. — 
C.  P. 


The  Cambridgeshire  Chalk. — An  important 
paper  on  this  subject  has  just  been  read  before  the 
Geological  Society  by  Mr.  W.  Hill,  F.G.S.  The 
author,  giving  a  description  of  the  Middle  Chalk  seen 
in  the  cliffs  east  and  west  of  Dover,  stated  that  the 
grit  bed  of  Mr.  Price,  though  much  thicker,  had  all 
the  appearance  and  structure  of  the  Melbourn  Rock, 
and  this,  with  less  hard,  but  still  nodular,  chalk 
above,  appeared  to  be  the  equivalent  of  the  zone 
of  //.  Cnvieri  in  Cambridgeshire.  The  zone  of 
Terebratulina  gracilis  is  well  marked  in  the  Dover 
cliffs,  and  is  equal  in  thickness  to  that  zone  as 
described  in  the  Cambr.  Mem.,  viz.,  150  feet. 
Above  this  zone  the  chalk  became  harder,  withered, 
with  lumpy  projections,  and  finally  passed  into  a 
series  of  rocky  layers,  separated  by  courses  of  softer 
chalk,  containing,  however,  hard  crystalline  lumps. 
The  passage  to  this  rocky  chalk  was  marked  by  the 
occurrence  of  Ilolaster  planus  (zone  of  H.  planus). 
The  rocky  layers,  extending  upward  of  80  feet,  were 
marked  by  the  presence  of  numbers  of  Micrasters, 
"  Chalk  with  many  Micrasters  "  of  the  author.  His 
division  included  all  the  nodular  chalk  of  Dover,  the 
"  Chalk  with  many  Organic  Remains  "  of  W.  Phillips, 
and  in  it  were  found  the  fossils  recorded  as  peculiar 
to  chalk  rock  in  the  Geology  of  Cambridgeshire.  It 
appeared  divisible  into  two  zones  ;  the  lower  15  feet, 
with  Micraster    brez'iporus    (zone  of  J/,    breviporus) 

may  be  considered  by  some  to  be  an  extension  of  the 
zone  of  H.  planus,  the  form  which  marks  the  passage 
from  the  soft  to  the  hard  chalk.  In  the  remainder 
M.  cor-testudinariuni  was  common  (zone  of  M.  cor- 
testudinarium).  Seen  in  thin  sections  under  the 
microscope,  the  structure  of  the  hard  beds  which 
mark  the  limits  of  the  Middle  Chalk  was  stated  to 
be  very  similar.  In  conclusion,  the  author  con- 
sidered that  the  divisions  of  the  Middle  Chalk,  as  set 
forth  in  the  Cambr.  Memoir,  are  well  shown  in  the 
cliffs  of  Dover  ;  but  the  hard  beds,  which  appeared  to 
him  the  equivalent  of  the  Chalk  Rock,  and  mark  the 
upper  limit  of  Middle  Chalk,  attaining  a  great 
development  at  Dover,  it  became  necessary  to 
examine  the  palseontological  position  of  that  bed,  to 
which  the  name  ' '  Chalk  Rock  "  was  given  by  Mr. 
Whitaker.  Having  studied  Mr.  Whitaker's  descrip- 
tion given  in  the  "  Geology  of  the  London  Basin," 
and  the  exposures  of  this  rock  between  Cambridge 
and  the  Thames,  he  drew  the  conclusion,  that  there 
was  probably  more  than  one  bed  to  which  the  name 
Chalk  Rock  might  be  applied,  and  that  these,  prob- 
ably not  all  persistent,  may  occur  at  different 
palaeontological  horizons.  He  therefore  proposed 
to  take  the  zone  of  H.  planus  as  the  top  of  the  Middle 
Chalk  ;  although  this  zone  was  difficult  to  identify 
inland,  from  the  paucity  of  its  fossils,  the  base  of  the 
overlying  zone  was  well  marked  by  the  abundance  of 
Micrasters  and  other  forms,  which  appeared  to  him 
more  closely  allied  to  Upper  than  to  Lower  Chalk. 
He  believed  that  while  the  Chalk  Rock  seen  at  Henley 
may  be  considered  the  summit  of  the  Middle  Chalk, 
the  Chalk  Rock  of  Cambridgeshire,  though  convenient 
for  marking  the  summit  of  the  Middle  Chalk  of  that 
county,  included  that  which  was  really  the  upper 
part  of  the  zone  of  H.  planus  and  the  base  of  the 
true  Upper  Chalk,  the  equivalent  of  Chalk  with  many 
Micrasters  of  Dover.  He  would  therefore  consider 
the  Middle  Chalk  of  Dover  to  be  that  included  from 
the  base  of  the  grit-bed  to  the  summit  of  the  zone  of 
H.  planus.  Its  thickness  was  242  feet  at  Shake- 
speare's Cliff. 

The  Geologists'  Association. — No.  4  of  vol. 
ix.  of  the  "Proceedings"  of  this  society  is  pub- 
lished, containing  accounts  of  no  fewer  than  seventeen 
excursions.  These  accounts  are  always  well,  although 
sketchily,  written,  and  many  of  them  are  illustrated 
with  diagrams  of  the  geological  sections  of  the 
districts  visited.  These  excursions  begin  at  Easter 
and  last  till  August,  and  are  usually  taken  on 
Saturdays  and  Bank  Holidays  ;  but  in  July  there  is 
a  week's  holiday  to  some  special  place  of  geological 
interest  at  a  distance,  when  large  gatherings  of 
members  usually  attend,  so  that  the  "long  excursion," 
as  it  is  called,  is  one  of  the  most  delightful  of  summer 
holidays.  The  monthly  meetings  are  held  from 
November  to  July  inclusive,  when  papers  are  read 
on   subjects    relating   to  geology,    followed    by   dis- 



cussions,  in  which  any  member  may  take  part.      The 
papers    sometimes    take    the    form    of    lectures    or 
demonstrations  upon  general  questions  of  geological 
importance,  or  upon  certain  groups  of  fossils  ;  being 
always  well  illustrated  by  maps  and  diagrams,  they 
are  thus  of  interest  to  all  students  of  geology.     The 
methods  adopted  by  the  Association  are  well  adapted 
to  meet  the  requirements  of  those  who  may,  for  the 
first  time,  be  directing  their  attention  to  geology  ; 
whilst  the  experienced     geologist   will    be  enabled, 
both  at  the  meetings  and  excursions,  to  add  to  his 
own  knowledge  and  impart  it   to  others.     The  work 
of  the  Association  must  especially  commend  itself  to 
students  of  science  classes,  or  to  those  attending  the 
University  Extension  Lectures.     Whilst  laying  much 
stress  on  the  practical  means  of  acquiring  a  know- 
ledge of  geology,  the  Association  does  not  underrate 
the  assistance  to  be  derived  from  books  ;  and  accor- 
dingly have  acquired,  for  the  use  of  members,  partly 
by  purchase  and  partly  from  gifts,  a  good  geological 
library,    which   is  ever   increasing.      The  library  is 
open  for  the  exchange   of  books  on  the  evenings  of 
meeting.     By  permission  of  the  council  of  University 
College,  the  members  of  the  Association  hold  their 
meetings  in  the  spacious  library  of  the  College,  thus 
enabling  them   to  carry  on  their  work  with  a  very 
small  subscription  from  members,  the  services  of  the 
officers  being  entirely  honorary.     Members  pay  an 
admission-fee  of  \os.  and  an  annual  subscription  of 
ios.,  or  a  composition-fee  of  £$.     They  receive  free 
by  post  the   "Proceedings"  and   "Monthly  Circu- 
lars," and    can    obtain    other    publications    of    the 
Association  at  a  reduced  price  from  the  Secretary. 

"British  Petrography." — Part  2  of  this  noble 
work  is  even  more  attractively  turned  out  than  the 
first.  The  work  will  be  completed  in  twenty-five 
parts.  The  present  plates  show  augite-picrite, 
hornblende-picrite,  beautifully  coloured,  with  key- 
plates  for  the  same.  The  text  deals  with  the  micro- 
scopical structures  of  igneous  rocks  generally.  We 
congratulate  Mr.  Teall  on  the  rapid  success  of  his 


The  Shard-borne  Beetle. — There  is  no  reason 
to  suppose  that  any  particular  species  is  referred  to 
either  by  Collins  in  his  "Ode  to  Evening  "or  by 
Shakespeare  in  "Macbeth,"  "  Cymbeline,"  and  else- 
where, although  the  former  is  probably  describing 
Melolontha  vulgaris,  or  perhaps  Gcotrnpes  stcrcorarius. 
"  Shard"  is  derived  from  the  Anglo-Saxon,  "sceard," 
meaning  a  fragment,  e.g.  of  pottery,  and  is  hence 
applied  to  the  wing-case  of  a  beetle. — Sydney  C. 
Cockerell,  Bedford  Park. 

Venus  chione  var.— Among  other  shelis  brought 
me  from  Gibraltar  by  my  friend  the  Rev.  J.  W. 
Horsley  was  a  pale  grey  variety  of  this  species, 
i  orresponding  in  general  appearance  to  the  var.  cine- 
rca  of  Mactra  stultorum.     It  entirely  lacks  the  usual 

element  of  reddish-brown  in  its  colouring.  If  it 
should  prove  to  be  undescribed,  cinerea  would  be 
a  suitable  name. — Sydney  C.  Cockerell,  Bedford  Park. 

Abnormal  Amceba. — Referring  to  the  enormous 
Amoeba    found    by   Mr.    Brayley   and    described    in 
Science-Gossip  for  January,  I  beg  to  say  that  one 
day  when  pond-hunting  in  a  moat  which  surrounded 
my  garden  at   Upminster  I  found  a  dozen  or  more 
organisms  exactly  like  the  one  which  Mr.   Brayley 
describes.    I   took  some  of  them  in  a  bottle  to  the 
Royal  Microscopical  Society,  and  asked  the  Assistant 
Secretary  to  find  out  for  me  what  they  were.     This, 
however,  he  was  unable  to  do  ;  and  I  then  sent  some 
to  the  late  Dr.  W.  B.  Carpenter  and  asked  him  to 
solve    the  problem.      He   replied    that   he  believed 
them  to  be  the  spores  of  one  of  the  Myxomycetes, 
which  are  figured  in  their  amoeboid  condition  at  page 
388  of  the  last  edition  of  "  Carpenter  on  the  Micro- 
scope ;  "  the  description  is  as  follows:    "Here  and 
there  offshoots  of  the  protoplasm  are  projected,  and 
again  withdrawn,  in  the  manner  of  the  pseudopodia 
of  an  Amoeba  ;    while  the  whole  organism  may  be 
occasionally  seen  to  abandon  the  support  over  which 
it  had  grown  and  to  creep  over  neighbouring  surfaces, 
thus  far  resembling  in  all  respects  a  colossal  ramified 
Amceba."      In   one   of    Professor     Huxley's    "  Lay 
Sermons,"  entitled  "  On  the  Physical  Basis  of  Life," 
is  the  following:    "There  is  a  living  body  called 
ALthalntm  septicum,  which  appears  upon  decaying 
vegetable    substances,    and   in   one   of   its   forms   is 
common   upon   the    surfaces    of    tan-pits.     In    this 
condition  it  is  to  all  intents  and  purposes  a  fungus, 
and  formerly  was  always  regarded  as  such  ;  but  the 
remarkable  investigations  of  De    Bary  have  shown 
that  in  another  condition  the  ^Ethalium  is  an  actively 
locomotive   creature,    and   takes   in   solid     matters, 
upon  which  apparently  it  feeds,  thus  exhibiting  the 
most    characteristic   feature   of   animality."     Sachs' 
"Text-book  of  Botany,"  p.  276,  has  the  following  : 
"  When  a  spore  is  saturated  with  water  it  opens,  and 
the  whole  of  its  protoplasmic  contents  escape  as  a 
roundish   naked  mass ;    but   after   some   minutes   it 
assumes  another  form,  becomes  long  and  pointed  at 
one  end,  where  it  is  provided  with  long  cilia  ;  it  has 
in  fact  developed  into  a  swarm-pore,  which  is  either 
endowed    with    rotatory    motion    or    creeps   along, 
changing  its   form   like   an  Amoeba."      Prantl   and 
Vine's  "Text-book  of  Botany"  has  the  following  at 
p.   31 :    "Naked  primordial  cells,    as,  for  instance, 
swarm-pores  and  antherozoids,  swim   about   in  the 
water  in  which  they  live,  rotating  at  the  same  time 
on    their   own   axes.      The   so-called    plasmodia   of 
Myxomycetes  exhibit  an  amoeboid  movement ;  that 
is,  the  naked  mass  of  protoplasm  continually  changes 
its  outline,  new  protrusions  are  thrown  out  from  the 
central  mass,    whilst  others  are  withdrawn,   and   it 
thus  moves  slowly  from  place  to  place  ;  at  the  same 
time  a  rapid  motion  of  the  granules  within  the  mass 
is  going  on."     I  would  suggest  to  Mr.  Brayley  that 
it  is  possible  his  find  may  be  of  the  same  character 
as  mine. — J.  C.  Havers,  F.L.S.,  F.R.M.S. 

Starlings. — Huge  flocks  of  starlings  [Sturnus 
vulgaris)  were  seen  every  evening  during  the  month 
of  November,  flying  toward  the  west.  They  flew  at 
a  great  altitude,  and  from  a  distance  looked  like 
immense  clouds.  Every  morning  they  could  be  seen 
returning  towards  the  east,  when  they  kept  close  to 
the  ground,  rising  a  little  to  clear  the  hedges  and 
other  obstacles  which  lay  in  their  way,  but  dropping 
as  soon  as  they  passed  them,  just  skimming  the  face 
of  the  land  in  their  rapid  flight.  The  morning  flocks 
were  very  much  smaller  than  those  seen  in  the 
evenings,  and,  instead  of  huge  dense  masses  like  the 



evening  flocks,  they  formed  irregular  wave-like  chains 
about  half  a  mile  in  length,  and  from  ten  to  fifty  yards 
broad  ;  one  such  flock  passed  every  three  minutes  for 
one  hour.  Query — Where  did  they  lodge  at  night, 
and  how  far  did  they  spread  towards  the  east  during 
the  daytime  ?  I  remarked  the  last  flocks  came  in 
sight  about  nine  o'clock,  and  settled  in  the  fields 
about  this  neighbourhood  (Ponsanooth),  where  they 
remained  during  the  day,  and  departed  towards  the 
west  in  the  evening  without  joining  the  large  flocks 
which  came  from  the  east. — S.  H.  Davey,  Ponsanooth , 
Cornwall.  I 

A  Brighton  Garden. — Your  correspondent,  G. 
Davis,  in  his  interesting  article  on  "A  Brighton 
Garden,"  describes  it  as  being  only  fifty  square  yards 
in  extent,  which  is  only  ten  yards  by  five,  or  about 
the  size  of  a  "  good-sized  "  dining-room.  In  this  are 
several  free-growing  conifers,  firs,  and  others.  I 
think  that  perhaps  "fifty  yards  square"  might  be 
intended,  and  yet  that  would  scarcely  require  so 
definite  a  description.  With  regard  to  the  growth 
of  the  various  trees,  etc.,  it  is  interesting  to  compare 
it  with  that  of  the  same  plants  under  the  very  different 
conditions  01  this  neighbourhood.  P.  austriaca,  P. 
Cembra,  P.  excclsa  do  well,  but  P.  insignis  will  not 
stand  the  winter's  cold.  Picea  Nordmanniana  does 
well  for  a  time,  but  Picea  nobilis  does  better.  P. 
pinsapo  in  sheltered  situations  succeeds  well  for  a 
time,  but  is  caught  by  a  cold  winter.  P.  lasiscupo 
comes  into  leaf  too  quickly,  and  the  leaders  perish. 
Cupressus  macrocarpa  is  useless,  but  C.  Lawsoniana 
does  well,  and  also  C.  gigatitca.  The  ginkgo  succeeds 
fairly  well,  but  does  not  grow  rapidly.  The  Euony- 
mus  japonica  is  not  planted  here,  as  it  is  liable  to  get 
killed  in  winter.  It  is  needless  to  proceed  further, 
and  many  of  the  shrubs  I  could  not  report  upon,  but 
I  thought  you  could  perhaps  forward  this  to  your 
contributor. —  Wm.  Southall. 

Food,  etc.,  of  Macro-Lepidopterous  Cater- 
pillars.— With  a  view  to  a  monograph  of  the 
larvse  of  British  Macro-Lepidoptera,  would  entomo- 
logical readers  kindly  help  me  with  descriptions, 
food-plants,  etc.,  of  caterpillars  they  have  observed? 
Localities  of  same  would  be  of  great  advantage. — F. 
A.  A.  Skusc,  36  Campbell  Road,  Bow,  London,  E. 

The  Brambling. — The  brambling  (Fringilla 
montifringilla)  has  appeared  here  in  some  abundance 
during  the  past  few  weeks.  It  seems  to  visit  this 
part  of  Cornwall  only  in  severe  winters.  A  bird- 
stuffer  at  Falmouth  told  me  he  had  several  sent  him 
for  preserving  in  1880-81.  I  have  a  male  bird  in 
fine  plumage  in  my  possession.  Bulfinches  (P.  vul- 
garis) are  more  than  usually  numerous.  In  October 
and  November,  especially  the  latter  month,  their 
chief  food  was  a  late  kind  of  blackberry.  Dock -seed 
has  also  come  in  for  a  share  of  their  attention.  On  a 
mild  morning  in  December  I  noticed  the  golden- 
crested  wren  taking  flies  on  the  wing  after  the  man- 
ner of  the  fly-catcher.  Is  this  usual? — T.  J.  Porter, 
Perranarworthal,  Cornwall. 

Floral  Varieties. — In  North  Wales  I  once  found 
a  pure  white  specimen  of  Geranium  Robertianum. 
With  the  exception  of  the  flowers  being  white,  it  was 
exactly  the  same  as  the  ordinary  pink  Geranium 
Robertianum. — M.  E.  Thomson. 

Cuckoos. — The  following  I  quote  from  Science- 
Gossip,  1881,  page  68  :  "  Mr.  H.  B.  Sharpe  on 
Cuckoos. — This  well  known  ornithologist,  in  a  lecture 
recently  delivered  before  the  Birmingham  Midland 
Institution,  said  :   '  The  ground-cuckoos,  unlike  the 

tree-cuckoos,  built  their  nests,  but  they  were  not  very 
far  advanced  in  the  art  of  nest  building.'  "  I  should 
be  glad  if  some  correspondent  would  kindly  tell  me 
in  what  other  respect  (besides  in  the  building  of  their 
nests)  tree-cuckoos  differ  from  ground-cuckoos.  I 
should  also  like  to  know  if  the  American  cuckoos 
(which  Mr.  Sharpe  in  the  same  lecture  said  "did 
not  lay  their  eggs  and  hatch  them  all  at  once,  as 
some  English  birds  did,  but  would  lay  them  at 
intervals,  leaving  the  young  birds  first  hatched  to 
hatch  the  remainder  ")  are  of  the  same  genus  as  the 
English  ones. — A.  Pittis. 

Hedge-Sparrow's  Nest.— On  Febuary  14th  a 
hedge-sparrow's  nest,  containing  four  eggs,  was 
brought  to  me  from  Hendon.  Was  not  this  ex- 
ceptionally early,  considering  the  severe  winter? — 
G.  Browne. 

Miscellaneous  Queries. — Will  any  of  your 
readers  answer  the  following?  1.  Do  pike  pair  at 
spawning  time  or  not  ?  2.  Is  a  heron  conscious  of 
standing  on  one  leg  in  a  profound  sleep  for  hours, 
with  head  under  wing,  other  foot  hidden  in  abdominal 
feathers,  or  is  it  merely  a  mechanical  or  automatic 
action  ?  3.  Does  a  bee  fly  in  circles  to  and  from 
its  hive  ?  if  so,  why  ? — Mark  Antony. 

Arion  ater,  var.  albolateralis.  —  It  may 
interest  Mr.  J.  W.  Williams  (p.  55)  to  know  that  I 
found  four  specimens  of  the  var.  albolateralis  of 
Arion  ater  at  Kirk  Braddan,  Isle  of  Man,  during  the 
first  week  of  August,  1885.  1  also  saw  several  others 
at  Onchan.  One  specimen  of  var.  albida,  Arion 
ater,  was  found  at  Onchan. — J.  Moore,  86  Porchester 
Street,  Birmingham. 

Mimulus  luteus. — I  found  this  plant  in  consider- 
able quantities  last  summer  growing  on  the  borders 
of  a  stream  near  Enniskerry,  co.  Wicklow.  Has  it 
been  found  elsewhere  in  Ireland  ? — J.  Grierson,  Bray, 
co.  Wicklow. 

The  Violet  Quotation. — The  idea  touched  on 
in  "In  Memoriam,"  xviii.,  is  a  very  ancient  one. 
The  earliest  quotation  that  I  can  give  for  it  is  from 
Persius — 

"  Nunc  non  «  tumulo  fortunataque  favilla 
Nascentur  violae?" — Sat.  i.  39. 

Next  comes  Shakespeare  ("King  Lear "),  followed 
by  Robert  Herrick  with  his  epitaph  on  his  old  house- 

"  In  this  little  urn  is  laid 

Prudence  Baldwin,  once  my  maid, 

From  whose  happy  spark  here  let 

Spring  the  purple  violet." 

Tennyson  closes  the  list.  Of  these,  Herrick  un- 
doubtedly drew  his  inspiration  from  Persius,  while 
the  ashes  of  "  In  Memoriam  "  would  seem  to  suggest 
that  the  Laureate  also  had  in  his  mind  that  fortunata 
favilla  of  the  Roman  satirist.  As  for  Shakespeare,  I 
do  not  myself  think  that  he  was  indebted  to  Persius, 
but  rather  that  he  here  used  the  violet  chiefly  as  a 
symbol,  in  its  shy  sweetness  and  beauty,  of  so  "fair 
and  unpolluted  "  a  soul  as  that  of  Cordelia.  The 
origin  of  the  idea  may  lie  hidden  away  somewhere  in 
ancient  folk-lore,  or  it  may  simply  be  that  the  ashes 
of  the  dead  have  been  found  to  stimulate  the  growth 
of  this  flower.  1  should  hardly  consider  a  grave 
nowadays  to  be  a  likely  locality  for  violets  to  spring 
up  spontaneously  in,  though  I  have  seen  them 
flourishing  luxuriantly  in  soil  which  appeared  full 
of  cinders  and  burnt  bones  ;  but  it  is  at  least  certain 
that,  let  the  connection  of  ashes,  human  or  otherwise, 



be  what  it  may  with  our  flower,  that  of  the  ash-tree  is 

a  very  close  one. 

"  Thick 
By  ashen  roots  the  violets  blow, 

as  a  later  stanza  of  "In  Memoriam  "  so  accurately 
observes. — G.  E.  Dartnell. 

A  remarkable  Robin. — According  to  a  con- 
temporary, there  is  now  to  be  seen,  at  the  old  village 
cobbler's  residence  at  Framfield,  adjoining  the  village 
churchyard,  a  living  curiosity  in  the  shape  of  a  robin 
which  was  captured  on  the  25th  January.  The  bird  is 
now  caged,  and  sings  delightfully  in  the  true  notes  of 
the  robin.  The  plumage  consists  of  a  white  breast, 
wings  resembling  the  chaffinch,  a  white  crown,  and, 
more  singular  still,  a  white  bill,  whereas  our  old 
English  robin  carries  with  him  a  black  one. 

Arion  hortensis,  var.  subfusca. — Mr.  Wil- 
liams, speaking  of  this  variety  in  his  very  interesting 
article  on  the  variation  of  slugs,  in  the  recent  number 
of  Science-Gossip,  remarks,  "  This  variety  has  been 
recorded  for  Britain,  but,  I  believe,  on  unreliable 
authority."  I  took  a  quantity  of  slugs  last  March  on 
the  banks  of  the  Ely,  at  St.  Fagan's,  near  Cardiff, 
which  I  sent  to  Mr.  Roebuck  for  identification.  They 
were  :  five  Arion  hortensis,  var.  subfusca  ;  five  Limax 
agrcstris,  var.  sylvatica,  three  L.  agrestis,  var. 
tristis ;  one  A.  atcr,  var.  nigrescens,  and  several 
Arions  difficult  to  make  out,  which  Mr.  Roebuck 
thinks  to  be  a  new  species  not  yet  recorded  as  British. 
Near  the  same  place  I  took  H.  arbustorum,  hortensis, 
nemoralis,  aspersa,  rotutidata,  and  hispida,  S.  elegans, 
C.  minimum,  Zonites  nitidulus,  Z.fulvus  (scarce),  and 
Cock.  lubrica.—F.  W.  Wotton,  Cardiff. 

A  Suggestion  for  Scientific  Societies. — I 
am  sure  there  are  many  students  of  nature  who  would 
be  glad  to  give  the  helping  hand  "An  Hon.  Sec." 
asks  for  in  Science-Gossip,  vol.  xxi.  p.  263,  and,  for 
my  own  part,  I  can  lend  him  two  papers  on  general 
botanical  subjects,  with  diagrams  drawn  by  myself,  if 
he  thinks  they  would  be  of  service.  However,  I 
have  another  object  in  writing  this  note,  which  is 
to  suggest  to  "  An  Hon.  Sec."  to  get  the  members  of 
his  society  to  take  up  the  cataloguing  of  the  plants, 
shells,  and  insects,  in  all  their  various  branches,  that 
are  to  be  found  in  his  district.  I  have  no  idea  where- 
abouts he  resides,  but  I  can  scarcely  think  its  flora 
and  fauna  have  already  been  completely  worked  out. 
For,  as  Gilbert  White  writes  in  his  "Natural  History 
of  Selborne,"  "  All  nature  is  so  full,  that  that  district 
produces  the  greatest  variety  which  is  the  most 
examined."  Many  local  societies  in  England  and 
America  have  been  thus  making  lists  of  what  is  found 
within  their  bounds,  and  with  most  useful  results. 
In  Ireland,  too,  the  Belfast  Naturalists'  Field  Club, 
and  the  Royal  Dublin  Society,  have  been  doing  a 
like  work  for  the  provinces  of  Ulster  and  Leinster. 
And  it  occurs  to  me  that  such  a  treatment  of  the 
natural  history  of  "An  Hon.  See's"  locality  would 
afford  endless  themes,  as,  at  meeting  after  meeting, 
portions  of  the  various  lists  were  brought  forward  by 
the  different  collectors.— i7.  IV.  Lett,  M.A. 

A  Query  for  Teetotallers. — How  is  the  fact 
(for  a  fact  it  is)  to  be  explained — viz.  that  if  you  mix 
Seltzer  water  with  whisky,  the  usual  air-  (or  gas-beads 
rather)  are  seen  in  the  mixture,  which  remains  other- 
wise quiescent ;  whereas,  if  brandy  be  the  spirit 
employed,  great  frothy  bubbles  are  produced  on  the 
surface  of  the  fluid,  which  fill  the  top  part  of  the 
tumbler  which  contains  it,  and  have  a  tendency  (like 
champagne)  to  overpass  the  boundary  of  the  rim  ?  It 
has  often  struck  me  as  being  veiy  curious. —  W.  H. 


To  Correspondents  and  Exchangers. — As  we  now 
publish  Science-Gossip  earlier  than  formerly,  we  cannot  un- 
dertake to  insert  in  the  following  number  any  communications 
which  reach  us  later  than  the  8th  of  the  previous  month. 

To  Anonymous  Querists. — We  must  adhere  to  our  rule  of 
not  noticing  queries  which  do  not  bear  the  writers'  names. 

To  Dealers  and  others. — We  are  always  glad  to  treat 
dealers  in  natural  history  objects  on  the  same  fair  and  general 
ground  as  amateurs,  in  so  far  as  the  "  exchanges  "  offered  are  fair 
exchanges.  But  it  is  evident  that,  when  their  offers  are  simply 
disguised  advertisements,  for  the  purpose  of  evading  the  cost  of 
advertising,  an  advantage  is  taken  of  our  gratuitous  insertion  of 
"  exchanges  "  which  cannot  be  tolerated. 

We  request  that  all  exchanges  may  be  signed  with  name  (or 
initials)  and  full  address  at  the  end. 

W.  J.  Horn. — Your  unknown  animals  are  hardly  likely  to  be 
slugs  if  they  live  in  water.  It  is  more  probable  they  are  some 
kind  of  Planarians. 

F.  W. — The  "  Journal  of  Conchology "  Is  an  excellent 
monthly  periodical,  published  at  is.,  by  Taylor  Brothers, 
Hunslet  New  Road,  Leeds. 

A.  P. — Besides  the  article  on  the  Geology  of  the  Isle  of  Wight 
in  our  March  number,  you  will  find  two  capital  articles  on  the 
geology  of  that  little  island  in  the  vol.  of  Science-Gossip  for 
1882.  entitled  "A  Week's  Rambling  with  a  Hammer  in  the 
Isle  of  Wight." 

F.  Challis.— Mr.  J.  J.  Harris  Teale's  "  British  Petro- 
graphy "  is  coming  out  in  twenty-rive  monthly  parts,  price  3.J.  6d. 
each,  and  is  published  by  Messrs.  Watson,  Bros.,  and  Douglas, 
92  Great  Charles  Street,  Birmingham. 


L.  C.,  7th  edition,  offered,  135,  235,  575,  1304,  1482,  1646 
Petasites  fragrans,  in  exchange  for  other  specimens.  —  M. 
Dawber,  Les  Ruettes  Brayes,  Guernsey. 

What  offers  for  twenty-four  fine  rock  specimens  from  Aus- 
tralia, named  and  localised  ?  Wanted,  Eocene  fossils  or  geo- 
logical works.— George  E.  East,  jun.,  10  Basinghall  Street, 
London,  E.C. 

Microscopic  objects  for  exchange:  kidneys  of  sheep  and 
child,  human  skin,  lungs  of  dog  and  sheep,  all  injected  ;  trans- 
verse section  of  rhinoceros  horn,  hoof  of  sheep  and  horse, 
section  of  deal — all  good  polarizing  objects — for  other  objects. 
All  the  above  are  first-class  mounts,  the  same  required  in  ex- 
change. Send  list  and  sample  object  to — R.  Mason,  24  Park 
Road,  Clapham,  London,  S.W. 

Staveley's  "  British  Spiders,"  sixteen  coloured  plates  ;  good 
specimen  of  lesser  tern,  without  case.  Will  exchange  for  polari- 
scope  or  offers. — W.  Towner,  89  Terminus  Road,  Eastbourne, 

Wanted,  Stark's  "  British  Mosses "  and  Lindsay's 
"Lichens."  Will  give  Austin  Flint's  "Text-Book  of  Physio- 
logy "  (30s.)  for  both,  or  Kirke's  "  Handbook  of  Physiology," 
(14s.)  for  either. — J.  W.  Williams,  D.Sc,  27  Corinne  Road, 
Tufnell  Park,  N. 

Shall  be  glad  to  correspond  with  any  one  in  Suffolk,  with 
a  view  of  exchanging  specimens  of  British  plants  of  that 
District. — William  Kirkby,  Calverley  Street,  Leeds. 

Wanted,  Stainton's  "Butterflies  and  Moths."  Will 
exchange  Lyell's  "  Student's  Elements  of  Geology,"  last  edition, 
edited  by  Prof.  Duncan  (1885).— J.  W.  Williams,  D.Sc,  27 
Corinne  Road,  Tufnell  Park,  N. 

Two  good  micro-slides  for  each  of  the  following  numbers  of 
Science-Gossip.  No.  4,  April  1865  ;  38,  Feb.,  40,  April  1868  ; 
S3,  May,  57,  Sept.  1869;  66  June,  71,  Nov.  1870;  74,  Feb., 
75,  March,  1871  ;  85,  Jan.,  95,  Nov.,  96,  Dec.  1872  ;  and  126, 
June  1875.— Saml.  M.  Malcomson,  M.D.,  55  Great  Victoria 
Street,  Belfast. 

British  birds'  eggs  :  will  be  glad  to  forward  list  of  dupli- 
cates with  a  view  to  exchange. — Frank  Simpson,  Fennymore, 
Ealing,  W. 

Microscopic  slides  for  exchange :  kidney  of  sheep,  Congo 
snake,  intestine  of  cat,  rabbit,  lung  of  dog,  sheep,  liver  of  pig, 
lip  and  gum  of  Congo  snake— all  injected  and  stained — for  other 
well-mounted  objects,  insects,  etc.  Send  list  and  specimen. — 
R.  M.,  24  Park  Road,  Clapham. 

Will  exchange  January  part  of  "  Nature,"  1885  (clean)  for 
any  five  back  Nos.  of  Science-Gossip,  or  January  part  of 
"Knowledge."  Correspondents  wanted  in  the  Highlands  and 
near  one  of  the  forests  of  England  with  view  to  exchange  notes 
and  specimens.— William  James,  Esq.,  Treveneth,  Paul,  nr. 
Penzance,  Cornwall. 

Eggs  for  others  not  in  collection:  wild  ducks,  jackdaws, 
moorhens,  blackbirds,  thrushes,  linnets,  starlings,  whitethroats, 
robins,  greenfinches,  yellow-hammers,  redstarts,  field-larks, 
nightingales,  chaffinches,  hedge-sparrow.— G.  F.  Lund,  Marl- 
borough House,  Sidcup,  Kent. 



Wanted,  fossils  from  the  London  Clay  and  Woolwich  and 
Reading  beds  in  exchange  for  fossils  from  Chalk,  Greensand, 
Wenlock  Limestone,  coal  measures,  etc. — Geo.  E.  East,  junior, 
10  Basinghall  Street,  London,  E.C. 

For  disposal,  the  "American  Monthly  Microscopical  Jour- 
nal," in  numbers,  unbound,  for  the  years  1882,  1883,  1884 
and  1885  ;  also  the  "  Microscope,"  1885  ;  and  vol.  1  bound,  and 
vol.  2  unbound  of  "Journal  of  the  Postal  Microscopical  Society." 
What  offers  ?— Georg  Timmins,  Syracuse  N.Y.,  U.S.A. 

Two  new  excellent  objectives  by  Swift  \  and  \,  both  in 
exchange  for  a  good  \  or  -j^,  mutual  approval. — E.  B.  Fennessy, 
Pallasgreen,  Limerick. 

For  disposal  a  -^  object-glass  (really  -J-)  by  Powell  and 
Lealand,  in  perfect  working  order.  Gives  1500  dias.  with  its 
eye-piece,  and  has  1670  of  aperture.  Offers  requested. — Dr. 
Bousfield,  363  Old  Kent  Road,  S.E. 

Good  histological  slides  in  exchange  for  good  mounts  of 
foreign  diatoms,  or  diatom  material  from  abroad.  Send  slides 
or  material  to  Dr.  Bousfield,  363  Old  Kent  Road,  S.E. 

Good  series  of  British  land,  freshwater  and  marine  shells 
wanted  for  a  small  public  museum.  The  commoner  species  are 
especially  needed,  in  all  stages  of  growth.  Can  offer  C.  biplicata 
and  many  local  species  in  exchange. — S.  C.  Cockerell,  51 
Woodstock  Road,  Bedford  Park,  Chiswick,  W. 

Wanted,  members  for  the  Scientific  Circulating  Magazine 
Society,  which  offers  the  choice  of  three  parcels  of  magazines 
every  month. — T.  F.  Uttley,  17  Brazennose  Street,  Manchester. 

Wanted,  a  clutch  of  eggs,  with  data,  of  griffon  and  Egyptian 
vultures,  honey  buzzard,  eagle  owl,  pied  flycatcher,  oriole, 
redwing,  bluethroat,  water  pipit,  wood-lark,  cirl  bunting,  raven, 
hoopoe,  roller,  bustards,  thick-knee,  storks,  crane,  bittern, 
and  many  others.  Clutches  of  British  and  American  eggs 
offered  in  exchange ;  please  send  lists  to  W.  Wells-Bladen, 
Stone,  Staff. 

"  Science  for  All,"  complete,  unbound,  quite  clean  :  exchange 
Cole's  Studies,  with  slides,  or  offers  microscopical. — Richard 
Horton,  8  Draycott  Street,  Chelsea,  S.W. 

Wanted,  from  thoroughly  reliable  sources,  British-taken  sets 
of  eggs,  viz.  marsh  warbler,  siskin,  hawfinch,  cirl  bunting,  corn 
hunting,  chough  raven,  wood-lark,  harriers,  buzzard,  eagle, 
hobby,  ducks,  quail,  ptarmigan,  spotted  crake,  stone  curlew, 
Kentish  plover,  dotterel,  phalarope,  Arctic  tern,  roseate  tern, 
divers,  grebes.— W.  M.  Pybus,  Solicitor,  Post  Office  Chambers, 
St.  Nicholas  Square,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

"  Principles  of  Chemistry,  founded  on  Modern  Theories," 
by  Professor  Naquet,  Paris,  revised  in  English  by  Dr.  Steven- 
son, Guy's  Hospital.  Second  edition,  pp.  848,  1868.  Offers  in 
good  micro-slides  (not  anatomical). — H.  Epps,  q=;  Upper  Tulse 
Hill,  S.W. 

Entomological  apparatus  wanted  in  exchange  for  small 
microscope  with  forceps,  etc.  ;  cost  \os.  6d. — H.  R.  Harmer, 
Withell  Villa,  Albert  Road,  Stratford,  E. 

What  offers  for  a  shale  (from  the  South  Wales  coal-fields) 
with  fossilised  fronds  of  ferns  and  stem  (size  12X6  in.) '? — 
George  Rees,  jun.,  Glandulas,  Lampeter,  South  Wales. 

Science-Gossip,  wanted,  any  No.  from  commencement  to 
25,  also  30,  43,  46,  51,  52,  5s  to  59,  67,  68,  72,  76,  83,  84.— W.  T. 
Taylor,  Seymour  House,  Keswick. 

Wanted,  two  Leclanche  cells  for  electric  bell  ;  will  give  in 
exchange  twelve  splendid  microscope  slides. — P.  Kilgour, 
11  Stirling  Street,  Dundee,  N.B. 

Wanted,  for  three  volumes  of  "Design  and  Work"  (two 
vols,  bound,  one  unbound)  German  works  on  botany,  geology, 
or  entomology  illustrated,  bound  or  unbound. — F.  W.  Weywood, 
Clement  Street,  Accrington. 

Good  series  of  British  Mollusca  or  fossils  for  early  numbers 
"  Quarterly  Journal  of  the  Royal  Geological  Society  "  or  offers. 
— F.  G.  S.,  2  Polygon,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Wanted,  a  good  second-hand  entomological  cabinet:  can 
give  in  exchange  Kirby's  "European  Butterflies  and  Moths." 
First  38  parts  Science-Gossip,  1885,  unbound,  or  a  variety 
of  side-blown  eggs. — A.  Kelly,  5  Canal  Lane,  Castle  Terrace, 

Semele,  Dispar,  M.  Artemis,  C.  album,  Galathea, 
Megsera,  Cardui,  Trifoli,  Filipendulae,  for  micro-slides  or  offers. 
— W.  E.  Watkins,  32  Huntingdon  Street,  Barnsbury,  London,  N. 

By.  tentaculata,  Val.  cristata,  PI.  vortex,  PI.  complanatus, 
PL  contortus,  Physa  fontinalis,  L.  palustris,  L.  truncatula, 
H.  cantiana,  H.  virgata,  H.  ericetomm,  H.  rotundata, 
CI.  rugosa,  Cy.  elegans.  Desiderata:  L. glutinosa,  L. glabra 
and  British  Vertigos. — Frederick  Harding,  Shipley  House, 
York  Road,  Eastbourne. 

Duplicates,  about  fifty  species  of  land,  freshwater  and 
marine  shells  from  Ceylon  and  India.  List  on  application. 
Wanted,  land  shells  of  Madeira,  and  Continental  fossils. — J.  E. 
Linter,  Arragon  Close,  Twickenham. 

Wanted,  Larva  of  Quercifolia,  Fuliginosa,  Villica,  Planta- 
ginis,  Dominula,  Betulse,  Sibylla,  Paphia,  Aglaia,  Adippe, 
Athalia,  Maura,  Aprilina,  Lichenia,  Xerampelina,  Ferruginea, 
Gilvago,  Ceragio,  Flanago,  Fimbria,  Rufina,  Rubiginea  ;  also 
imagines,  duplicates  numerous  and  good  ;  also  stuffed  birds. — 
J.  Bates,  10  Orchard  Terrace,  Wellingborough. 

Wanted,  shells,  fossils,  minerals  or  foreign  stamps,  in  ex- 
change for  books  and  stamps.— H.  L.  E.,  7  Barrington  Road, 

Limntra  peregra,  palustris  ;  Bylhinia  toitaculata  ;  Plan- 
orbis  vortex,  complanatus,  contortus ;  Helix  virgata, 
caperata  ;  Clausilia  rugosa,  etc.  Desiderata:  Unio  margari- 
t'Jcr;  Limna-a  auricularia  ;  Clausilia  biplicata,  and  others. 
— John  D.  Morris,  66  Seaside  Road,  Eastbourne. 

Offered  elementary  and  advanced  text-books  of  mathe- 
matics, chemistry,  physics,  etc.,  in  exchange  for  botanical 
micro-slides  or  specimens,  or  works  on  botany. — W.  S.  Harrison, 
M.A.,  15  Park  Place  East,  Sunderland. 

First  six  vols.  Science-Gossip,  bound  in  cloth,  splendid 
condition.  Westropp's  "Archaeology,"  Hawkin's  "Ichthyo- 
sauri and  Plesiosauri,"  large  folio,  30  plates,  Fosbroke's 
"Ancient  Costume,"  and  a  number  of  valuable  architectural 
works,  for  Rogers'  "  Italy  "  and  Poems,  works  illustrated  by 
F.  O.  Morris,  Bewick,  Aiken,  Cruikshank,  Rowlandson,  first 
editions  of  Dickens,  Ainsworth,  Lever,  etc.  ;  uncut  copies  only 
taken  of  latter. — P.  Payne,  The  Borough,  Hinckley. 

Wanted,  the  first  six  vols,  of  Science-Gossip  bound  or 
in  parts  ;  will  give  good  value  in  microscopic  slides,  various,  or 
unmounted  sections  and  materials. — John  J.  Andrew,  L.D.S., 
Eng.,  2  Belgravia,  Belfast. 

Wanted,  first-class  botanical  and  anatomical  slides,  also 
diatom  slides  (selected),  and  good  unmounted  material  of  all 
kinds,  in  exchange  for  entomological  preparations,  mounted. — 
C.  Collins,  Bristol  House,  Harlesden,  N.W. 

Wanted,  good  specimens  of  Limnaea,  Planorbis,  Amalia, 
Limax  and  Testacella.  Good  exchanges  given  in  other  land 
and  freshwater  shells. — F.  G.  Fenn,  20  Woodstock  Road, 
Bedford  Park,  Chiswick,  W. 

Wanted,  microtome  and  section  knife,  also  Valentine  knife  ; 
good  exchange  given  in  first  class  micro-slides,  viz.  parasites, 
Insecta,  diatoms,  animal  hairs,  feathers,  botanical,  etc. — W.  S. 
Anderson,  7  Granby  Street,  Ilkeston. 

Offered,  C.  trideus,  Bulimus  acutus,  Sphcerium  corncum, 
var.  Jlavescens,  H.  rufescens  var.  alba,  Zonites  excavatus, 
H.  sericea.  Wanted,  S.  ovale,  P.  corneus,  var.  albinosr 
H.  lamellata,  Bulimus  montanus,  Lhnnwa  glutinosa,  Litnncea. 
peregra,  var.  Burnetti. — Rev.  W.  Eyre,  Swarraton  Rectory, 
Alresford,  Hants. 

Science-Gossip  for  '72,  '73,  '74,'75,  complete  and  bound  in  two 
vols.  ;  Gosse's  "Evenings  at  Microscope,"  nearly  new  ;  "Little 
English  Flora,"  with  280  small  but  accurate  engaavings. 
Wanted,  Taylor's  "  Half  Hours  in  Green  Lanes,"  and  any 
advanced  book  on  birds. — J.  H.  Keen,  18  Church  Street, 

The  indigenous  official  plants  and  their  allies  beautifully 
mounted  on  cardboards,  classed  and  named,  only  7.?.  6d.  or 
exchange. — H.  Higginson,  Newferry,  Birkenhead. 

Baxter's  "  British  Flowering  Plants,"  containing  a  beautiful 
coloured  drawing  of  each  genus,  natural  size,  over  500  plates, 
and  many  thousand  of  coloured  dissections,  and  two  pages  of 
letterpress  to  each  drawing ;  very  scarce,  six  vols,  published  at 
ten  guineas,  will  be  sacrificed  lor  four  guineas  or  exchange. 
— H.  Higginson,  Newferry,  Birkenhead. 

"  Mind-cure  on  a  Material  Basis,"  by  Sarah  Elizabeth  Wood 
(Boston  :  Cupples  &  Co.). — "  Handbook  of  Mosses,"  by  J.  E. 
Bagnall  (London:  Swan  Sonnenschein  &  Co.). — "Rudiments 
of  Chemistry,"  by  Temple  Orme  (same  publishers). — "  History 
of  the  German  Language"  (same  publishers). — "Kafir  Folk- 
Lore"  (same  publishers).— "The  Rainband,"  by  J.  Rand 
Capon  (London:  E.  D.  Stanford). — "Catalogue  of  Palaeozoic 
Plants"  by  Robert  Kidson  (London:  British  Museum). — 
"  British  Petrography,"  part  2,  by  J.  J.  Harris  Teall,  F.G.S. — 
— "The  Scientific  Enquirer."—"  The  Journal  of  Conchology." 
—"The  Illustrated  Science  Monthly."  — "  The  American 
Florist."— "The  American  Monthly  Microscopical  Journal." 
— "  Bulletins  of  the  U.S.  Geological  Survey,"  Nos.  7  to  14. 
— "The  Botanical  Gazette." — "  Cosmos." — "  Science." — "The 
Amateur  Photographer."—"  Ben  Brierley's  Journal." — "  The 
Rochdale  Field  Naturalists'  Journal."— "  Feuille  des  Jeunes 
Naturalistes." — "Notarisia,  Commentarium  Phycologicum." 
—  "The  Garner."  — "The  Naturalist."— "  The  Midland 
Naturalist." — "Journal  of  the  Quekett  Microscopical  Club." — 
"  The  American  Naturalist."     &c.         &c.         &c. 

Communications  received  up  to  the  12TH  ult.  from  : 
G.  C.  E.— F.  C.  F.— S.  J.  McL— H.  G.-W.  A.  T— W.  A.  H. 
-W.  J.  H.— A.  C.  P.— W.  J.  H.-R.  S.  M.-T-  H.-G.  F.  H. 
—Rev.  T.    R.-A.    V.— G.   R.— S.    C.   S.-P.— G.    F.    B.— 

E.  B.  L.   B.— T.  D.  A.  C— F.  W.— VV.   S.  P. -Dr.  J.  F.— 

F.  A.  P.— C.  C.  A.— W.  A.  H.— G.  F.  L.— G.  J— F.  E.— 
M.  D.— I.  G.-C.  C— J.  W.  W.— W.  T.— E.  B.  T.— W.  B.  G. 
-H.  B.  U.— R.  M.-G.  B.— C  M.  V.-W.  K.— M.  A.  H.- 
J.  M.— J.  H.  H.— S.  C.  C— G.  E.  E.— W.  F.— S.  M.  M.— 
j.  w.— \V.  M.  P.-G.  E.  D.— J.  B.-D.  B.-H.  E.— W.  F.  C. 
— H.  R.  H— W.  T.  T.-P.  K.— W.  H.  W.— H.  D.-G.  R.  jun. 
— F.  H.  H.— F.  W.  W.— H.  P.  M.— E.  W.— E.  S.  C— W.  E.  W. 
_F.  H.— W.  H.  K.— A.  K.— J.  D.  M.— F.  G.  F.— Dr.  B.— 
C.  C.  jun.— F.  W.  W.-A.  B.-C.  P.— T.  F.  U.-W.  W.  B.— 
A.  P.— W.  H.  P.— W.  E.  H.— W.  H.— H.  L.  E.— W.  R.— 
W.  S.  H.— W.  O.  J.— I.  A.— P.  P.— J..E.  L.— J.  H.  T.— 
W  -S.  A.— W.  L.  W.  E.— Rev.  I.  H.  K.— H.  H.— &c  &c. 




By    Dr.    P.    Q.    KEEGAN. 

[Concluded fiom J>.  74.] 

HE    beauty    of   ani- 
mal movement  is  es- 
sentially connected 
with  the  suppleness 
of  the  joints.     The 
complete,    well-oil- 
ed flexibility  of  the 
joints  is  absolutely 
essential.     The 
lighter     the    limbs 
are,  the  more  easily 
can  they   be  bent, 
and     their     move- 
ments will  be  more 
graceful  and  beauti- 
ful.      The     move- 
ments of  the  carti- 
laginous fishes — the 
sharks,     dog-fishes, 
etc. — are  perhaps  as 
graceful  as  those  of 
any  animal ;  and  therein  we  see  the  effect  of  power- 
ful muscles  acting  on  a  very  light  and  soft  skeleton, 
abundantly  provided  with  joints  easily  flexible.    Gym- 
nasts  are   fully   aware   of  this  connection   between 
suppleness  and  beauty  of  motion  ;  for  in  order  to  attain 
this  latter  quality  they  practise  what  are  called  free 
exercises,  i.e.  exercises  specially  adapted  to  supple  the 
joints  and  to  extend  their  sphere  or  function.     There 
can  be  no  doubt  that  a  well-formed  and  so  far  beautiful 
limb  is  more  easily  and  gracefully  moved  than  a  fat 
or  ill-shaped  one,  and  in  this  way  some  connection  be- 
tween the  beauty  of  form  and  the  "  poetry  "  of  motion 
may  be  traced  ;  but  the  latter  does  not  depend  so 
immediately  or   indispensably   as   the   former   upon 
symmetrical  growth,  perfect  development,    and   the 
oxygenating  vitality  of  the   organic  fluids.     Never- 
theless,  we  believe   that  there  is    scope    here    for 
superiority  or  prevalence  of  intellect.     Many  move- 
ments considered  to  be  beautiful  are  so  through  the 
operation  of  the  association  of  ideas,  i.e.,  because  we 
discern  therein  indications  of  practical  ability,  or  some 
No.  257.— May  1886. 

sort  of  taste  for  neatness  of  execution  and  finish,  etc.  ; 
and  in  this  sense  it  seems  to  be  true,  that  the  beauty 
of  movement  is  connected  (as  aforesaid)  with  forces 
strictly  mental.  Many  of  man's  movements  (as  in 
stage-acting,  for  instance)  are,  as  it  were,  artificial, 
and  performed  with  consciousness  and  attention  either 
to  itself,  or  to  the  end  thereby  sought  to  be  attained. 
This  sensitive,  conscious  attention  is  so  far  dis- 
tracting, and  induces  a  more  or  less  awkward  and 
ungainly  result.  The  motions  of  the  lower  animals, 
on  the  other  hand,  are,  we  believe,  almost  invariably 
performed  spontaneously  or  impulsively,  and  of 
course  easily,  gracefully,  naturally,  and  without  a 
particle  of  oddity. 

Finally,  the  beauty  of  animal   expression  remains 
to  be  considered.     This  is  connected  with  the  highest" 
powers  of  intelligence  and  with  the  more  elevated 
and  spiritual  of  the  emotions,  and  for  this  reason  it 
is  eminently,  if  not  exclusively,  characteristic  of  man. 
In   fact,   as   pointed  out   by  Sir  C.   Bell,  there  are 
certain  muscles  in  the  human  face  which  subserve  no 
other  purpose  than  that  of  expression.     Among  the 
lower  animals  the  more  sensual  or  organic  passions 
(such  as  rage,  terror,  hatred,  jealousy)  are  expressed 
with  extraordinary  intensity  and  ferocity,  not  merely 
by  the  face  but  by  the  whole  body  ;  and  the  counter- 
parts  or  opposites  of  these   passions  (viz.  joy,   con- 
fidence, affection,  etc.)  seem  to  be  expressed  not  so 
much  positively  as   (as  it  were)  negatively.      There 
is,  however,  little  beauty,  strictly  speaking,  in  these 
outward  manifestations  of  animal  emotion.     Indeed, 
it  is  doubtful  if  any  sort  of  expression  ought  to  be 
called  "beautiful."      It  is  only  where,  as  in  man,  a 
frequent  repetition  of  certain  kinds  of  emotions  or  of 
certain  mental  states  has  stamped  certain  expressions 
(such   as   benevolence,    refinement,   fire,  gentleness, 
etc.)  upon  the  countenance,  that  we  find  a  picture 
sufficiently  keen  and  perceptible  to   warrant  a  high 
aesthetic    interest.      Among    brutes    we    find    Utile 
of   this  permanent    expressiveness   of  countenance. 
Observe   a   group  of  monkeys   or  of  bears,    tigers, 
elephants,  etc.,  and  you  will  opine  that  their  counte- 




nances  when  in  repose  wear  a  very  similar  expression. 
No  doubt  we  often  say  of  a  certain  creature  that  he 
is  very  cunning-looking,  lazy-looking,  etc.,  but  this 
sort  of  expression  will  be  found  to  be  very  limited. 
In  any  case,  this  particular  form  of  animal  beauty  is 
occasioned  by  a  perpetual  tincture  of  mental  force 
permeating  as  it  were  the  stream  of  electric  or  vital 
energy  flowing  from  within  towards  the  countenance 
and  the  other  more  impressionable  parts  of  the 
frame  ;  and  in  man  it  will  be  found  that  it  is  those 
mental  states  that  are  most  characteristically  human, 
elated  rather  than  depressed,  and  lively  within  certain 
limits,  whose  external  manifestations  can  strictly  be 
denominated  beautiful. 


Part  III. 
Terrestrial  Gasteropoda  (continued). 

[Continued  from  p.  226.] 

T  TEL1XPOMA  TIA.— From  the  neighbourhood 
J.  JL  of  Caterham  I  have  some  spirally  grooved 
specimens,  such  as  may  be  seen  in  the  British  Museum, 
and  also  an  unusually  conical  one.  Mr.  J.  W.  Wil- 
liams has  found  a  specimen  near  Dorking  which  is 
probably  identical  with  Jeffreys'  variety  albida.  The 
specimen,  which  was  alive,  was  of  a  very  pale- 
yellowish  or  straw-colour,  except  where  the  epidermis 
had  been  destroyed,  where  it  was  pure  white,  the 
colour  being  due  to  the  epidermis  only.  The  lip  of 
the  shell  was  white.  Many  varieties  of  this  species 
have  been  found  abroad  ;  the  following  are  not  un- 
likely to  turn  up  in  England  : — 

Var.  quinqnefasciata,  Moq. — Yellowish,  with  five 
continuous  bands  ;  var.  brnnnea,  Moq.,  brown,  with 
the  bands  scarcely  visible  ;  var.  unicolor,  Westerlund, 
unicolorous,  bandless  ;  var.  parva,  Moq.,  very  small ; 
monst.  sinistrorsum,  Born,  spire  sinistral  ;  and 
monst.  scalare,  Chem.  (scalariforme)  whorls  partly 

Helix  aspersa. — I  have  found  the  variety  zonata 
near  Otford,  and  at  Chislehurst  a  small  variety,  a 
variety  approaching  undulata,  and  a  dark  form  allied 
to  var.  nigrescens.  A  conical  variety  also  occurs  at 
Chislehurst  (L.  M.  C),  and  a  monstrosity  deeply 
grooved  at  the  suture  (S.  C.  C). 

There  is  also  a  variety,  which  might  be  called 
semi-fusca,  having  the  band-fornnula  (123)45,  all  the 
space  between  the  suture  and  the  situation  at  the 
lower  edge  of  the  third  band  being  chocolate-brown. 

Var.  exalbida. — I  have  found  this  variety  plentiful 
but  local  at  Dartford,  and  at  Warlingham.  Chisle- 
hurst (L.  M.  C.  and  S.  C.  C),  Dorking  (Ashford). 
Both  at  Warlingham  and  at  Dartford  the  specimens 
were  amongst  Clematis  vitalba,  and  at  first  sight  it 
might  seem  that  the  white  colour  of  the  shells  served 
to  protect  them  on  account  of  their  resemblance  to  the 

white  Clematis  flowers,  and  had  been  assumed  for  this 
reason ;  but  against  this  view  there  are  three  facts  : 

(1)  That  a  number  of  broken  exalbida  shells 
were  found  under  the  Clematis  bushes  at  Warlingham  ; 

(2)  that  the  type  form  was  also  present ;  (3)  and 
that  my  brothers  found  var.  exalbida  on  Pteris  in  a 
locality  some  little  distance  from  any  Clematis. 

I  cannot  help  thinking  that  it  would  save  a  lot  of 
trouble  if  all  white  or  albino  forms  were  called 
simply  var.  alba,  instead  of  one  being  exalbida, 
another  albida,  another  albinos,  or  albina,  and  so  on  ; 
and  in  the  same  way  other  sets  of  varieties,  so  to 
speak,  might  be  named.  The  following  occur  to  me 
at  the  moment — var.  major,  shell  one-third  larger 
than  type,  and  var.  minor,  one-third  smaller,  var.  or 
monst.  scalariforme,  whorls  separated,  or  suture  near 
mouth  of  shell,  forming  a  specified  angle,  var. 
fasciata,  having  one  or  more  bands  abnormally 
developed,  as  mentioned  above,  in  connection  with 
Limna:a.  In  this  connection  I  may  mention  three 
interesting  cases  of  abnormal  banding,  in  which 
there  was  banding  (when  I  say  banding  in  these 
cases,  I  mean  whitish  and  generally  linear  bands, 
possibly  due  to  disease)  above  the  periphery  as  well 
as  below.  The  first  is  in  a  specimen  of  L.  peregra 
var.  Burnetti,  from  Loch  Skene,  in  Mr.  Ponsonby's 
collection;  the  second  is  an  example  of  L.  glutiiiosa, 
from  Reading,  collected  by  Mr.  W.  Holland,  in  my 
brother's  collection,  which,  should  these  bands  be 
homologous  with  the  normal  banding  of  Helices, 
would  have  a  formula  12(345),  anc^  tne  third  is 
Limncea  Langsdorffi,  of  which  there  are  specimens  in 
the  British  Museum. 

With  regard  to  albino  varieties  (which,  it  must  be 
remembered,  are  merely  varieties  of  the  shell— the 
animal  is  normal),  it  would  be  interesting  to  learn 
whether  they  are  equally  abundant  in  ail  countries, 
or  whether  some  districts  are  free  from  them,  and 
whether  there  are  any  large  classes  of  mollusca  in 
which  they  never  occur. 

According  to  J.  B.  Dietz,  the  albino  variety  of 
Helix  hortensis  is  more  common  in  wet  years,  and 
specimens  with  coloured  bands  have  the  growth  of 
the  last  wet  year  not  coloured.  But  I  certainly  think 
this  needs  confirmation. 

It  is  extremely  interesting  to  note  how  a  character, 
which  arose  as  a  pathological  phenomenon,  may,  by 
transmission,  become  the  character  of  a  species,  of  a 
genus,  of  a  class,  and  how  what  is  pathological  and 
abnormal  in  one  form  is  normal  in  another ;  thus,  in 
the  genus  Hyalina : 

(1.)  cellar ia  has  the  albino  form  very  rare,  and 

quite  abnormal  ; 
(2.)  piira  has  it  as  common  as  the  type  ;  and 
(3.)  crystallina  is  always  albino. 

Again,  in  Litnntea,  Bythinia,  etc.,  decollation  is 
clearly  abnormal  ;  but  in  Bulimus  decollatus  and 
some  other  species,  it  is  strictly  normal. 





By  J.  W.  Williams,  D.Sc,  &c. 

{Continued  from  p.  55.] 

/I  MA  LI  A  G  AGATES,  Drap— This,  one  of  the 
■^J-  most  local  of  British  slugs,  is  found  over  the 
greater  portion  of  Europe,  existing  in  France,  Cor- 
sica, Italy,  Spain,  Portugal,  Algeria,  the  Canary 
Isles,  Madeira,  the  Azores,  and  in  St.  Helena.  The 
following  varieties  are  known  : — 

Var.  olivacca  *,  Moq.  :  animal  deep  grey  olive- 
coloured.  My  sister  has  sent  me  this  variety  from 
Stourport  in  Worcestershire,  where  Amalia  gagates 
seem  to  be  abundant.  Moquin-Tandon  found  it  at 
Tolouse,  and  Lessona  and  Pollonera  in  their  mono- 
graph describe  it  as  Italian,  and  coming  from  Nice. 

Var.  plumbeus*,  Moq.  :  animal  blackish-grey,  more 
or  less  lead-coloured.  D'Orbigny  found  this  variety 
at  Toulouse,  and  it  has  been  recorded  from  several 
British  localities. 

Var.  rava  *,  Williams :  animal  drab-coloured, 
slightly  fuscous,  with  the  mantle  of  a  lighter  colour 
than  the  back.  My  sister  sent  me  this  new  variety 
from  Stourport. 

Var.  bcdriaga:,  Lessona  and  Pollonera  :  animal  black 
with  lateral  blackish  bands  on  the  sole.  Bedriaga 
records  this  variety  from  Niee,  and  Falchi  from  Sar- 
dinia.    Italian. 

Var.  Bcnoiti,  Lessona  and  Pollonera  :  animal  black, 
keel  white.    Italian.    Lessona  found  this  at  Messina. 

Amalia  gagates  has  been  found  in  France  at  the 
following  localities :  Vendee  (Letourneaux),  Cha- 
rente-Inferieure,  Gers  (Mabille),  Haute-Loire  (Pascal), 
Isere  (Gras),  Haute-Garonne  (Fagot),  Maritime  Alps 
(Neville),  Herault  (Dubreuil),  Agenais,  Gironde 
(Gassies),  Vosges  (Puton),,  Rhone  (Locard),  Basses- 
Pyrenees  (Mabille),  Bretagne  (Desmers),  Le  Nord 
(Norguet),  Loire-Inferieure  (Caillaud),  and  by  Massot 
in  the  Oriental  Pyrenees. 

Amalia  marginata,  Mull. — This  species  is  also 
generally  distributed.  According  to  the  French 
literature  on  this  slug,  Bourguignat  took  it  from 
Grande-Chartreuse,  Isere,  and  the  Savoy ;  Mabille 
and  Drouet  from  Vienna,  Gers,  Moselle,  Cote-d'Or ; 
Dubreuil  from  Herault ;  Fagot  from  Haute-Garonne  ; 
Ray  and  Drouet  from  Champagne ;  Pascal  from 
Auvergne  ;  Massat  from  the  Oriental  Pyrenees  ;  and 
Locard  from  Ain.  According  to  Lessona  the  type- 
form  is  common  enough  in  Italy.  The  varieties 
are  : — 

Var.  rufula  *,  Moq.  :  animal  yellowish-red.  French. 
Moquin-Tandon  found  this  variety  at  Crouzet  Roque- 
fort, and  Sarrat. 

Var.  rustica  *,  Millet  :  animal  greyish,  mantle 
reddish,  with  a  longitudinal  black  band  on  each  side  ; 
shield  whitish(  =  L.  rusticus,  Mill.).  Millet  records 
this  from  the  north  of  Anjou,  Bouillet  and  Thorigne 

and  Lessona  from  the  valleys  of  the  Lombardian  and 
Piedmontese  Alps. 

Limax  flavus,  Linn. — This  is  another  generally 
distributed  species.  It  is  said  to  have  become  accli- 
matised in  America,  where  it  occurs  near  Portland, 
Maine.  Two  new  varieties  have  been  described  by 
Roebuck  as  indigenous  to  Britain. 

Var.  grisea  *,  Roebuck  :  like  the^  type,  except  that 
the  ground  colour  is  grey,  instead  of  yellow. 

Var.  suffusa  *,  Roebuck  :  grey,  unicolor. 

Nzx.flavesccns,  Fer.  :  animal  yellowish,  indistinctly 
spotted.  This  has  been  found  by  Lessona  and  Pol- 
lonera in  Liguria,  Tuscany,  Sardinia,  and  Sicily. 

Var.  rufescens,  Moq.  :  animal  reddish,  spots  very 
indistinct.  Found  in  France  and  all  over  Italy.  Not 
yet  described  as  British. 

Var.  maculata,  Moq.  :  animal  brown,  with  black 
spots.    French.    Pini  found  it  at  Esino  in  Lombardy. 

Var.  viresccns*,  Fer.  :  animal  greenish,  spots  in- 
distinct.    French.     Found  in  Liguria  by  Lessona. 

Var.  tigrina,  Pini  :  Lessona  and  Pollonera  describe 
this  variety  as  "  flavo-rufescens,  nigro-variegatus ; 
clypeo  postice  ample  nigro-maculato ;  medio  dorsi 
lineam  flavo-rufescentem  longitudinaliter  ferentes, 
carinam  connectentem."  Found  by  its  discoverer  at 
Esino  in  Lombardy. 

Var.  colubrina*,  Pini:  "flavus,  clypeo  dorsoque 
late  ac  irregulariter  nigro-maculato  ;  interstitiis  flavis 
maculas  nigras  requantibus."    Pini  found  this  at  Esino. 

(To  be  continued,') 

By  W.  H.  Harris. 


THIS  fly  may  be  taken  occasionally  in  our  houses, 
where  it  sometimes  puts  in  an  appearance 
along  with  the  ordinary  house-fly,  but  when  it  does 
so  it  is  generally  looked  upon  as  being  indicative  of 
rainy  weather  setting  in  at  a  not  very  remote  period  ; 
its  natural  habitat,  however,  is  out  of  doors,  and  it 
may  be  taken  in  various  situations. 

It  is  a  common  but  rather  pretty  species,  subject  to 
vary  in  appearance  very  considerably  ;  it  is  known 
by  its  spotted  appearance,  but  not  infrequently  these 
marks  are  found  to  coalesce  to  such  a  degree  as  to 
very  materially  alter  the  design  on  the  thorax  and 
abdomen.  "  Two  of  the  varieties  thus  produced  have 
been  exalted  by  Rondani  into  distinct  species,  but 
they  possess  no  real  specific  distinctions  "  (Meade, 
"  Entomologist's     Monthly     Magazine,"     vol.    xix. 

P-  32). 

The  general  character  of  the  genus  to  which  this 
fly  belongs  is  given  by  the  same  authority  as  follows : 
"  Eyes  bare,  contiguous  or  sub-contiguous  in  the 

F  2 



males ;  arista  pubescent  or  bare  ;  forehead  and  face 
slightly  prominent  ;  epistome  often  projecting  ;  abdo- 
men  ovoid    or   oblong   and   depressed,    often    much 

Fig.  61. — Anthotnyia  plnvialis  (mag.). 

thickened  at  the  apex  in  the  males ;  alulets  rather 
small,  but  with  the  scales  unequal  in  size  ;  wings 
with  the  third  and  fourth  longitudinal  veins  parallel 

in  number  and  arrangement,  and,  in  a  lesser  degree, 
in  form  also.  They  are  generally  larger  in  proportion 
to  the  size  of  the  lobes  than  in  Musca  domestica  ;  the 
basal  portions  of  the  teeth  are  broader  ;  the  serrated 
free  ends  present  a  more  uniform  appearance,  and  the 
lateral  portions  of  each  tooth  are  more  prolonged 
above  the  central  parts.  Notwithstanding  the  increase 
of  size,  they  appear  to  be  very  delicate  in  structure, 
being  almost  colourless  ;  they  require  very  careful 
preparation  and  much  enlargement  to  make  them 
out  very  distinctly.  When  these  conditions  are 
obtained,  a.  very  pretty  set  of  organs  is  displayed. 
The  following  formula  describes  the  groups,  viz. 
1,1,2,3,3,2,1,  or  thirteen  in  each  lobe;  the  two 
single  teeth  occupy  the  posterior,  the  other  single 
the  anterior  position  in  the  mouth.  The  first  of  the 
former  is  of  the  blow-fly  type,  all  the  others  being 
deeply  serrated  and  quite  different  in  appearance. 

Although  quoting  the  above  as  being  representative 
of  this  species,  the  preparation  of  a  number  of  objects 
for  verification  revealed  the  fact,  that  the  above 
number  —  though  most  frequently  occurring  —  was 
not  constant,    some   specimens   ranging   as   high   as 

Fig.  62. — Teeth  of  AntJiomyia  pluvialis. 

or  slightly  convergent  at  their  extremities  ;  anal  vein 

prolonged  to'the  margin  ;  legs  always  black  or  grey." 

The   organs  of  dentition,   although  bearing  some 

resemblance  to  those  of  the  house-fly,  differ  altogether 

four  distinct  rows  in  two  of  the  central  members  of 
the  group.  Can  there  be  any  connection  between 
this  and  Rondani's  "  distinct  species  "  before  referred 
to  ?     If  any  reader  of  these  notes  who  has  a  thorough 



acquaintance  with  the  two  species,  and  is  sufficiently 
interested,  will  kindly  forward  the  writer  a  few 
specimens  of  both,  an  elucidation  of  this  question 
may  follow.  Specimens  so  sent  should  be  placed  in 
a  small  tube  containing  dilute  glycerine,  otherwise 
they  will  be  useless  for  the  purpose  they  would 
have  to  serve. 


No.  V. 

The  Dandelion  (Leoniodon  taraxacum). 

By  E.  A.  Swan,  B.A. 

IN  selecting  this  subject  for  the  present  essay,  I  had 
considerable  doubts  whether  it  was  possible  for 
me  to  introduce  anything  interesting  or  novel  in 
reference  to  it.  So  much  has  been  written  and  said 
about  all  our  common  plants  that  it  is  exceedingly 
difficult,  in  writing  about  any  particular  one,  to  throw 
any  fresh  light  on  its  structure  and  development. 
Take  the  plant  now  before  us.     What  botanist  is  not 

Fig.  63.        Fig.  64.        Fig.  63. 

Fig.  66. 

Fig.  67. 

familiar  with  it  ?  And  yet  I  venture  to  hope  that  my 
observations  may  prove  not  altogether  uninstructive, 
though  they  deal  with  a  well-worn  theme.  If,  too, 
any  of  my  deductions  are  inaccurate,  I  have  no  doubt 
that  some  good  friend  will  quickly  set  me  right. 

Everybody  is  aware  of  the  persistence  of  the 
dandelion  in  thrusting  itself  on  their  notice.  Its 
extraordinary  vitality  cannot  but  be  an  object  of 
wonder.  Its  long  tapering  root,  going  down  deep 
into  the  earth,  is  simple  enough  ;  but  it  has  in  itself 
the  power  of  renewing  the  plant  above  ground,  how- 
ever frequently  that  may  be  cut  off.  Over  and  over 
again  the  experiment  can  be  tried  with  the  same 
result ;  so  much  so  that  I  am  not  surprised  at  the 
ancients  believing,  in  their  ingenuous  mode  of 
reasoning,  that  a  plant  which  was  so  difficult  to  kill 
would  tend  to  give  health  and  strength  to  those  who 
took  it  as  medicine. 

If  the  bright  yellow  flower-head  be  dissected,  it 
will  be  seen  how  excellent  are  all  its  adaptations  ;  and 
I  have  no  hesitation  in  saying  that  any  one  who  would 
take  the  time  and  trouble  to  make  it  a  special  study 
would  find  himself  well  repaid  at  the  conclusion  of 
his  labours.  There  are  two  or  more  whorls  of  bracts, 
some  of  the  outermost  ones  assuming  the  shapes 
depicted  in  Figs.  63,  64,  and  65  (evidencing  that  they 
are  modified  leaves),  while  all  the  rest  are  ligulate. 
Next   comes  a  whorl  of  perfect   florets,  each   petal 

constituting  the  corolla  being  ligulate,  and  having  on 
the  outside  a  wide  green  band  extending  the  entire 
length,  which  appears,  though  narrower,  in  the 
individual  members  of  the  next  whorl,  and  also, 
though  narrower  still,  in  the  next,  showing,  as  far  as 
colour  can  be  any  index,  the  gradual  conversion  of  a 
bract  into  a  corolla.  Then  we  have  whorl  after  whorl 
of  florets  packed  together  with  marvellous  closeness. 
But  to  particularise  :  each  floret  is  a  perfect  flower ; 
corolla  five-lobed,  joined  in  a  tube  at  the  lower  part, 
standing  on  a  rudimentary  calyx,  from  which  spring 
fine  hairs  ;  below  the  calyx,  the  stalk  surmounting  the 
achene ;  then  the  stamens,  joined  in  a  tube  and  five- 
lobed,  the  filaments  below  being  affixed  to  the  corolla  ; 
inside  the  stamens  the  pistil,  which  is  bifid,  and  has, 
too,  a  third  of  its  upper  part  covered  with  spines 
directed  upwards.  Within  the  cleft  there  are  minute 
projections,  but  I  do  not  know  their  purpose.  Fig.  66 
is  a  representation  of  a  complete  floret,  somewhat 
larger  than  the  natural  size  ;  it  will  be  noticed  by  this 
how  minute  all  the  parts  are.     Fig.  68  represents  the 

Fig.  68. 

upper  and  lower  parts  of  the  stamens  and  filaments 
laid  open  and  enlarged,  so  as  to  show  more  clearly 
the  construction.  Observe  how  they  are  formed,  and 
the  angular  pieces  below.  At  first  the  corolla  of  each 
floret  is  closed,  presenting  a  slightly  curved  tube,  as 
in  Fig.  67.  It  then  opens  gradually.  The  order  of 
opening  is,  first  the  outermost  whorl,  then  the  next, 
and  so  on.  Fertilisation  is  effected  by  means  of 
insect  agency,  and  the  method  adopted  for  securing  a 
cross  is  interesting.  Reiterating  the  fact  of  the 
minuteness  of  the  stamens,  forming  as  they  do  a  tube 
barely  as  thick  as  a  fine  needle,  and  stating  that 
the  pistil  fits  that  tube  tightly,  it  is  quite  clear  that 
there  would  be  little  chance  of  fertilisation  in  the 
way  mentioned  unless  some  contrivance  existed  for 
furthering  that  desirable  end.  Hence,  we  find  the 
advantage  of  the   spined   pistil,  the  spines,  as   the 



pistil  grows  upwards  and  comes  to  light,  positively 
dragging  with  them  the  pollen  from  the  stamen  tube, 
and  making  it  available  for  the  various  visitors  to  the 
flower.  Add  to  this,  that  the  pistils  do  not  open  for 
some  little  time  after  appearing,  and  we  can  see  how 
the  chances  of  a  cross  are  favoured. 

And  what  is  the  purpose  of  the  angular  pieces 
referred  to  ?  With  some  diffidence  I  venture  the 
opinion  that  it  is  for  ventilation  of  the  stamen  tube, 
which,  owing  to  its  size,  could  not  be  effected  without 
some  mechanical  aid,  it  being  impossible  to  create  a 
current  through  so  small  a  space  without  a  special 
contrivance.  The  method  is  this  :  an  insect,  in 
seeking  nectar,  necessarily  thrusts  its  proboscis 
against  an  angular  piece  and  presses  it  inwards, 
thus  causing  a  slight  displacement  of  air  in  the  tube, 
and  this,  oft  repeated,  would  be  sufficient  to  carry  out 
the  end  in  view.  But  it  may  be  urged  that  I  ought 
first  to  prove  that  ventilation  is  necessary  before 
showing  how  it  is  effected.  This,  however,  I  cannot 
do.  I  can  only  surmise  that  it  would  be  advantageous 
to  the  pollen  to  have  a  constant  supply  of  fresh  air  to 
keep  it  vigorous.  The  angular  pieces,  it  is  reasonable 
to  suppose,  like  any  other  part  of  the  flower,  whether 
rudimentary  or  otherwise,  subserve  some  useful 
purpose ;  but  I  am  not  in  the  position  to  advance 
conclusive  evidence  for  any  specific  purpose.  It  is 
true  that  a  part,  in  transition  or  otherwise,  may  be, 
as  far  as  we  can  ever  learn,  absolutely  useless  except 
for  enforcing  a  lesson  in  evolution  ;  but  I  do  not 
think  we  can  look  upon  these  angular  pieces  only  in 
this  way,  and  I  believe  they  are  of  actual  service. 
Take  another  instance,  the  rudimentary  calyx :  the 
feathery  pappus  ultimately  aids  the  seed,  by  means  of 
the  wind,  to  find  pastures  new.  When  the  seed 
settles,  as  it  not  infrequently  does,  on  grass,  the 
spines  on  the  hairs  and  the  spines  on  the  achene, 
pointing  upward,  act  as  resisters  to  the  seed  being 
washed  up  above  the  surface  of  the  earth  when  it 
has  once  been  washed  down  by  the  rain  through  the 
grass.  Otherwise  the  whole  apparatus  is  so  light  that 
it  would  hardly  find  its  way  through  close  grass  to 
the  soil,  and,  when  there,  would  stand  less  chance  of 
becoming  fixed.  With  few  exceptions,  it  is  generally 
found  that  any  part,  however  useless  it  may  at  first 
sight  appear,  is  indispensable  to  the  plant. 

224  Cambenvcll  Neiv  Road,  London. 

By  W.  Finch,  jun. 

WITH  the  "  merry  month  of  May,"  the  lepidop- 
terist's  work  begins  to  be  almost  more  than 
he  can  manage  ;  indeed  he  must  needs  be  energetic  if 
he  means  to  grapple  successfully  with  the  constantly 
increasing  insect  life  around  him. 

Let  him  not  merely  satisfy  himself  by   making  a 
collection    and    amassing    specimens,    but   let    him 

study,  and  study  patiently,  intently  and  well.  He 
will  then  at  the  end  of  the  year  be  in  the  possession 
of  a  collection  of  notes  and  a  mass  of  information 
such  as  will  be  both  useful  to  further  studies  and 
beneficial  to  heart  and  mind.  Day  by  day  new  and 
startling  wonders  will  be  unfolded  to  his  gaze,  and  I 
trust  he  will  not  allow  them  to  slip  unheeded  by. 
Here  in  these  humble,  tiny  forms  of  life  he  will  find 
much  for  serious  study  and  meditation  ;  for  in  the 
tiniest  and  apparently  most  insignificant  objects  he 
will  find  strong  proof  and  forcible  evidence  of  the 
love,  care,  and  wisdom  of  an  omnipotent  God. 

Let  us  see  then  what  we  have  before  us  to  get 
through,  and  then  to  work  with  a  will.  What  was 
said  last  month  concerning  ova  applies  equally  to 
this.  My  readers  should  bear  in  mind  that  the 
rearing  of  insects  from  the  egg  or  from  the  early 
larval  stages  is  far  more  conducive  to  perfect 
specimens  and  the  acquisition  of  valuable  knowledge 
than  any  other  method.  Besides,  there  is  much  to 
be  discovered  by  this  means  and  in  this  direction. 
Many  larvae  there  are  of  which  we  cannot  be  certain 
as  to  their  proper  natural  food-plant ;  therefore  every 
student  in  this  branch  should  make  it  his  duty  to  take 
copious  notes  of  what  he  sees  around  him,  jotting 
down  from  time  to  time  full  particulars  of  food- 
plants,  habits,  appearances,  and  any  interesting  or 
striking  characteristics  that  occur  to  him  ;  no  matter 
how  trivial  they  may  seem,  put  them  down. 

With  regard  to  larvae,  much  is  to  be  done  this 
month.  Beating  may  now  be  resorted  to,  for  the 
trees  have  by  this  acquired  considerable  foliage. 
Hybernated  larvae  will  be  now  about  full  fed,  and 
will  be  eagerly  sought  after,  as  giving  comparatively 
little  trouble,  soon  turning  into  fine  healthy  pupoe. 
Many  small  larvae  produced  from  eggs  laid  late  in 
the  spring  will  also  be  found,  but  should  not  be 
despised,  for  they  are  as  a  rule  free  from  those 
parasites  to  which  they  are  more  liable  later  on. 
Cannibal  larvae  must  be  carefully  sought  out  and 
isolated,  or  they  will  most  assuredly  devour  their 
brethren.  The  worst  of  them  is  C.  trapezina,  but 
there  are  others,  as  P.  cassinea,  C.  spartiata,  S.  satcl- 
litia,  which  are  quite  as  bad.  Grass-feeding  larvae  are 
now  very  plentiful.  The  lantern  must  still  be  used 
for  night  searching.  There  are  no  reliable  methods 
of  attracting  larvae  to  us  as  we  do  moths,  so  we  must 
perforce  go  after  them.  Some  collectors  however 
recommend  lettuce-leaves  as  a  bait,  scattered  about 
on  the  ground  some  time  before  collecting. 

The  essential  points  in  successful  larvae  breeding 
are  quiet,  plenty  of  room,  fresh  air  and  cleanliness. 
Therefore  let  your  cages  be  roomy  and  well-venti- 
lated. [With  our  Editor's  kind  permission,  I  will 
write  a  practical  article  before  long  on  the  "  Con- 
struction of  Larvae  Breeding  Cages."]  Never  allow 
your  larvae  to  run  short  of  food,  and  above  all  feed 
from  the  same  plants  or  trees  throughout  ;  do  not 
change  about  from   one  tree   to  another :  once   you 



have  fed  larvae  from  a  certain  tree,  continue  from 
the  same.  The  practice  of  changing  about  the  food  of 
larvae  is,  I  believe,  together  with  wet,  the  source 
to  which  most  failures  in  breeding  may  be  traced. 
Caterpillars  invariably  thrive  best  on  dry  and  well- 
matured  foliage.  Not  much  pupee-hunting  will  be 
done,  there  is  too  much  other  and  more  important 
work  on  hand.  But  still  on  cold,  windy  days,  one 
may  fill  up  one's  time  by  examining  grass-roots, 
etc.,  for  on  such  days  other  work  will  be  almost  im- 

I  must  not  however  forget  to  mention  the 
Tortrices,  a  great  mass  of  species  of  which  are  now 
in  the  larvae  state  ;  rose  and  lilac,  plum  and  pear  and 
other  trees  will  be  swarming  with  them.  These 
larvae  are  best  gathered  into  muslin  bags,  in  which 
they  may  be  kept  in  a  cool  place  until  the  imagos 
emerge ;  kept  thus  they  require  but  little  attention. 
As  the  food  gets  dry,  fresh  may  be  thrust  into  the  bag 
without  the  trouble  of  removing  the  old. 

Searching  for  imagos  should  be  most  assiduously 
carried  on  this  month,  although  we  must  expect  east 
winds  and  cold  nights.  If  due  diligence  be  used, 
however,  there  will  be  a  fairly  good  list  of  captures. 
It  is  often  up-hill  work,  though,  looking  for  insects 
of  note,  owing  to  the  prevalence  of  east  winds.  But 
still,  "  patience  is  a  virtue,"  and  no  one  has  better 
opportunity  of  proving  it  than  the  lepidopterist  in 
May.  We  have  a  variety  of  methods  for  taking 
insects  this  month.  "Treacle"  will  not  be  much 
use,  indeed  it  had  better  be  abandoned  altogether  for 
a  time.  "  Light "  will  prove  useful ;  have  an  eye 
therefore  to  the  street  lamps,  and  even  shop  windows 
in  country  places.  Palings  and  tree-trunks  may  now 
be  resorted  to,  and  will  be  found  profitable.  With 
regard  to  the  former,  painted  fences  are  of  no  use, 
although  the  moths  do  not  at  all  mind  tar.  It  is  of 
no  use  to  examine  palings  after  the  sun  has  shone  on 
them  long,  so  the  collector  must  be  up  and  at  it 
betimes  ;  C.  chamomillce  may  thus  be  taken.  The 
above  is  also  applicable  to  tree-trunks,  although  here 
the  moths  will  often  shift  around  the  tree  as  the  sun 
approaches  them.  Bushes  and  shrubs  when  beaten 
will  surprise  the  collector  by  the  numbers  of  insects 
they  had  concealed,  and  which  will  turn  out  and  take 
to  flight.  Moths  may  be  driven  out  ef  grass  and 
moss  by  means  of  tobacco-smoke.  The  yew-tree  is 
noted  for  harbouring  moths,  and  may  be  beaten  with 

Look  out  for  clearwing  moths  on  leaves,  especially 
those  of  the  currant ;  they  are  fond  of  basking  in 
the  sunshine.  M>  fuciformis  and  bombyliformis,  in 
meadows  near  woods,  are  very  partial  to  the  flowers 
of  the  common  bugle  (Ajuga  reptans).  Among  broom 
C.  obliquaria  may  be  found.  Fine  sport  and  much 
enjoyment  may  be  derived  from  "sembling"  this 
month,  notably  with  E.  versicolora,  S.  carpini,  B. 
quercus  and  others.  We  shall  begin  work  with  the 
net  now,  too.     It   is  in   this   month  that  we   may 

enjoy  the  sight  of  those  exquisite  little  creatures  the 
orange-tips  (A.  cardamines).  In  the  woods  too  we 
may  find  A.  euphrosyne  and  L.  sinapis.  Avoid 
windy  days  for  butterfly-hunting.  If  there  be  a 
hedge,  always  keep  to  leeward  of  it,  and  if  sun  and 
wind  be  opposite  so  much  the  better.  In  conclusion, 
let  me  say  that  I  shall  always  be  glad  to  give  any 
further  information  to  readers  of  this  paper  on 

158  Arkwright  Street,  Nottingham. 


EVERY  reader  probably  knows  that  in  old  times 
a  belief  was  very  prevalent  amongst  farmers 
and  agricultural  labourers,  that  barberry-bushes  in  a 
hedge  were  capable  of  causing  the  red  rust  and  black 
mildew  of  corn.     The  barberry    was  not  invariably 
selected  as  the  cause  of  the  mischief;  sometimes  it 
was  the  whitethorn,  at  other  times  the  blackthorn, 
or  even  the  buckthorn.     At  first  no  good  observers 
believed  the  rustics,  but  at  length  it  was  pointed  out 
that  barberry-bushes  were  commonly  afflicted  with 
an  orange-coloured  fungus  resembling  (to  the  unaided 
eye)  the  rust  fungus  of  corn.     Because  these  fungi 
appeared  to  be  somewhat  alike,  it  was  surmised  they 
might  be  the  same  with  each  other  ;  and  because  it 
was  allowed  they  might  possibly  be  the  same  it  was 
decided   they   were   the  same,  or,  if  different,  only 
different  forms  of  the  same  fungus.     Primitive  "ex- 
periments "  were  soon  initiated  by  placing  spores  of 
the  barberry  blight  fungus  on  to  the  leaves  of  corn 
and  spores  of  the  corn  mildew  fungus  on  to  barberry 
leaves  :  the  experimenters  wished  to  prove  that  the 
two  fungi  were  really  the  same  with  each  other,  and 
of  course  they  (as  they  thought)  succeeded.     What 
they  could  not  see,  and  what  no  one  has  ever  yet 
seen,  viz.  an  anatomical   connection  of  one   fungus 
with  the  other,  they  imagined.     Very  little  attention 
was  paid  to  these  primitive  and  (as  they  were  per- 
formed)   ridiculous   experiments   until   Professor   de 
Bary,  of  Strassburg,  repeated  them  in  his  laboratory, 
and  gave  his  adhesion  to  the  idea  of  the  identity  of 
the   two   fungi.     After    Professor  de   Bary  had  ex- 
pressed   his   opinion   very   little   more   was    said   or 
done,  and  the  majority  of  botanists  on  the  Continent 
accepted   and   taught  as   truth    Professor  de  Bary's 
views.    Those  views  have  never  been  entirely  accepted 
in   this    country,    although   they   have  been   loudly 
taught   in   the    schools   and   extensively   printed   in 

I  have  strongly  objected  to  the  supposititious  con- 
nection of  the  two  fungi,  for  the  following  reason  (one 
amongst  many  others).  It  is,  that  corn  is  so  seldom 
free  from  red  rust,  and  barberry-bushes  are  so  seldom 
free  from  the  fungus  of  barberry  blight,  that  there  is 
never  any  certainty  that  both  corn  and  barberry- 
bush  do  not  possess  traces  of  the  disease  before  the 



experiments  are  concerned.  If  apparently  healthy 
leaves  of  corn  are  taken,  and  apparently  healthy  leaves 
of  barberry,  and  these  leaves  are  microscopically 
examined,  fungus  mycelium  will  be  commonly  found 

Fig.  (tg.— CEcidium  berbcridis. 


Fig.  70.— CEcidium-spore,  producing  b  ;  a,  Uredo-spore  : 
ideal  plan. 

inside  the  leaves.  Neither  is  the  mycelium  confined 
to  the  leaves,  for  it  invades  the  seeds  of  both  plants, 
and  these  seeds  are  frequently  planted  with  the  myce- 
lium in  their  tissues.  A  diseased  progeny  is  the 
result.     The  disease,  therefore,  is  (I  say)  hereditary 

in  both  plants,  and  so  widespread  that  it  is  extremely 
difficult  to  get  perfectly  healthy  examples  of  either 
corn  or  barberry.  Now,  although  I  have  many 
times  recorded  mycelium  in  the  seeds,  it  has  been  by 

no  means  easy  to  get  a 
record  of  the  perfect  fungi 
within  the  seeds,  and  to 
give  a  distinct  proof  that 
the  fungi  can  really  reach 
and  perfect  themselves 
within  the  membrane,  or 
in  or  on  the  enclosed 
cotyledons  of  the  seed. 

In  the  "  Gardener's 
Chronicle  "  for  August  22, 
1885,  I  illustrated  and  de- 
scribed the  perfect  condi- 
tion of  corn  mildew,  Puc- 
cinia  graminis,  growing 
within  the  unbroken  mem- 
branes of  the  seed  of  oats 
(Fig.  71),  and  now,  thanks 
to  an  obliging  correspon- 
dent, Mr.  George  Brebner, 
of  Aberdeen,  I  am  now 
able  to  give  an  illustration 
of  the  perfect  condition  of 
the  fungus  of  barberry 
blight,  CEcidium  berberidis, 
growing  upon  and  within 
the  cotyledons  of  the  bar- 
berry. Mr.  Brebner  for- 
warded me  the  living  ber- 
ries with  GEcidia  within 
the  seeds,  and  a  micro- 
scopic preparation  from 
which  the  accompanying 
illustration  (Fig.  69)  has 
been  made. 

Mr.  Brebner  writes  as 
follows :  "  The  sections 
were  made  in  August  1885, 
the  remarkable  feature 
being  that  the  CEcidium  is  growing  centripetally 
within  the  seed.  For  those  interested  in  the 
GLcidium-Puccinia  controversy  any  remarks  on  the 
bearing  of  the  find  would  be  superfluous.  I  wish, 
however,  to  draw  attention  specially  to  the  position 
of  the  cluster-cups,  making  it  extremely  probable 
that  Berberis  vulgaris  is  inoculated  by  its  own 
CEcidium.  Further,  the  position  of  these  CEcidia 
spores  strengthens  the  theory  that  they  are  resting- 
spores.  The  sections  were  the  first  ever  made  by 
me  of  a  barberry  seed,  and  in  consequence  the  fol- 
lowing idea  forces  itself  on  my  mind  :  '  If  a  tyro  in 
the  science  of  mycology  finds  the  CEcidium  inside  the 
first  seed  he  operates  upon,  surely  this  state  of 
matters  must  be  very  common  ! '  Mr.  Worthington 
G.  Smith  and  others  have  found  much  the  same  con- 



dition    of  things  in    other  fungi,    e.g.   the  spores  of 
Puccinia   graminis   within    the   seeds   of    corn    (see 
'Gardeners'  Chronicle,'  August  22,  1885)." 

The  three  sections  at  A,  B,  c  (Fig.  69),  show  trans- 
parent slices  of  the  fruit  of  the  barberry.  The  little 
circles  in  the  outer  rind  of  flesh  of  each  berry  are 
CEcidium  cups,  some  full  of  spores.    The  seeds  within 

Fig-  71-— Puccinia  within  the  seed  of  oats. 

each  berry  also  exhibit  similar  CEcidium  cups.  At  the 
top  right-hand  corner  of  c  a  dotted  quadrangle  will 
be  noticed.  This  quadrangle  is  further  enlarged  to 
50  diameters  at  the  bottom  of  the  illustration.  The 
thickness  of  the  flesh  of  the  berry  is  shown  between 
D  and  E,  and  in  this  flesh  are  four  CEcidium  cups — 
two  empty,  and  two  immersed  and  partly  hidden  in 

the  flesh.  Part  of  a  seed  is  seen  at  F,  g,  and  CEcidia 
are  shown  at  H,  empty,  and  j,  full  of  spores  ;  an 
immersed  cup,  almost  empty,  is  shown  at  K,  and 
mycelium,  etc.,  at  L. 

When  the  seeds  both  of  corn  and  barberry  are  less 
extensively  diseased  than  in  the  examples  here  illus- 
trated mycelium  only  can  be  seen,  but  this  is  easily 
enough  recognised  by  any  one  properly  acquainted 
with  CEcidium  and  Puccinia.  The  mycelia  of 
CEcidium  and  of  Puccinia  appear  to  me  to  differ  from 
each  other. 

All  experiments  are  perfectly  worthless  unless  it 
can  be  proved  with  the  utmost  certainty,  before  the 
experiments  are  commenced,  that  there  is  not  a 
scrap  of  mycelium  or  a  single  spore  of  CEcidium  or 
Puccinia  on  or  in  the  plants  to  be  experimented  with. 

Since  the  connection  of  barberry  blight  and  corn 
mildew  has  been  supposititiously  established,  several 
other  examples  of  a  like  nature  have  been  brought 
forward  on  worse  evidence  than  in  the  case  before  us. 
Some  instances  are  supposed  to  be  supported  by  what 
is  no  evidence  at  all.  The  minor  examples  can  very 
easily  be  disposed  of.  The  barberry  and  corn  subject 
has,  however,  taken  deeper  root,  but  I  think  it  has 
now  been  shown  that  the  diseases  of  the  two  plants 
are  probably  distinct,  and  that  both  diseases  almost 
invariably  traverse  the  host  plants  from  the  roots  to 
cotyledons  within  the  seeds. 

Many  fungi  bear  more  than  one  sort  of  fruit.  It  is 
known  that  certain  fungi  bear  different  kinds  of  fruit, 
because  the  different  fruits  can  be  readily  seen  on  the 
same  supporting  threads.  Until  this  is  seen  in  the 
fungus  of  barberry  blight  and  the  fungus  of  corn 
mildew,  any  connection  between  the  two  must  be  con- 
sidered unproven  or  improbable.  For  instance,  if  any 
botanist  will  cause  an  CEcidium-spore,  as  at  Fig.  70  A, 
to  germinate  on  corn  (these  spores  germinate  with 
great  readiness),  and  produce  from  its  mycelial  thread 
a  Uredo-spore,  as  at  B,  the  case  will  be  proved,  i.e. 
if  the  said  botanist  can  permanently  preserve  his 
specimen  on  a  microscopic  slide,  and  send  it  to  the 
British  Museum  for  all  coiners  to  examine. 

A  similar  piece  of  work  is  very  easy  with  other  fungi. 
It  is  reasonable,  always  expected,  and  is  always  done 
if  anything  is  to  be  proved.  Why,  then,  has  it  never 
been  done  with  the  fungus  of  corn  mildew  ?  Simply 
because  it  cannot  be  done  ;  and  all  the  writings  and 
illustrations  produced  in  favour  of  the,  at  present, 
purely  supposititious  connection  of  the  two  fungi  are 
not  worth  the  paper  they  are  printed  on. 

The  actual  mounted  microscopic  slides  of  Puccinia 

graminis  within  the  seed  of  oats  and  CEcidium  bcr- 

beridis  within  the  seed  of  the  barberry,  together  with 

the  material  from  which  the  sections  were  made,  have 

been    given    to  the  Department  of  Botany,   British 

Museum,  South  Kensington,  where  they  may  be  seen 

by  any  one. 


From  the  "  Gardener's  Chronicle.''1  . 




By  W.  Mattieu  Williams,  F.R.A.S.,  F.C.S. 

OF  SOLES.— It  is  satisfactory  to  learn  that 
the  reproduction  of  the  sole  is  being  energetically 
carried  on  in  France,  where  a  laboratory  was  estab- 
lished in  1 88 1  by  Dr.  Joussett,  especially  for  this 
purpose,  and  that  the  ova  have  been  regularly  incu- 
bated with  success.  It  would  be  still  more  satis- 
factory to  learn  that  the  like  is  being  done  in  this 
country.  But  even  if  this  were  the  case,  we  should 
only  have  taken  a  preliminary  step  towards  the 
restoration  of  the  supply  of  one  of  the  best  of  our  food 
fishes.  In  spite  of  Dr.  Huxley  and  others,  who 
maintain  that  the  action  of  our  fishing  is  barely 
measurable  in  checking  the  reproduction  of  fishes,  I 
am  convinced  that  trawling  effects  a  positive  devasta- 
tion of  every  sole-bank  to  which  it  is  applied.  Any 
of  my  readers  who  doubt  this  should  take  a  trip  in 
one  of  our  south-coast  or  other  trawlers,  and  note 
the  efficient  sweeping  of  the  sea-bottom  by  the  trawl, 
which  travels  along  a  track  as  broad  as  the  length  of 
the  vessel.  More  than  an  acre  per  hour  of  the  harvest 
of  the  sea  is  thus  mown  down,  and  the  number  of 
vessels  doing  this  may  be  counted  in  thousands.  I 
only  speak  of  the  ordinary  sailing  trawlers.  Where 
steam  is  applied  the  effect  is  vastly  magnified.  A 
convincing  proof  of  this  destruction  is  afforded 
by  the  fate  of  the  "Silver  Bank,"  which  was  dis- 
covered on  our  east  coast  about  forty  years  ago.  I 
remember  it  well.  Soles  were  retailed  in  London  at 
twopence  per  pound,  and  specimens  of  enormous 
size  were  specially  abundant.  Gradually  the  size 
diminished  and  the  quantity  declined  ;  finally  the 
harvest  consisted -chiefly  of  "slips;"  and  now  the 
Silver  Bank  is  practically  ruined,  and  the  price  of 
soles  has  risen  about  one  thousand  per  cent,  in  the 
market.  The  sole  is  a  small-mouthed  fish,  with  a 
small  stomach  and  temperate  habits.  It  grows 
slowly,  is  better  protected  against  voracious  enemies 
than  shoal-swimming  fishes,  but  falls  an  easy  victim 
to  the  machinery  of  man.  Therefore  it  needs 
especial  protection  against  man,  and  this  might  be 
afforded  by  prohibiting  the  sale  of  slips  under 
a  certain  size,  say  six  inches  in  length.  All  that  are 
smaller  may  easily  be  returned  alive,  as  they  live  out 
of  water  a  considerable  length  of  time.  I  have  seen 
them  alive  six  or  eight  hours  after  being  caught  in 
cool  weather. 

The  Electrical  Eel. — In  reference  to  the  letter 
of  Mr.  Jackson  (page  71  of  last  number)  I  may  add 
to  the  testimony  there  given  that  I  took  a  shock  from 
the  electrical  eel  that  was  exhibited  in  the  Adelaide 
Gallery  many  years  ago.  I  plunged  both  hands  in 
the  water,  intending  to  grasp  the  fish,  but  failed  to 
reach  it ;  received  a  very  severe  shock  when  at  some 

distance,  probably  three  or  four  inches,  the  sensa- 
tional nature  of  the  experiment  rendering  any  ap- 
proach to  accurate  estimation  of  the  distance  quite 

The  Mountains  of  Denmark.— Denmark  is  a 
very  flat  country,  as  everybody  knows,  but  a  recent 
discussion  among  Danish  geographers  concerning  the 
highest  summit  of  the  country  indicates  a  moderation 
in  the  matter  of  elevation  which  exceeds  the  esti- 
mates of  most  of  us,  especially  if  we  translate  the 
name  of  the  Himmelbjerg,  which  has  long  enjoyed 
the  distinction  of  being  the  king  of  all  the  mountains 
of  Denmark.  Himmelbjerg  signifies  the  Heaven- 
mountain,  the  hill  whose  summit  tops  the  skies. 
The  Danes  are  evidently  thankful  for  small  mercies 
in  the  way  of  mountains,  this  great  enthroned 
monarch  having  an  elevation  of  147  metres,  i.e.  482 
feet.  It  now  appears  that  the  Himmelbjerg  must 
abdicate  in  favour  of  mightier  rivals — must  take  third 
place — recent  measurements  having  shown  that  in  the 
forest  of  Ky  there  are  two  that  overtop  the  heavens, 
one  of  them  being  163  metres  (535  feet)  high. 
"Nature"  refers  to  these  as  "unnamed  heights." 
They  may  well  be  unnamed,  as  it  would  be  difficult 
to  find  a  superlative  to  Himmelbjerg. 

Moss  IN  Deep  Water. — The  limits  of  life  in  dark- 
ness have  yet  to  be  determined.  The  deep  sea 
explorations  have  revealed  the  existence  of  living 
animals  at  depths  where  a  priori  reasoning  had 
previously  led  to  the  conclusion  that  such  life  is 
impossible,  and  some  have  supposed  that  the  dark- 
ness at  such  depths  is  relieved  by  the  phosphorescence 
of  the  animals  themselves.  This,  however,  does  not 
appear  to  have  been  confirmed.  These  animate 
probably  feed  chiefly  on  the  sinking  remains  of 
animals  and  plants  that  pass  their  lives  near  to  the 
surface. .  M.  Bocion,  of  the  cantonal  industrial 
school  of  Lausanne,  has  found  a  bright  green  moss 
growing  on  calcareous  rock  at  the  bottom  0/  the 
Lake  of  Geneva,  at  a  depth  of  200  feet.  Although 
some  sensible  amount  of  light  penetrates  to  this, 
depth,  the  amount  must  be  very  small — far  less  than 
has  hitherto  been  supposed  to  be  absolutely  necessary 
for  the  formation  of  chlorophyll. 

The  Subjugation  of  the  Phylloxera  in 
France.— Frenchmen  of  the  old  school  are  still 
proud  of  the  military  achievements  of  their  nation. 
I  say  "of  the  old  school,"  having  found  in  the 
course  of  my  pedestrian  wanderings  in  France  that 
"  la  gloire,"  etc.,  are  sadly  at  a  discount  among  the 
majority  of  genuine  Frenchmen,  i.e.  the  French 
peasantry.  Parisians  I  don't  count— Paris  is  not 
France.  A  great  battle  has  recently  been  fought  in 
France,  and  still  rages.  The  enemy  has  invaded  the 
country,  taken  possession  of  the  richest  produce  of 
its  richest  provinces,  has  held  them  during  about  ten 



years,  and  is  not  yet  beaten,    though   the  fight  has 
been  heroic,  and  one  of  which  the  whole  nation  may 
well  be  proud,  for  it  has  shown  all  other  nations  how 
to  deal  with  similar  foes.      The  best  men  of  science 
throughout  France  have  done  their  best  to  study  the 
habits  of  the  phylloxera,  and  the  means  of  battling 
with  it.     No  expense  has  been  spared  either  by  the 
central  or    communal   governments,  and    individual 
peasant  proprietors  have  all  co-operated.     At  present 
only  500,000   hectares    (about    1,250,000   acres)   re- 
main in  possession  of  the  enemy,  instead  of   more 
than  double  that  number.     The  methods  of  fighting 
still  employed  are  :  first,  submersion  of  the  whole  of 
the  land   until   the   invaders    are   drowned— this   is 
the   most    effective,    but   is  only  applicable   in  low- 
lying  levels  ;  second,  carbon  bisulphide,  which  kills 
effectually  both  by  its  direct  contact  and  its  vapour  ; 
third,  potassium  sulpho-carbonate.     In  1885  submer- 
sion was  applied   to  24,339  hectares  ;  carbon  bisul- 
phide to  40,585  hectares;  and  the  sulpho-carbonate  to 
5,227.     Only  those  who  know  the  amount  of  skilled 
labour  that  is  expended  upon  a  hectare  of  vineyard, 
with  its  thousands  of  sticks  to  support  the  vines,  can 
appreciate    the    devastation   that   has   occurred,;  the 
struggle  that  has  so  long  continued,  and  the  persever- 
ance with  which  it  is  maintained.     The  "  commercial 
depression  "  of  which  we  are  complaining  so  loudly 
has  been  a  mere  flea-bite  compared  with  the  ruin  of 
the  greatest  and  most  profitable  of  all  the  industries 
of  France  which  this  little  pest  has  effected.     That 
such  a  visitation,  falling  on  the  agricultural  labourers 
of  France,  has  been  borne  so  bravely  by  them,  is  a 
clinching  proof  of  the  success  of  the  system  of  peasant 
proprietorship  which  there  prevails,   and  which  has 
converted  every  rustic,  even  the  very  poorest,  into  a 
capitalist  with  a  sufficient  reserve  to  battle   against 
such  a  calamity. 

The  Teeth  of  the  Coming  Man. — In  the 
■"  Popular  Science  Monthly  "  (Appleton  &  Co.,  New 
York)  is  an  article  in  which  the  writer,  Oscar  Schmidt, 
discusses  this  subject.  He  states,  in  the  first  place, 
that  our  present  jaws  display  a  reduced  dentition  ; 
that  the  ancestors  of  man  possessed  a  fuller  number 
of  teeth  than  we  have  ;  that  in  the  course  of  our 
"  geologico-zoological  development  "  we  have  lost  on 
cither  side,  above  and  below,  two  incisors,  two  pre- 
molars, and  one  molar.  This  loss  of  teeth  has  come 
about  simultaneously  with  the  shortening  of  the  jaws, 
which,  as  we  all  know,  protrude  so  remarkably  in 
the  anthropoid  apes.  The  writer  agrees  with  the 
prediction  of  Cope,  who  describes  the  progressive 
dentition  of  the  man  of  the  future  as  follows  : — 

Man  of  the  present,  and  lower  races  of  the  future. 

Incisors,  _  ;  canines,  -  ;  premolars,  - ;  molars,  3. 
21  23 

The  next  stage  of  progress  is  to  reduce  us  (that  is 

the    higher    races   descended  from    the    readers  of 
Hardwicke's  Science-Gossip)  to — 

Incisors.  -  ;  canines,  -  ;  premolars,  -  ;  molars,  3. 
21  2  J3 

A  stage  further  will  bring  our  successors  to — 

Incisors,  -  ;  canines,  - ;  premolars,  -  ;  molars,  2. 
1  1  2  '2 

(The  thick  figures  indicate  larger  teeth.) 

Mr.  Schmidt  assumes  that,  as  we  advance  intellect- 
ually and  morally,  we  shall  devote  less  and  less  of  our 
energies  to  the  business  performed  by  the  teeth,  and 
thus  continue  the  deterioration  which  commenced 
with  the  invention  of  cookery. 

In  the  Phrenological  Museum  of  Edinburgh  there 
is  a  large  collection  of  the  skulls  of  savage  tribes, 
of  ancient  Britons,  and  other  ancient  people.  They 
are  remarkable  for  the  perfect  preservation  of  the 
teeth,  the  absence  of  decay.  Some  of  the  skulls 
of  ancient  Britons  are  of  old  men,  with  the  teeth 
ground  down  till  their  crowns  are  quite  smooth  and 
level,  and  must  have  stood  but  very  little  above  the 
gums  :  none  are  absent,  and  all  are  packed  close 
together.  There  is  no  doubt  that  we  are  going  on 
worse  and  worse,  and  that  the  business  of  the  dentist 
is  progressively  developing.  It  may  be  that  this  is 
the  period  of  transition  :  that  when  we  reach  the 
climax  of  losing  all  our  teeth  on  reaching  manhood 
and  womanhood,  and  take  to  artificial  teeth  as  a 
matter  of  course,  like  boots  and  shoes,  the  consequent 
contraction  of  the  jaw  will  be  transmitted  to  our  off- 
spring, and  with  it  the  final  reduction  of  dentition  and 
ultimate  extinction  of  the  profession  of  dental  surgery, 
owing  to  the  sound  growth  and  firm  fitting  of  the 
fewer  teeth  in  the  smaller  jaw. 

Seeing  the  Invisible.— I  may  add  to  what  I 
stated  on  this  subject  in  the  March  number,  that  stars 
as  Taint  as  the  15th  and  16th  magnitude  have  been 
photographed,  and  that  photographic  maps  of  the 
heavens  are  in  the  course  of  preparation  which  will 
quite  supersede  the  old  catalogues  of  stars  hitherto  so 
laboriously  produced  by  eye-observation  and  position- 
measurement.  To  determine  accurately  the  move- 
ments that  are  taking  place  among  the  so-called 
"  fixed  stars,"  such  photographic  maps  will  be  taken 
at  different  periods  and  compared.  In  some  that 
have  been  already  taken  in  the  Milky  Way,  from 
1080  to  2160  to  the  square  degree  are  distinctly 
shown,  with  an  exposure  of  one  hour.  Besides  this 
the  principle  of  photographic  enlargement  has  been 
applied  to  the  primary  images  of  Saturn,  and  will 
doubtless  be  further  applied  to  the  other  planets. 
Whether  this  will  bring  out  further  details  of  the 
surface  of  the  planets,  and  whether  more  may  be 
learned  of  the  details  of  lunar  landscape  remains  to 
be  seen.  One  thing  is  already  established,  viz.  that 
those  who  have  not  the  privilege  of  using  powerful 
telescopes  will  have  that  of  examining  at  their  leisure 



nature-printed  pictures  of  all  that  such  telescopes  can 
reveal ;  and  those  who  agree  with  me  in  the  conviction, 
that  the  diffusion  of  scientific  knowledge  and  scientific 
taste  is  of  even  more  importance  than  mere  scientific 
discovery  (discoveries  communicated  only  to  a  few 
are  but  little  better  than  vaporous  material  for  the 
inflation  of  pedants),  will  welcome  very  heartily  this 
great  step  in  celestial  photography.  The  vexed 
question  of  whether  any  volcanic  action  capable  of 
producing  visible  changes  on  the  surface  of  the  moon 
is  still  proceeding  will  probably  be  settled,  or  at  any 
rate  be  more  approximately  answered  than  by  the 
method  of  comparing  the  drawings  of  one  observer 
with  those  of  another  of  different  date. 

The  Photographic  Pictures  by  Charles 
Breese. — Instantaneous  photography,  which  is  gene- 
rally supposed  to  be  a  very  recent  invention,  was 
successfully  achieved  by  the  late  Charles  Breese  quite 
thirty  years  ago.  He  kept  his  process  secret,  and  the 
secret  died  with  him.  I  purchased  all  that  remained 
of  his  stereograms  after  his  death,  and  still  have 
many  duplicates.  They  remain  unrivalled,  especially 
the  sea-pieces,  where  breaking  waves  and  fine  atmo- 
spheric effects  are  displayed.  A  picture  of  the  moon 
about  an  eighth  of  an  inch  in  diameter  was  the  subject 
of  much  discussion  at  the  time  of  its  publication. 
Learned  members  of  the  Photographic  Society  proved, 
mathematically  of  course,  that  the  actinic  energy  of 
the  lunar  rays  could  not  possibly  produce  such  a 
picture,  which,  taken  thus  by  a  common  camera  in 
fixed  position,  must  be  instantaneous,  seeing  that 
otherwise  the  change  of  position  due  to  the  earth's 
rotation  would  produce  an  elongated  instead  of  a 
circular  figure.  It  was  therefore  described  as  a 
"painted  moon."  To  refute  this  calumny  I  threw 
the  image  on  a  screen  by  means  of  a  lime-light 
lantern,  which  displayed  details  that  could  not  have 
been  painted  as  asserted  ;  but  I  soon  found  a  limit  to 
this  method  of  magnifying  ;  the  collodion  film  dis- 
played a  picture  of  its  own  special  details  more 
prominently  than  those  of  the  lunar  landscape — a  net- 
work of  cracks  otherwise  invisible.  I  have  not  yet 
learned  whether  the  modern  gelatine  film  is  similarly 
defective.  The  possibilities  of  carrying  forward  the 
work  described  above  will  largely  depend  upon  this. 

Mrs.  Ogilvie,  of  Sizewell  House,  Suffolk,  has 
just  presented  the  Ipswich  Museum  with  a  cheque  for 
1300/.  to  defray  the  debt  on  the  new  buildings,  in 
token  of  her  admiration  of  the  good  work  being  done 
by  Dr.  J.  E.  Taylor,  the  Curator,  in  the  elevation 
and  education  of  the  people  by  means  of  his  popular 

M.  Faye,  the  French  geologist,  thinks  that  the 
earth's  crust  must  be  thicker  and  denser  under  oceans 
than  beneath  continents,  because  the  earth's  heat  has 
always  radiated  more  freely  there. 

By  W.  A.  Hyslop. 
No.  I. 

THE  subject  of  animal  parasites  is  looked  upon  by 
many  as  one  of  loathing,  and  not  to  be  talked  of 
or  discussed  in  polite  society ;  and  this  arises  more 
from  want  of  knowledge  than  anything  else,  as  there 
is  as  little  reason  to  avoid  the  mention  of  the  word 
"parasite"  as  of  any  other  word  in  science.  The 
study  of  parasites  opens  the  mind  in  a  large  degree, 
and  the  more  intimate  one's  knowledge  the  less  does 
he  loathe,  and  the  more  does  he  admire,  the  wonderful 
provision  made  for  these  beings  in  the  domain  of 
Nature.  That  all  parasites  are  hurtful  is  one  of  the 
numerous  popular  errors  on  the  subject.  Some  most 
certainly  are  injurious  when  in  large  numbers,  but  by 
far  the  larger  number  are  not  hurtful ;  and  indeed 
some  naturalists  have,  not  without  good  reason,  con- 
sidered them  beneficial,  as  they  act  the  part  0$ 
scavengers,  removing  the  epidermis,  etc.,  from  their 

Fig.  72. — Ornithymia  of  Pigeon 
(slightly  mag.). 

Fig.  73. — Lipoptena  of 
Stag  (slightly  mag.). 

The  word  "  parasite  "  means  literally  eating  beside^ 
or  at  the  table  of  another,  and  parasites  have  been 
loosely  defined  as  "those  whose  living  depends  on 
other  living  creatures."  This  definition  is  rather 
wide,  and  might  with  advantage  be  limited  to  "  those 
whose  living  depends  on,  and  whose  habitat  is,  other 
living  creatures."  If  this  definition  be  adopted,  you. 
throw  out  of  the  category  of  parasites  all  such  insects, 
as  mosquitoes  and  midges,  which  only  attach  them- 
selves to  human  beings  and  animals  momentarily,  and 
then  fly  off,  and  do  not  have,  like  true  parasites,  their 
abode  on  their  hosts.  Professor  van  Beneden  has 
divided  parasites  into  three  divisions  :  the  first  he 
terms  Commensaux,  or  Messmates,  and  includes 
those  which  for  their  living  do  not  depend  on  theii 
hosts,  but  merely  profit  by  remaining  at  their  tables ; 
secondly,  Mutualists,  which  live  exclusively  on  the 
natural  excretions  of  animals  ;  and,  lastly,  Parasites 
proper :  that  is,  those  which  for  their  livelihood 
require  the  blood  of  their  hosts.  M.  Megnin,  again, 
divides  the  subject  into  two  main  divisions,  viz.  those 
which  are  hurtful,  and  those  which  are  not.  For  our 
present  purpose  it  will  probably  be  more  simple, 
without  entering  into  a  discussion  as  to  what  place 
in  the  animal  kingdom  the  Anoplura,   or  lice,  and 

HARD  WICKE '  .S  S  CIE  NCE  -  G  O  SSI  P. 


Aphaniptera,  or  fleas,  should  be  placed,  to  consider 
first  those  more  highly  organised  parasites  supplied 
with  wings,  etc.,  and  work  down  the  scale  till  we 
reach  the  genus  Demodex  or  Hypopus,  among  the 
Acari,  whose  structure  is  extremely  simple.  The 
subject  of  vegetable  parasites,  generally  of  a  fungoid 
type,  such  as  that  occasioning  ring- worm,  I  do  not 
propose  touching  upon,  nor  yet  that  large  and  inter- 
esting subject  of  Helminthology,  so  ably  treated 
of  by  the  late  Dr.  Cobbold. 

Tutting  aside,  then,  such  insectsasmosquitoes,  horse- 

flying,  the  species  of  the  genus  only  being  able  to  take- 
short  flights,  which  are  little  more  than  leaps.  Their 
mouths  are  formed  for  suction,  and  from  their  large 
size  these  parasites  must  be  injurious.  The  grouse, 
owl,  plover,  and  several  other  birds,  are  the  hosts  oi| 
this  genus.  Next  we  may  mention  the  Stenopteryx 
hirundinis,  an  insect  about  the  same  size,  and  very 
like  the  last,  except  that  the  wings  are  merely  rudi- 
mentary. It  is  found  about  the  nests  and  upon  the 
young  of  the  swallow.  Passing  still  further  down  the 
scale  we  come  to  the  Melophagus  ovinus,  or  sheep- 

I'  '£•  74- — Parasite  of  Flying  Fox,  2  .      X  20. 

flies,  etc. — some  of  which  suck  the  blood  of  their  host, 
but  do  not  make  their  dwelling  there,  while  others 
lay  their  eggs  beneath  their  skins,  and  whose  larva? 
are  nourished  there,  and  which  consequently  are,  for 
at  least  a  part  of  their  lives,  true  parasites — we  find, 
as  perhaps  one  of  the  most  highly  organised,  or  at  all 
events  very  nearly  allied  to  the  Diptera,  the  genus 
Ornithymia  (Fig.  72).  This  genus  contains  several 
species,  all  of  which  are  of  large  size,  being  but  little 
smaller  than  the  common  bluebottle  fly,  and  equipped 
with  a  pair  of  well-developed  wings,  though  they, 
probably  from  disuse,  do  not  seem  of  much  service  for 

tick,  called  in  Scotland  the  kade,  and  which  is  too 
well  known  to  require  description,  beyond  the  fact 
that  it  is  not  a  tick  at  all,  and  is  entirely  distinct  from 
the  proper  sheep-tick,  which  is  a  species  of  Ixodes. 
Closely  allied  to  this  is  the  genus  Lipoptena,  found 
upon  the  stag  (see  Fig.  73).  In  both  these  genera 
the  wings  have  entirely  disappeared.  We  may  here 
mention  that  curious  and  beautiful  genus,  the  Nycte- 
ribiidas,  which  is  only  found  on  bats.  Those  who 
wish  to  study  this  genus  will  find  an  able  article  in 
the  "  Transactions  of  the  Zoological  Society,"  vol.  i. 
p.  274.    Fig.  74  shows  the  peculiarities  of  this  parasite 



better  than  any  amount  of  written  description,  the 
long  thin  legs  and  the  combs  on  the  thorax  being 
perhaps  the  most  striking  features. 

At  this  stage  of  the  descending  scale  may  be 
noticed  (though  not  strictly  an  animal  parasite)  the 
genus  Braulidse,  which  infests  some  kinds  of  bees. 
The  peculiarity  of  the  genus  is  that  the  last  joint  (or 
tarsus)  of  the  leg  is  in  the  form  of  a  comb  with  long 
teeth.  They  are  of  large  size  compared  to  their 
hosts.  All  the  above  parasites  are  classified  by  some 
writers  under  the  name  Pupipara,  as  in  all  the  eggs 
are  hatched,  and  the  larvae  retained  and  nourished, 
within  the  body  of  the  mother,  until  they  have  arrived 
at  maturity,  when  they  are  extruded,  and  immediately 
pass  into  the  pupa  state.  Only  a  single  larva  is 
developed  at  a  time. 

By  John  Browning,  F.R.A.S. 

IN  the  early  part  of  April  Fabry's  comet  became 
visible  to  the  naked  eye.  At  the  end  of  April 
the  comet  approached  the  earth  within  about  one-fifth 
part  of  the  distance  of  the  sun,  and  its  brightness 
was  theoretically  nearly  five  hundred  times  greater 
than  when  it  was  discovered  on  the  1st  of  December. 
Barnard's  comet  is  also  increasing  in  apparent 
brightness,  though  not  so  rapidly  as  Fabry's.  It  will 
be  in  perihelion  in  May,  and  will  be  at  its  closest 
distance  from  the  earth  about  the  end  of  that  month. 
In  the  early  part  of  May  it  will  be  more  than  a 
hundred  times  brighter  than  when  it  was  discovered 
on  the  4th  of  December,  and  will  then  be  about 
half-way  between  the  stars  j8  and  y  Andromedse. 

Professor  Kriiger  has  published  ("  Astronomische 
Nachrichten,"  No.  2718)  a  calculation  of  the  elements 
for  the  approaching  return  of  the  orbit  of  the  small 
comet  which  was  first  discovered  by  M.  Tempel  in 
1869,  but  was  not  recognised  as  being  periodic  until 
its  return  in  1880,  when  it  was  rediscovered  by  Pro- 
fessor Swift.  Its  period  is  about  five  and  a-half  years, 
and  it  must  have  returned  in  1875  without  being  seen. 
On  the  present  occasion,  owing  to  its  position  and 
distance,  it  will  probably  again  pass  without  recog- 

Professor  O.  Struve  saw  the  nebula  near  the  star 
Maia,  in  the  Pleiades,  on  the  5th  of  February,  with 
the  30-inch  telescope  at  Pulkowa.  On  the  23rd  of 
February  he  made  a  careful  drawing  of  the  nebula, 
and  on  the  following  night  he  saw  it  with  the  15-inch 
refractor.  There  are  several  small  stars  round  ,it, 
from  the  twelfth  to  the  fourteenth  magnitude,  one  of 
these  being  variable,  for  its  magnitude  was  measured 
on  the  5th  of  February,  and  again  on  the  24th  of 
February,  when  it  had  decreased  to  a  magnitude  and 
a-half  less  ;  and  on  the  24th  it  was  not  visible  with 
the  15-inch  telescope. 

Venus  is  a  morning  star  ;  at  the  greatest  distance 

from  the  sun   on  the  29th   of  May.     Saturn  is  an 
evening  star  towards  the  end  of  the  month. 

There  will  be  no  occultations  of  any  stars  above  the 
fourth  magnitude  this  month. 

Rising,  Southing,  and  Setting  of  the  Principal 
Planets  at  intervals  of  Seven  Days. 





h.  m. 

h.  m. 

h.  m. 



3  5iM 

IO  20M 

4  49A 

Mercury  2     .j 


3  39M 
3  26M 

IO   22M 

10  32M 

5     5A 
5  38a 



3  20M 

10  51M 

6   22A 



3    4M 

9      4M 

3     4A 

Venus  ?    .     .1 


2  51M 

2  38M 

9     4M 

9    4M 

3  I7A 

3  3°a 



2  26M 

9     5M 

3  44A 



0  44A 

7  4°A 

2  40M 

Mars  cf 


0  28A 

0  14A 

7  I9A 
6  59A 

2  13M 

1  47M 



O      IA 

6  41A 

1  23M 



2   30A 

8  47A 

3     8m 


2       IA 

8  i8a 

2  39M 

Jupiter  1A.     .  I 

I    33A 

7  5oa 

2    IIM 


1      5A 

7  23A 

I    45M 



7    8m 

3  2IA 

II    34A 

Saturn  T? . 


6  43M 
6  19M 

2  56A 
2  32A 

II       9A 

10  45A 


5  56m 

2    8a 

IO  20 A 

Meteorology. — The  mean  temperature  of  the  week 
ending  March  20th  was  3-4  below  the  average  for  20 
years.     Rain  fell  on   two   days  of  the  week  to  the 
extent  of  o-i6  of  an  inch — about  17  tons  to  the  acre. 
The  mean    temperature  of   the  week  ending  March 
27th  was  51  degrees,  while  in  the  preceding  week  it 
was  only  38  degrees  ;  it  was  greatly  above  the  average 
on  each  day  of  the  week.     The  mean  temperature  of 
the   week  ending   April   4th   was   47,  and   was   2'6 
degrees  above  the  average.     Rain  fell  on  six  days  of 
the  week  to  the  aggregate  amount  of  o-57  of  an  inch- 
nearly  60  tons  to  the  acre. 

The  average  mean  temperature  of  London  in  May 
is  between  53  and  54  degrees.  The  average  rainfall 
of  London  is  between  one  and  two  inches.  On  the 
south-east  coast  it  is  two  inches,  and  on  the  south- 
west coast,  near  Plymouth,  it  reaches  three  inches. 



By  Dr.  G.  W.  M.  Giles. 

{Continued  from  p.  80.] 

IT  will  be  found  a  useful  practice  to  make  a  number 
of  rough,  free-hand  sketches  of  the  different 
parts  of  the  animal  as  they  come  into  advantageous 
points  of  view,  as  they  prove  of  great  assistance  in 
the  subsequent  business  of  making  an  exact  drawing 
from  the  dead  subject.     Not  infrequently  our  little 


i  ii 

friends  are  a  deal  too  active  for  our  purpose,  rushing 
about  the  live  cell  in  a  manner  that  precludes  all 
continuous  observation.  Under  these  circumstances 
an  excellent  dodge  is  to  add,  with  a  pipette,  a  very 
minute  quantity  of  alcohol  to  the  water  in  the  cell. 
After  a  few  vigorous  kicks  the  creature  becomes 
stupefied,  and  only  moves  in  the  sluggish  manner 
best  suited  for  our  purpose.  The  effect  of  the  dose, 
however,  soon  wears  off,  and  a  little  more  will 
usually  require  to  be  added  from  time  to  time,  when- 
ever the  movements  become  undesirably  extensive. 

In  such  transparent  creatures  the  process  of  death 
is  most  curious  and  instructive  to  witness,  more 
especially  in  small  crustaceans,  such  as  Leucifer, 
Saphirina,  immature  Squillse,  etc. 

Almost  as  soon  as  the  last  movements  cease,  the 
nervous  centres  commence  to  become  granular,  rapidly 
followed  by  the  connecting  commissures  and  peri- 
pheral nerves.  This  takes  place  some  time  before 
the  other  structures  at  all  lose  their  transparency  ; 
and  it  is  often  '  possible  to  make  a  camera  lucida 
drawing  of  the  entire  nervous  system,  in  all  its  rami- 
fications, before  the  supervention  of  muscular  opacity 
obliterates  the  picture.  No  dissection  could  possibly 
rival  the  exactness  of  the  results  obtainable  in  this 
way,  were  even  the  animals  of  sufficient  size  to  make 
such  a  process  practicable.  Next  after  the  nerve 
elements,  the  muscles  become  opaque  ;  and  during 
the  process  much  may  be  learnt  as  to  the  anatomy  of 
the  limbs  as  well,  in  flat  things  like  Saphirina,  of  the 
body  muscles,  during  the  process. 

Finally,  the  fluids  of  the  general  body  cavity  coagu- 
late, their  cellular  elements  become  opaque,  and  the 
process  of  tissue  death  is  complete.  It  is  difficult  to 
give  any  adequate  idea  of  the  wonders  that  may  be 
followed  in  the  living  and  dying  animal.  No  object, 
e.g.,  could  be  better  suited  for  the  study  of  living 
muscular  fibre  than  the  limbs  of  some  of  these  minute 
crustaceans,  which  are  often  thin  enough  to  admit  of 
examination  with  powers  as  light  as  I-I2. 

I  have  occasionally  succeeded  in,  to  some  extent, 
preserving  this  dissected  appearance  of  the  nervous 
system,  by  staining  with  borax  carmine,  and  subse- 
quent treatment  with  dilute  acid  in  the  usual  way. 
The  specimens  in  which  this  occurred  were  placed 
in  the  stain  in  the  living  state,  or  nearly  so  ;  and,  as 
the  result  was  by  no  means  uniformly  obtainable, 
I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  the  secret  of  success 
lies  in  completing  the  process  before  the  muscle 
fluids  have  had  time  to  coagulate  thoroughly.  This, 
however,  is  but  speculation,  and  further  experiments 
are  required  to  establish  the  conditions  essential  to 

If  it  is  desired  to  keep  any  single  specimen  under 
observation  alive  for  any  length  of  time,  it  is  abso- 
lutely necessary  to  keep  the  water  of  the  live  cell 
thoroughly  aerated  ;  and  a  little  apparatus  for  the 
purpose  can  be  very  easily  and  cheaply  constructed 
as  below. 

Procure  a  couple  of  tin  bottles,  such  as  are  used  by 
workmen  for  carrying  their  tea  to  work  with  them. 
Have  soldered  into  the  side  of  each,  close  to  the 
bottom,  a  piece  of  small  brass  tubing,  about  an  inch 
in  length.  It  is  essential  that  the  necks  of  the  tins 
should  be  of  the  same  size,  so  that  the  same  cork 
may  fit  both.  Into  this  cork  fit  a  short  piece  of  glass 
tubing,  bent  twice  at  right  angles.  A  small  brass 
tap,  such  as  is  supplied  with  injecting  syringes,  is 
connected  with  this  tube  by  means  of  a  short  length 
of  indiarubber  piping,  and  about  a  yard  of  narrow 
rubber  tubing  is  fitted  on  to  the  nozzle  of  the  tap  ; 
the  other  end  being  slipped  on  to  a  piece  of  small 
glass  tube,  about  three  inches  long,  having  its  end 
drawn  out  to  a  fine  point,  and  bent  at  right  angles 
about  half  an  inch  from  it.  The  brass  pipes  at  the 
bottom  of  the  tins  are  now  connected  by  about  one 
yard  and  a-half  of  rubber  tubing,  and  the  apparatus 
is  ready  for  use. 

To  set  it  to  work,  insert  the  cork,  with  its  tap 
closed,  into  one  of  the  tins,  and  fill  the  other  with 
water.  Now  raise  the  full  tin  to  a  couple  of  feet 
above  the  level  of  the  other,  place  the  fine  point  of 
the  tube  in  the  live  cell,  and  gently  turn  on  the  tap. 
The  point  should  be  kept  as  far  away  as  possible 
from  the  specimen,  as,  if  too  near,  the  stream  of 
bubbles  will  give  it  a  vibratory  motion  fatal  to  obser- 
vation. The  tap  should  be  so  turned  that  the  stream 
of  air  may  be  very  gentle,  just  allowing  one  small 
bubble  to  follow  the  next.  Under  these  circumstances 
the  stream  of  air  will  last  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes. 
When  the  upper  tin  has  become  empty,  all  that  is 
necessary  is  to  shift  the  cork  into  it,  and  reverse  the 
places  of  the  tins.  Fig.  54  shows  the  tube  arranged 
in  the  live  cell,  and  Fig.  55  the  general  arrangement 
of  the  apparatus. 

{To  be  continued.) 


I  HAVE  lately  obtained  what  I  believe  to  be  some 
specimens  of  great  interest  to  the  student  of  pre- 
historic archaeology,  namely  some  small  arrow-points 
of  carnelian  and  jasper  from  Arabia.  These  objects 
were  loosely  strung  in  the  form  of  a  rude  necklet, 
for  which  purpose  they  were  bored  through  their 
smallest  diameter,  and  near  the  broad  part  of  the 
arrow- point. 

At  first  sight  I  was  of  the  opinion,  that  they  were 
crudely  fashioned  in  this  shape  as  a  mere  fancy  by 
the  persons  who  had  bored  and  strung  them ;  but  I 
observed  that  the  boring  was  sharp  and  rough, 
rendering  the  surface  of  the  boring  opaque. 

The  outline,  however,  of  the  arrow-tips  themselves 
was  not  so,  but,  on  the  contrary,  was  highly  polished 
and  decidedly  sub-angular,  notwithstanding  that  the 
flaking  and  trimming  were  distinctly  traceable.     In 



fact  they  presented  a  similar  appearance  in  this 
respect  to  the  implements  from  our  drift  and  river 
gravels  ;  and  I  therefore  consider  them  to  have  been 
obtained  from  similar  deposits  in  Arabia,  or  perhaps, 
instead  of  being  water-worn,  they  are  sand-worn  ;  for 
I  believe  the  general  effect  on  siliceous  material  is 
pretty  much  the  same. 

Some  are  of  a  dark  opaque  jasper,  others  are  of  a 
brilliant  red  carnelian  ;  others,  again,  are  striped,  or 
of  a  dull  white.  In  form  they  somewhat  vary,  though 
I  believe  this  to  be  due  simply  to  the  amount  of 
wearing  undergone,  for  whilst  some  are  long,  pointed, 
and  well  formed,  others  are  short  and  truncated, 
whilst  others  again  show  but  little  of  their  original 

They  are  small,  though  not  smaller  than  many 
arrow-heads  I  have  seen  from  many  parts  of  Europe. 
I  should  consider  they  were  originally  about  an  inch 
in  length,  and  about  half  an  inch  in  their  greatest 
width.  The  shoulder  is  at  right-angles  to  the  shank, 
and  not  curved  into  a  barb,  as  in  the  Irish  type. 

Upon  inquiries  as  to  how  these  objects  became 
bored  and  strung  as  beads,  I  found  that  the  natives 
regarded  them  with  some  awe,  and  wore  them  as 
charms  ;  and  this  is  no  doubt  so,  for  we  find  that 
arrow-heads  and  celts  have  been  so  regarded  in 
almost  all  times,  and  by  almost  all  peoples,  however 
civilized.  Even  in  this  country  and  in  the  present 
day,  I  have  found  basalt  polished  celts  kept  by 
cottagers  as  an  antidote  for  many  an  ill  that  flesh  is 
heir  to,  and  known  to  them  as  "thunderbolts."  In 
some  parts,  too,  arrow-heads  or  "elf  arrows"  are 
superstitiously  regarded ;  and  we  read  that  the  old 
Etruscans  actually  mounted  arrow-heads  in  gold  and 
wore  them  as  charms. 

I  consider,  therefore,  that  these  beautiful  carnelian 
arrow-points  belong  to  a  pre-historic  period,  and  that 
they  are  found  in  old  gravels,  or  perhaps  in  the  desert 
sands,  by  the  Arabs  of  to-day,  who,  naturally  regarding 
them  with  superstition,  bore  them  and  wear  them  as 

Edward  Lovett. 



[It  is  our  desire  to  bring  out  a  Scientific  Directory  in  the 
monthly  pages  of  Science-Gossip,  feeling  certain  that  it  would 
be  very  useful  for  our  readers  to  know  what  scientific  societies 
had  been  formed  in  their  own  neighbourhoods.  We  shall  there- 
fore fee!  very  much  obliged  if  Secretaries  of  any  kind  of 
Scientific  Society,  in  any  town  or  part  of  the  country,  will  send 
us  the  full  name  and  title  of  each  Society,  together  with  the 
names  of  the  President  and  Hon.  Secretary.] 

T^ELFAST  Naturalists'  Field  Club.  Hon.  Sec- 
/  )  retaries,  W.  Swanston,  F.G.S.,  King  Street, 
Belfast ;  F.  W.  Lockwood,  Royal  Avenue,  Belfast. 
Meets  at  the  Museum,  College  Square,  Belfast. 

Dumfriesshire  and  Galloway  Natural  History  and 
Antiquarian  Society.  President,  Dr.  T.  B.  Grierson. 
Hon.    Secretary,   J.    Wilson,    3,    Norfolk    Terrace, 

Dumfries.  Meetings :  first  Friday  in  the  month 
during  the  winter,  and  excursions  on  the  first  Satur- 
day in  the  month  during  summer. 

Elland-cum-Greetland  Naturalist  Society.  Presi- 
dent, Rev.  A.  Buckley,  Langdale  Street,  Elland ; 
Secretary,  Oliver  Sutcliffe,  Elm  Street,  Stamland, 
near  Halifax.     Meets  at  Mechanics'  Institute,  West 


Folkestone  Natural  History  Society.  President,  C. 
E.  FitzGerald,  Esq.,  M.D.  ;  Hon.  Secretary,  H. 
Ullyett,  B.Sc,  F.R.G.S.,  Lyell  House,  Folkestone. 

Fulliam  Naturalists'  Society.  President,  G.  W. 
Thomas,  Esq.  ;  Hon.  Secretary,  P.  F.  Skinner. 
Communications  to  be  addressed  to  the  society's 
rooms,  1  Trewern  Villas,  Fulham  Road,  Fulham. 

Glasgow  Yout/is'  Christian  Association  Natural 
History  Society  meets  at  272  George  Street.  Hon. 
President,  Duncan  M.  West,  Esq. ;  President,  John 
M.  Campbell,  Esq.,  Kelvingrove  Museum  ;  Secretary 
and  Treasurer,  A.  J.  McRobbie,  23  Rosehall  Street, 

North  Staffordshire  Naturalists'  Field  Club  and 
Archceological  Society.  President  for  J.8S6-7,  J.  T. 
Arlidge,  M.D.  ;  Hon.  Secretary,  Rev.  T.  W.  Daltry, 
F.L.S.,  Madeley  Vicarage,  Newcastle,  Staffordshire; 
Hon.  Treasurer,  W.  D.  Spanton,  F.R.C.S.E. 
Sections :  Archeology,  C.  Lynam,  F.R.I.  B. A.  ; 
Botany,  J.  Blaikie,  F.G.S,  F.L.S. ;  Entomology,  Rev. 
T.  W.  Daltry,  F.L.S. ;  Geology,  J.  Ward,  F.G.S.  ; 
Microscopy,  T.  S.  Wilkins  ;  Zoology,  J.  R.  B.  Mase- 
field,  M.A. 


Botanists  will  be  pleased  to  learn  that  the 
"  Flora  of  the  West  Riding  of  Yorkshire,"  which  Dr. 
F.  Arnold  Lees  has  been  engaged  on  for  some  years, 
will  shortly  be  ready  for  the  press.  It  will  be  a 
complete  and  comprehensive  enumeration  of  species 
in  all  the  groups,  phanerogamic  and  cryptogamic, 
together  with  chapters  on  lithology,  climatology, 
bibliography,  etc.  The  account  of  each  plant  will 
include  its  range,  horizontal  and  vertical,  and  its 
history  as  a  West  Riding  species.  It  is  to  be  issued 
by  subscription  under  the  auspices  of  the  Yorkshire 
Naturalists'  Union,  and  will  constitute  an  important 
volume  of  their  series  of  memoirs  dealing  with  the 
flora  and  fauna  of  Yorkshire.  Further  information 
may  be  obtained  from  the  secretaries  of  the  Union, 
Messrs.  W.  Denison  Roebuck,  F.L.S.,  Sunny  Bank, 
Leeds,  and  W.  Eagle  Clarke,  F.L.S.,  the  Museum, 

Under  the  title  of  "Our  Island-Continent:  a 
Naturalist's  Holiday  in  Australia,"  Dr.  J.  E.  Taylor's 
new  book,  giving  a  popular  description  of  the  geology, 



fauna,  and  flora  of  Australia  as  studied  by  him  during 
his  recent  visit,  will  be  published  by  the  Society  for 
Promoting  Christian  Knowledge  early  in  May. 

The  Colonial  Exhibition  is  to  be  opened  on 
the  4th  of  May.  Visitors  will  there  see  living  fern- 
tree  gullies,  and  many  of  the  characteristic  Australian 
birds  and  mammals. 

Mr.  F.  Galton,  who  is  at  present  in  Italy,  has 
been  seeking  to  obtain  from  the  Vatican  manufactory 
of  mosaics  some  permanent  colour-types  for  anthropo- 
logical purposes.  Mr.  Galton  proposes  to  obtain  a 
scale  of  durable  colours,  for  registering  the  tints  of 
skin  and  hair,  by  using  the  imperishable  enamel 
employed  for  mosaic  work. 

We  are  sorry  to  record  the  death,  at  the  com- 
paratively early  age  of  forty-five,  of  Mr.  C.  G. 
Talmage,  F.R.A.S.,  the  well-known  astronomer. 
A  more  courteous,  gentle,  and  modest  follower  of 
science  never  lived. 

It  is  with  extreme  regret  we  have  to  chronicle  the 
death  of  Dr.  Spencer  Cobbold,  the  celebrated 
helminlhologist,  author  of  numerous  papers  on  in- 
testinal and  other  parasites,  and  of  the  well-known 
"  Manual  of  Helminthology."  Dr.  Cobbold  died  at 
the  comparatively  early  age  of  fifty-seven,  and  worked 
up  to  the  very  last.  He  was  also  well  known  both 
as  a  botanist  and  geologist. 

Mr.  F.  E.  BEDDARDhas  just  described,  before  the 
Zoological  Society,  a  new  and  large  species  of  earth- 
worm from  New  Caledonia. 

Professor  Edward  Solly,  F.R.S.,  formerly 
known  by  his  popular  book,  "  Rural  Chemistry,"  has 
just  died  at  the  age  of  sixty-seven. 

"The  Butterfly"  is  the  title  of  a  new  journal 
of  entomology  which  has  been  recently  started, 
price  2d,  edited  by  the  proprietor,  Mr.  G.  H.  Skuse. 

We  have  received  No.  72  of  Mr.  William  Wesley's 
welcome  "Natural  History  and  Scientific  Book 

From  some  experiments  of  Dr.  Krauss,  of  Halle, 
it  appears  that  fruits  grow  much  more  during  the 
night  than  the  day. 

A  new  sweetening  substance,  called  saccharine, 
has  been  discovered  by  Dr.  Fahlberg.  It  is  obtained 
from  gas-tar,  and  is  said  to  be  a  thousand  times 
sweeter  than  cane-sugar. 

Professor  Helmholtz  has  confirmed  the  state- 
ments of  Mr.  John  Aitkin,  that  the  formation  of 
cloud  in  saturated  air  is  induced  solely  by  particles  of 


M.  Fol  states  he  has  found  in  sections  of  the  spinal 
cord  and  brain  of  animals  which  have  died  from 
rabies,  a  micrococcus  he  believes  is  peculiar  to  the 
disease,  and  probably  its  cause. 


Mounting  in  Balsam. — Can  any  of  your  readers 
tell  me  why,  after  mounting  micro-objects  in  balsam, 
and  leaving  them  in  clips  for  a  week  or  more,  the 
balsam  will  not  set ;  and  upon  clearing  the  superfluous 
balsam  away  the  air  insinuates  itself  under  the  edge 
of  the  cover,  working  its  way  towards  the  centre,  and 
completely  spoiling  my  objects  ? — Alfred  Pinnock. 

Tiger-Beetle's  Wing-case  [Cicindela  cam 
pestris). — I  have  been  examining  the  wing-cases  of 
the  above-mentioned  with  a  view  of  ascertaining  its 
ultimate  structure.  I  am  led  to  think  that  the 
elytron  is  composed  of  three  distinct  membranes  : 
first,  a  surface  membrane  consisting  of  hexagonal 
cells  containing  or  covering  (?)  the  pigment  matter  to 
which  the  wing-case  owes  its  colouring  ;  secondly,  a 
membrane  made  up  of  larger  cells,  circular  in  shape, 
and  seemingly  double-lined,  though  this  may  be  an 
appearance  due  to  depression.  Connections  appear 
to  exist  between  cell  and  cell,  giving  the  membrane 
very  much  the  form  of  plant  epidermis  with  its 
stomata.  Lastly,  a  membrane  of  fine  texture  and 
marked  by  numerous  dots,  the  precise  nature  of 
which  I  have  not  as  yet  sufficiently  examined.  The 
first-mentioned  membrane  is  clearly  seen  under  a 
^-inch  or  J-inch,  with  deep  eye-piece.  It  shows  cells 
best  at  the  junction  of  the  yellow  spots  with  the 
general  green  surface  of  elytron.  All  three  can  be 
discerned  in  a  carefully  made  scraping  at  the  end  of 
specimen.  An  inch  glass  shows  them  with  sufficient 
clearness. — R.  F.  Mullins,  Dumfries. 

Preparation  of  Epidermis. — Place  the  leaf  in 
distilled  water  in  a  test-tube,  and  boil.  Remove  the 
epidermis,  and  place  it  in  the  following  solution : 
Equal  parts  methyl,  spirit,  glycerine,  water ;  mix. 
After  an  hour  or  two,  mount  in  glycerine  jelly.— 
Charles  F.   W.  T.  Willliams,  B.A.,  Bath, 

Mounting  Pollen,  etc. — As  a  rule  mount  pollen 
dry.  If  too  opaque  in  that  way,  then  use  glycerine 
jelly.  Mount  sections  of  stems  in  glycerine  jelly, 
first  soaking  in  solution  as  advised  in  note  for  pre- 
paration of  epidermis.  As  a  rule,  avoid  damar  or 
balsam  in  mounting  botanical  specimens.  For  a 
complete  guide  to  section  cutting  and  mounting  see 
"The  Microscope  in  Botany,"  pp.  165-203. — Charles 
F  W.  T.  Williams,  B.A.,  Bath. 

Hunting  for  Amcebas. — Many  students  begin- 
ning to  use  the  microscope  in  the  investigation  of 
living  minute  animals  have  heard  so  much  of  the 
Amoeba  that  they  are  surprised  they  do  not  find  it  at 
once.  The  fact  is,  Amcebas,  although  common,  require 
to  be  looked  for.  Their  transparent  and  colourless 
structure  screens  them,  and  even  trained  workers  are 
by  no  means  certain  to  find  Amcebas  when  they  require 
them.     I  have  found  the  following  simple  device  for 



catching  them  to  be  successful  in  the  highest  degree. 
I  lower  one  of  the  ordinary  shilling  glass  troughs 
down  to  the  bottom  of  my  fresh-water  aquarium — 
indeed,  I  generally  have  one  lying  there  for  use  at 
any  time.  When  the  trough  has  been  immersed 
about  twenty-four  hours,  on  being  carefully  brought 
up,  numerous  Amcebas  will  be  found  crawling  on  the 
inner  surfaces  of  the  glass. — J.  E.  Taylor. 

A  New  Glass  for  Objectives. — In  1878,  Pro- 
fessor Abbe,  son-in-law  of  Dr.  Carl  Zeiss,  of  Jena, 
pointed  out  that  we  could  not  hope  for  any  considerable 
improvements  in  objectives  until  some  better  material 
than  crown  or  flint  glass  were  obtained.  Since  then 
the  German  government  appropriated  twenty-five 
thousand  marks  to  enable  Zeiss  to  make  experiments, 
with  a  view  of  obtaining  a  glass  more  suitable  for 
lenses,  and  the  result  has  surpassed  all  expectations. 
Dr.  H.  van  Heurck,  of  Antwerp,  speaks  of  a  new 
homogeneous  immersion  |,  with  numerical  aperture  of 
I '4,  manufactured  from  the  new  glass,  as  follows: 
"The  images  are  of  wonderful  clearness,  and  the 
objective  has  greater  resolving  power  than  any  that 
we  have  hitherto  had.  With  vertical  illuminator 
Amphipleura  argenteum  is  resolved  into  pearls  over 
the  whole  surface  with  such  sharpness  that  they  may 
be  counted.  No  doubt  the  objective  will  show  us,  in 
many  diatoms,  details  which  have  hitherto  escaped 
observers.  Bacteria  will  probably  exhibit  details  of 
structure  as  yet  unknown,  and  which  will  perhaps 
enable  us  to  better  differentiate  the  species."  Others 
speak  equally  highly  of  this  objective. 


A  Problem  in  Geographical  Distribution. 
— A  study  of  the  geographical  distribution  of  the 
British  Mollusca  has  brought  me  face  to  face  with 
the  conclusion,  that  they  are  derived  from  three 
sources — northern,  eastern,  and  western.  It  would 
seem  that  since  the  Glacial  epoch  the  following  great 
changes  in  the  distribution  of  land  and  water  have 
taken  place :  first,  that  most  anciently  there  was 
land  stretching  from  the  polar  regions  to  Spain  and 
Africa,  and  that,  while  Ireland  and  the  south-western 
extremity  of  England  were  united  to  the  Continent, 
the  eastern  and  south-eastern  portions  were  sub- 
merged, as  also  the  valleys  of  the  Seine  and  Loire. 
Later  on,  the  connection  between  western  Britain 
and  the  Continent  was  severed,  and  another  was 
established  across  what  is  now  the  Straits  of  Dover. 
In  support  of  these  suggestions,  which  are  by  no 
means  novel,  there  are  many  facts,  such  as  the 
occurrence  in  the  south  of  Ireland  of  Geomalacus, 
and  many  southern  plants  not  known  in  England, 
but  living  also  in  Spain ;  and  in  the  same  district 
of  northern  species  such  as  Helix  lamcllala  and  Cor- 

dulia  arctica,  which  are  similarly  absent  from  south 
England,  but  are  present  in  Scotland.  The  British 
species  of  inland  mollusca  may  be  readily  divided 
into  the  three  divisions  proposed  as  follows  : — 

1.  Northern :  Limax  cinereo-niger,  L.  lencllus, 
Helix  lamcllata,  H.  pulchella,  Pupa  ringens,  Vertigo 
Lilljeborgi,  V.  alpeslris,  Planorbis  parvus,  Limncea 
palustris,  Unio  margaritifer. 

2.  Eastern  :  Testacella  haliotidea,  Hyalina  glabra, 
Helix  pomatia,  H.  cantiana,  H.  cartusiana,  H. 
lapicida,  Vertigo  Moulinsiana,  Clausilia  Rolphii,  C. 
biplicata,  Colostoma  clegans,  Neritina  fluviatilis, 
Pahidina  vivipara,  Hydrobia  similis,  Planorbis  linea- 
tus,  Limncea  glutinosa. 

3.  Western :  Geotnalacus  maculosus,  Limax  ar- 
borum,  Amalia  gagates,  Testacella  Maugei,  Succinea 
oblonga,  Hyalina   Drapamaldi,    Helix  aspersa,    H. 

fusca,  H.  pisana,  H.  revelata,  H.  rupestris,  H. 
obvoluta,  Cochlicella  acuta,  Bulimies  montanus,  Pupa 
secale,  Paludina  co?itecta,  Planorbis  nitidus. 

I  do  not  submit  these  results  expecting  them  to 
be  entirely  accepted,  but  rather  because  I  want  to 
provoke  the  consideration  and  discussion  of  this 
important  but  somewhat  neglected  problem  in  the 
hands  of  working  naturalists  ;  and  more  particularly 
I  want  every  one  to  examine  his  own  district,  and  see 
whether  it  confirms  or  disproves  the  above  theory. 
It  seems  in  every  way  probable  that  the  separation  of 
Ireland  from  the  Continent  and  from  the  south  of 
England  preceded  the  separation  of  the  latter  district 
from  Western  France. —  T.  D.  A.  Cockerell. 

Arion  subfuscus. — I  think  there  is  a  slight  mis- 
apprehension as  regards  the  supposed  A.  hortensis, 
var.  sub/usca.  I  have  not  seen  Mr.  Wotton's  Cardiff 
examples  of  this  form,  but  imagine  that  they  are 
probably  identical  with  the  species  described  pro- 
visionally under  that  name  in  Science-Gossip  for 
October  1885.  I  am  now  satisfied  that  this  form  is 
the  Arion  subfuscus  of  Draparnaud,  who  gives  a  good 
figure,  as  well  as  a  description,  of  the  species.  It 
may  be  known  from  A.  hortensis  by  its  larger  size 
when  adult,  and  its  orange-brown  colour,  and  from 
A.  ater  by  its  lateral  bands  and  smaller  size.  It 
is  probably  well  distributed  in  England  from 
Northumberland  (Sutton)  to  Truro  in  Cornwall, 
from  which  locality  I  have  received  several  specimens 
from  Mr.  J.  H.  James,  found  in  his  garden  in 
company  with  A.  hortensis,  Amalia  gagates,  vars. 
plumbea  and  rava,  A.  marginata,  Limax  maximus, 
vars.  quadrifasciata  and  Johnstoni,  and  Limax  agres- 
tis,  var.  sylvatica.  With  regard  to  the  last,  it  will 
be  well  to  state  that  in  this  and  other  former  com- 
munications, the  sylvatica  intended  is  that  of  Moquin- 
Tandon,  not  that  of  Draparnaud.  The  original 
description  of  Westerlund's  A.  ater,  var.  cinerea,  is  as 
follows:  "  Abdomine  fasciis  tribus  atris,  lateribus 
pallidis  sesquipollicariis."  This  scarcely  agrees  with 
Mr.  Williams's  translation.—  T.  D.  A.  Cockerell. 



A  Group  of  Rotifera. — In  connection  with  this 
article  in  April  Science-Gossip,  a  transposition  of 
two  of  the  figures  took  place  at  the  last  moment.  58a 
should  >be  590,  and  59a  should  be  58a.  A  careful 
perusal  of  the  text  will  show  this. 

Albinism. — The  following  newspaper  (Feb.  2, 
1886)  clipping  will,  I  think,  be  interesting  to  those 
who,  from  time  to  time,  have  corresponded  in 
Science-Gossip,  on  the  subject  of  albinoes.  "In 
Germany  an  unusual  number  of  white  varieties  of 
animals  are  noticed  this  winter.  A  white  chamois 
was  shot  in  the  Totengebirge,  a  white  fish  otter  was 
caught  near  Brunswick,  and  a  white  fox  was  killed  in 
Hessen."  The  present  winter  has  been  distinguished 
for  falls  of  snow  heavier  than  have  been  experienced 
for  a  considerable  number  of  years,  and  in  this 
paragraph  we  are  told  of  an  unusual  number  of 
animals  clothed  to  meet  it  in  suitable  winter  coats  of 
white.—  H.  W.  Lett,  M.A. 

GEOLOGY,  &c. 

The  Pliocene  Beds  of  Cornwall. — A  paper 
on  this  important  discovery  has  just  been  read  at  the 
Geological  Society  by  Messrs.  Robert  Bell  and 
Kendal.  It  consisted  of  a  description  of  the  beds 
exposed  at  St.  Erth,  a  list  of  the  molluscan  fossils 
identified,  and  is  a  continuation  of  that  by  the  late 
Mr.  S.  V.  Wood,  read  to  the  Society  in  November 
1884.  The  only  important  fossiliferous  bed  is  a  blue 
clay,  and  fossils  have  only  been  obtained  in  one  spot, 
though  the  beds  have  been  traced  over  an  area  of 
about  120  acres.  The  fossils  are  well  preserved,  and, 
with  a  few  unimportant  exceptions,  are  of  inverte- 
brate forms.  The  authors  considered  that  the  fossils 
agree  in  age  with  the  middle  or  lower  portion  of  the 
Red  Crag,  but  that  whilst  many  species  having  a 
southern  character  are  present  at  St.  Erth,  and 
wanting  in  the  Crags  of  the  east  coast,  the  Boreal 
and  Arctic  forms  found  so  abundantly  in  the  Crag 
are  absent  at  St.  Erth.  In  explanation  of  this  re- 
markable fact,  it  was  suggested  that  when  the  St. 
Erth  beds  were  deposited,  although  the  North-Sea 
area  was  in  direct  communication  with  the  Arctic 
Ocean,  the  western  part  of  the  British  Channel  was 
not,  that  the  British  Isles  were  joined  to  the  continent 
of  Europe  on  one  side  and  to  Greenland  on  the  other, 
the  Shetland  and  Faroe  Islands  and  Iceland  being  the 
remnants  of  the  barrier  that  formerly  divided  the 
Atlantic  from  the  Arctic  Sea.  Evidence  is  given  in 
support  of  this  view  from  the  present  submarine 
configuration  of  the  North  Atlantic.  It  was  also 
shown  to  be  probable  that  the  St.  Erth  area  in 
Pliocene  times  was  more  directly  connected  with  the 
Mediterranean  than  at  present,  by  a  marine  channel 
that  traversed  France. 

The  Anniversary  of  the  Geological  Society. 
— On  the  above  occasion  the  Wollaston  Gold  Medal 
wras  presented  to  Professor  Descloiseaux  ;  the  Wollas- 
ton Donation  Fund  to  Mr.  Starkey  Gardner,  for  his 
researches  in  fossil  botany  ;  the  Murchison  Medal  to 
Mr.  William  Whittaker,  B.A.,  F.G.S.,  for  his  con- 
tributions to  geological  science  and  literature ;  the 
Murchison  Geological  Fund  to  Mr.  Clement  Reid,  for 
his  researches  in  East  Anglian  geology  ;  the  Lyell 
Medal  to  Mr.  William  Pengelly,  F.R.S.,  for  his 
cavern  and  other  researches  ;  the  Lyell  Donation 
Fund  to  Mr.  D.  Macintosh,  for  his  labours  in  glacial 
geology  ;  and  to  Dr.  H.  J.  Johnston  Levis  the 
Barlow-Jamieson  Fund,  for  his  studies  in  Vesuvian 
volcanic  products,  and  the  Ischian  earthquake. 

"  British  Petrography." — Part  3  of  this  ori- 
ginal and  splendid  work  has  just  appeared.  Mr. 
Teall  deals  with  the  chemical  characters  of  igneous 
rocks,  and  the  two  beautifully  coloured  plates  show 
sections  of  picrite,  scyelite,  hornblende-picrite,  etc., 
with  key-plates  to  each. 


Instinct  in  Parrots. — Dr.  Kegan,  for  one,  will 
not  admit  that  the  lower  animals  have  any  right  to 
what  we  call  "  reason."  When  a  child  he  has 
probably  been  taught  by  the  womenkind  (as  most  of 
us  are)  that  men  have  reason  and  animals  instinct 
only,  and  this  theory  having  become  thoroughly 
ingrained  in  him,  I  am  afraid  no  amount  of  facts 
would  ever  convince  him  to  the  contrary — no,  even 
if  Balaam's  ass  were  to  talk  to  him,  he  would  still 
call  it  instinct.  It  is  all  very  well  to  assume  that 
had  the  cage  been  open  the  parrot  might  have 
pitched  the  encumbrance  outside  altogether,  and  run 
the  risk  of  starvation,  but  the  contrary  might  also 
have  been  the  case  ;  he  won't  allow  any  poor  animal 
a  modicum  of  sense  ;  it  is  always  "  an  association  of 
ideas  "  with  him,  as  if  we  human  beings  were  not 
subject  to  the  same  complaint.  We  don't  expect 
animals  to  be  "  marvellously  clever,"  but  many  of 
us  do  claim  for  them  a  certain  amount  of  intelligence, 
and  I,  for  one,  could  give  several  instances  thereof, 
but,  so  far  as  our  friend  is  concerned,  I  am  afraid  I 
should  only  have  my  trouble  for  nothing. — H.  M. 

A  Clever  Bird. — It  may  interest  the  bird-loving 
readers  of  Science-Gossip  to  know  that  a  Norwich 
canary  in  my  possession  has  acquired  the  songs — 
perfect  in  every  detail — of  the  following  birds  : 
African  green  singing  finch,  siskin,  and  chaffinch, 
also  the  final  notes  of  the  song  of  the  Virginian 
nightingale.  All  these  birds  I  kept  a  short  time 
since  in  an  aviary  with  the  canary.  It  is  a  strange 
thing,  too,  that  the  canary  has  only  sung  these 
songs  since  the  departure  of  the  other  birds.  He 
commenced  to  sing  them  about  two  weeks  after  I 
had  sold  the  small  birds  mentioned  ;  whilst  the 
Virginian  nightingale  had  been  dead  six  months  or 
more,  thus  showing  a  very  retentive  memory.  No 
one  scarcely  would  credit  it  unless  they  heard  him. 
He  reproduces  the  songs  of  the  birds  above  men- 
tioned in  the  minutest  detail ;  and  one  could  readily 
believe  that  my  old  friends  were  still  the  occupants 



of  the  aviary.  Not  only  does  he  (the  canary)  re- 
produce the  songs,  but  also  the  call-notes  ;  which  are 
intersperse!  with  snatches  of  his  own  song.  Thus 
he  mostly  begin :  with  the  Ar.ican  green-finch's  song, 
gradually  merging  into  his  own  liquid  notes  ;  then 
comes  the  "pink,  pink,  pink,"  of  the  chaffinch, 
followed  by  the  song  of  the  same ;  then  the  song  and 
harsh  call-notes  of  the  siskin  are  introduced,  all  one 
after  the  other  in  quick  succession,  and  invariably 
ending  with  the  final  notes  of  the  Virginian  nightin- 
gale's song.  I  was  very  nearly  disposing  of  him  to 
the  lady  who  bought  my  other  birds  ;  but  I  need 
scarcely  say  how  pleased  I  am  now  that  she  declined 
to  have  him.  He  is  really  the  most  wonderful 
mimic  I  ever  heard,  and  those  who  have  heard  him 
too  say  the  same— not  of  very  prepossessing  appear- 
ance, it  is  true,  but  nevertheless  a  wonderful  little 
fellow  ;  bold  and  fearless,  too,  in  a  remarkable 
degree,  and  a  great  pet.  When  I  clean  the  aviary, 
he  will  alight  on  the  back  of  the  knife  with  which  I 
scrape  the  perches  and  branches  ;  he  will  also  jump 
on  to  the  seed-tin  before  I  can  fix  it  in  its  place,  and 
chirps  out  at  me  in  quite  an  impudent  manner. 
Indeed,  from  his  general  air  of  superintendence,  we 
call  him  the  "Foreman." — William  Finch,  Jan., 

The  Whinchat. — The  following  record  may  be  of 
interest.  It  is  from  Mr.  W.  P.  Ellis,  of  Enfield 
Chase.  I  give  his  own  words  :  "  The  whinchat,  a 
little  bird  very  plentiful  with  us  during  the  breeding 
season,  occupies  a  piece  of  ground  not  more  than 
one  mile  square.  I  dare  say  on  it  a  hundred  pairs 
breed  annually.  These  birds  seem  very  successful  in 
rearing  their  young  ones,  and  it  is  not  infrequent 
that  they  bring  up  a  whole  batch  from  six  or  seven 
eggs.  About  the  commencement  of  September  all 
the  chats  in  the  neighbourhood  congregate  into  one 
portion  of  the  district,  and  all  of  a  sudden,  and 
apparently  at  night,  they  depart,  but  leaving  behind 
them  about  two  pairs  of  birds.  These  two  pairs 
remain  quite  contented  during  the  whole  of  the 
winter  until  about  April  3rd,  when  I  have  repeatedly 
missed  them,  and  we  see  no  more  winchats  until 
about  April  20th,  when  they  return  in  the  usual 
abundance  to  nest  with  us."  He  then  remarks  : 
"  Now  what  seems  strange  to  me  is  that  these  two 
pairs  of  birds  are  always  (for  I  have  noticed  the 
fact  for  several  years)  left  behind,  and  the  main 
body  migrate.  It  cannot  be  the  approaching  severe 
weather,  for  surely  if  some  can  bear  it  the  others  can." 
This  is  what  is  the  more  interesting  ;  and,  as  migra- 
tion as  yet  is  veiled  in  obscurity,  we  can  only 
conjecture,  if  that  be  any  good.  I  wonder  if  these 
two  pairs  of  birds  are  left  behind  as  sentinels,  and 
whether,  as  spring  arrives,  they  leave  to  join  their 
fellows  in  the  movement  inwards,  and  to  acquaint 
them  of  their  old  nesting-place,  if  favourable  to  their 
return  or  otherwise.  You  see  they  absent  themselves 
for  a  fortnight  previous  to  the  arrival  of  the  main 
body.— J.  W.  Williams,  D.Sc. 

Ancient  Definitions. — I  possess  an  old  book 
"  The  Compleat  Housewife,"  by  one  E.  Smith, 
published  in  1742,  in  which  are  given  directions  for 
carving  various  birds  and  fish.  '1  hus,  for  instance,  a 
barbel  is  to  be  "  tusked,"  and  a  crane  is  to  be 
"  displayed."  But  what  is  a  "brew,"  which  is  to  be 
"  untached  ; "  and  what  is  a  "  cheven  "  which  is  to 
be  "finned;"  and  '  Egript,"  which  has  to  be 
"broken"?  To  give  a  few  more  as  they  stand  in 
the  list,  as  a  curiosity  for  your  readers :  Chicken,  to 
frush ;  coney,  to  unlace ;  crab,  to  tame ;  eel,  to 
transon  ;  hen,  to  spoil  ;  peacock,  to  disfigure ; 
pheasant,  to  allay ;  pike,  to  splat  ;  quail,  to  wring  ; 

sturgeon,    to    tranch  ;    trout,    to    culpon.- 

■  Windsor 

An  Eagle's  Revenge. — The  following  anecdote 
illustrates  the  reasoning  power  of  the  goiden  eagle, 
Aqaila  chryscctos,  Linn.,  and  is  worth  preserving.  My 
informant  is  my  father,  the  Rev.  Canon  Charles  Lett, 
B.A.,  T.C.D.,  who  witnessed  the  occurrence  in  the 
year  1828,  and  he  has  often  related  it  to  me.  A  Mr. 
John  Palmer,  who  resided  at  Kingston  Terrace,  in 
the  city  of  Waterford,  had  a  tame  eagle  which  had 
been  procured  when  young  from  the  Comeragh 
Mountains,  co.  Waterford,  Ireland,  where  these  birds, 
till  quite  recently,  yearly  nested  (see  Thompson's. 
"Natural  History  of  Ireland,"  vol.  i.  p.  9.)  This 
particular  bird  was  not  confined  or  restrained  in  any 
way,  but  had  the  run  of  the  yard  and  garden,  and  was 
quite  tame.  The  owner  on  one  occasion,  to  amuse 
some  of  his  friends  who  had  called  upon  him,  placed 
the  house-cat  close  to  the  eagle,  which  attempted  to 
seize  it,  but  retreated  in  alarm  on  the  cat  spitting  at 
it.  A  chicken  was  next  brought,  and  instantly 
pounced  upon.  The  owner,  however,  released  it, 
whereupon  the  eagle  hopped  clumsily  after  it,  and  in, 
vain  tried  to  overtake  it.  When  it  perceived  its 
failure,  it  turned  towards  Mr.  Palmer,  and,  to  his 
alarm,  seized  his  legs  in  its  talons,  and  began  to 
attack  him  with  its  powerful  beak,  evidently  in 
revenge  for  being  deprived  of  its  prey.  As  the 
incident  took  place  in  the  garden,  a  cabbage  stalk, 
like  those  of  which  walking  sticks  are  made  in  Jersey, 
was  quickly  procured,  and  the  angry  and  disappointed 
eagle  beaten  off.—LL.  W.  Lett,  M.A. 

Mimulus  luteus. — I  have  seen  this  plant  growing 
freely  on  the  banks  of  the  Tay  in  Fifeshire,  N.B. 
An  Aberdeen  friend  of  mine  tells  me  he  has  fre- 
quently seen  this  plant  growing  in  Aberdeenshire  ;  in 
fact,  it  is,  he  says,  a  common  one  there. — L.  Barron. 

"Mimulus  luteus"  has  been  observed  in  the 
co.  Wicklow  for  many  years,  and  also  in  many  other 
parts  of  Ireland  :  see  "  Cybele  Hibernica." — 6".  A.  B., 
Glendun  Lodge. 

Poisonous  effects  of  the  Yew. — The  follow- 
ing incidents  may  interest  some  of  your  readers,  as 
illustrating  the  poisonous  effects  of  the  yew-tree  on 
animals.  My  pet  donkey  was  one  day  last  summer 
led  from  the  orchard  to  the  lawn,  which  was  bounded 
on  one  side  by  a  fine  old  yew-tree  leaning  against 
the  wall.  Jenny  was  tethered  by  a  long  rope  to 
a  stake  in  the  middle  of  the  lawn  just  before  the 
gardener  went  to  his  dinner,  and  we  left  her  browsing 
on  the  grass  when  we  adjourned  to  lunch.  After 
luncheon  I  went  up  to  the  open  window,  when  one  of 
the  children  who  were  with  me  exclaimed  :  "Jenny 
is  eating  the  yew."  He  ran  at  full  speed  and  dragged 
the  little  bit  of  yew  branch  which  Jenny  was, 
munching  out  of  her  mouth,  but  not  before  she  had 
bitten  off  and  swallowed  some  of  it.  I  followed  as 
soon  as  I  had  shut  up  my  watch,  which  I  happened  to 
be  setting  at  the  moment.  We  at  once  led  Jenny 
away  from  the  yew,  and  shortened  her  rope.  I  then 
returned  to  the  house,  feeling  glad  that  I  had  been 
(as  I  hoped)  in  time  to  prevent  any  ill  effects,  since 
there  was  no  evidence  of  broken  twigs  or  scattered 
leaves  to  show  that  she  had  been  long  at  the  yew- 
tree.  I  left  one  of  the  children  with  the  donkey  ;  but 
before  I  could  reach  the  house  I  heard  a  lamentable 
cry,  "  The  little  donkey  is  ill ; "  and,  turning  back,  I 
saw  the  poor  beast  in  the  act  of  falling  on  her  side. 
We  tried  to  raise  her,  and  even  fetched  a  bottle  of 
ammonia  to  hold  to  her  nostrils,  as  I  had  a  vague 
recollection  of  having  read  of  a  cure  from  poison  by 



inhaling  ammonia.  As  I  watched  the  symptoms,  I  ob- 
served that  once  or  twice  her  sides  heaved,  she  made 
a  spasmodic  attempt  to  vomit,  and  then  the  limbs 
stiffened,  the  sides  swelled  up  to  a  monstrous  size, 
and  poor  Jenny  breathed  her  last  before  our  eyes.  I 
looked  at  my  watch  as  I  returned  to  the  house,  and 
saw  that  just  twenty  minutes  had  elapsed  since  I  set 
my  watch  at  the  window. — L.  A. 

Caterpillars  of  Papilio  Helenus. — I  have 
several  caterpillars  of  Papilio  Helenus,  bright-green, 
beautifully  marked,  and  wonderfully  painted  false 
eyes.  They  feed  on  the  orange  leaf,  and,  on  being 
irritated,  protrude  a  pair  of  pink,  waxy,  snail-like 
tentacles,  which  give  out  a  strong  and  delicious  scent 
of  orange.  On  looking  at  these  caterpillars  one 
morning,  I  found  one  of  them  almost  covered  with 
little  oval,  white,  woolly  pupre,  which  apparently 
must  have  come  out  of  the  body  of  the  caterpillar 
during  the  night  ;  and  on  another  occasion  I  saw  one 
of  the  caterpdlars  with  only  a  little  woolly  substance 
about  the  middle  of  the  body,  but  on  examining 
it  through  a  lens  I  saw  little  transparent,  amber- 
coloured  protuberances,  which  I  laid  hold  of  with  a 
fine  pair  of  pincers,  and  drew  out  one  at  a  time,  in 
all,  thirteen  larvae  of  some  ichneumon  fly,  somewhat 
similar  to  those  I  saw  before,  but  not  covered  with 
any  woolly  substance.  The  question  is,  Did  the  first 
batch  coir.e  out  of  the  body  of  the  caterpillar,  or  were 
they  placed  round  to  devour  it  afterwards  ?  because 
the  caterpillar  I  first  took  out  of  this  woollen  wrapper 
of  apparently  small  chrysalises  lived  till  it  turned 
into  a  chrysalis,  and  afterwards  changed  into  Papilio 
Helenus.  Can  you  inform  me  if  there  is  any  work  I 
can  consult  on  caterpillars,  more  especially  with 
reference  to  this  scent-tentacle,  which  I  believe  only 
occurs  in  the  Papilionidse  ?  I  only  find  slight 
reference  to  this  peculiar  scent-organ  in  Packard's 
American  work  and  Duncan's  "  Metamorphoses  of 
Insects."  Pouchet  doesn't  mention  it,  and  our  new 
book  on  Indian  butterflies,  by  Marshall  and  De  Nice- 
ville,  has  not  a  word  on  the  subject.  However,  I 
manage  to  keep  them  protruded ;  what  is  the  best 
medium  to  mount  them  in  for  the  microscope? — ■ 
G.  C.  E.,  Coonoor,  ATilgiri  Hills,  Madras  Presidency. 

Gallinula  chloropus. — One  of  my  pets  is  a 
tame  moor-hen.  She  has  lived  for  some  months 
past  in  an  aviary  constructed  specially  for  her,  and 
in  which  is  a  miniature  pond  for  her  to  bathe  in. 
She  thrives  very  well  on  boiled  potatoes,  meat  cut 
into  small  morsels,  bread,  a  little  corn,  and  occasion- 
ally snails,  slugs,  and  earth-worms.  She  seems 
quite  indifferent  to  cold,  and  will  go  into  her  bath, 
after  I  have  broken  the  ice  for  her,  when  the 
temperature  is  such  that  the  water  must  almost 
freeze  on  her.  Her  evolutions  in  the  water  are  very 
amusing  to  watch ;  she  ducks  her  head  repeatedly 
under  the  surface,  and  seems  thoroughly  to  enjoy  her 
bath.  She  much  prefers  to  pick  her  barley  out  of 
the  water  to  eating  it  dry,  and  likes  it  best  when  it  is 
well  soaked. — Albert  H.  Waters. 

"A  Remarkable  Robin." — May  I  suggest  that 
the  supposed  variety  of  the  robin,  described  under 
the  above  title  on  p.  95,  was  a  specimen  of  the  snow 
bunting  {Plectrophanes  nivalis),  flocks  of  which  are 
not  very  infrequent  during  the  cold  weather  in 
Britain,  more  particularly  in  the  north? — T.  D.  A. 

The  British  Slug  List. — Referring  to  Dr. 
Williams's  useful  and  interesting  papers,  now  ap- 
pearing  in    your    columns,    on    the    variation    and 

continental  distribution  of  our  slugs,  I  notice  the 
author  states  that  the  var.  albo-lateralis,  Roebuck,  of 
Avion  atev,  "  is  only  known  from  North  Wales  and 
Sussex."  I  am  pleased  to  inform  him  that  I  met 
with  this  variety  near  Oswestry,  Salop,  in  June  last, 
and  sent  specimens  to  Mr.  Roebuck  as  Recorder  for 
the  Conchological  Society.  About  eight  miles  farther 
north,  just  within  the  borders  of  Salop,  I  also  took 
a  specimen  of  the  somewhat  rare  mollusk,  Limax 
cineveo-niger.  — B.  Hudson . 

Electric  Eel. — Perhaps  the  following  will  be  of 
interest  to  Mr.  C.  L.  Jackson,  as  he  has  "  never  seen 
in  print  before  "  the  fact  that  electric  eels  exert  their 
power  through  the  water.  I  copy  this  from  "  Animal 
Physiology,"  by  the  late  Dr.  W.  B.  Carpenter,  F.R.S. 
He  says  (p.  341,  1864  ed.)  :  "  This  power  is  employed 
by  the  fish  (gymnotus)  to  defend  itself  against  its 
enemies,  and  even,  it  is  said,  to  destroy  its  prey 
(which  consists  of  other  fishes)  at  some  distance,  the 
shock  being  conveyed  by  the  water  as  a  lightning- 
conductor  conveys  to  the  earth  the  effects  of  the 
electric  discharge  of  the  clouds."  It  is  different  in 
the  case  of  the  torpedo  :  this  fish  must  be  touched  in 
two  places  before  any  shock  is  felt ;  if  it  is  only 
touched  in  one  place  it  will  turn  itself  so  as  to  make 
another  part  of  its  body  touch  the  intruder,  and  so 
"  complete  the  circle." — A.  W.  Harrison. 

The  Shard-borne  Beetle. — "The  shard-borne 
beetle,  with  its  drowsy  hum"  (Geotrupes  vernalis, 
fam.  Scarabseidoe),  has  many  names  in  common.  It  is 
also  called  the  "watchman's  clock,"  etc.  Gray,  in 
his  "  Elegy  Writtenin  a  Country  Churchyard,"  alludes 
to  it.— H.  H.   Westei-field. 

A  Kitten  resembling  a  Rabbit  in  its  Hind- 
Quarters. — The  following  was  narrated  to  me  by  a 
resident  in  Cushendun,  who  heard  it  from  a  farmer, 
John  O'Hara,  Crooknacraw.  O'Hara's  cat  left  the 
house  for  several  weeks,  and  returned  with  kittens, 
the  hinder  part  of  one  resembling  a  rabbit.  It  was 
killed,  as  it  was  considered  unlucky.  On  looking 
over  Loudon's  "Magazine  of  Natural  History,'' 
(vol.  v.  p.  275),  there  is  a  similar  statement  which 
occurred  at  Newark,  at  a  farm  called  Meering,  in  1831. 
That  two  animals  of  such  opposite  natures  as  the  cat 
and  rabbit  should  unite,  and  the  produce  partake  in 
so  distinct  a  manner  of  both  species,  is  remarkable  in 
a  physiological  point  of  view.  This,  I  think,  is  worth 
inserting  in  Science-Gossip,  when  some  of  your 
readers  may  be  able  to  furnish  more  light  on  the 
subject. — Rev.  S.  A.  Brenan,  Gle?idun  Lodge,  Cush- 
endun, co.  Antrim. 

The  Cuckoo. — A  gentleman,  who  lived  at 
Brymbo,  North  Wales,  for  some  years,  communi- 
cated to  me  a  curious  fact,  which  some  of  your 
readers  may  be  interested  in  :  namely,  that  the  cuckoo 
lays  her  eggs  in  the  nest  of  the  ring-dove  or  wood- 
quest.  I  have  never  heard  or  seen  an  account  of  this 
before,  except  in  the  Rev.  Gilbert  White's  "  Natural 
History  of  Selborne,"  letter  xxx.,  where  he  writes 
that  "  the  excellent  Mr.  Willoughby  mentions  the 
nest  of  the  palumbus  ring-dove."  My  friend  told  me 
that  he  wanted  to  rear  a  young  wood -pigeon,  and 
climbed  to  one  of  the  nests,  and  found  two  eggs,  one 
totally  different  from  the  other,  which  greatly  surprised 
him.  When  the  young  were  hatched  out,  the  parent 
birds  ejected  them  from  the  nest,  and  so  they  perished. 
Differences  in  eggs  were  observed  in  other  nests. 
Could  there  be  another  bird  who  lays  eggs  similarly 
to  a  cuckoo  ?—  Rev.  S.  A.  Brenan,  Glendun  Lodge, 
Cushendun,  co.  Antrim. 



The  Bee  and  Caterpillar. — A  friend  in  co. 
Tyrone  states  that  she  saw  at  harvest  time,  in  a  field 
of  oats,  a  wild  bee  carry  off  a  caterpillar.  Is  this  an 
uncommon  occurrence  ? — Rev.  S.  A.  Brenan,  Glcndun 
Lodge,  Cushendun,  co.  Antrim. 

Sagacity  of  a  Collie  Dog. — Among  the  nu- 
merous instances  received  of  the  sagacity  of  dogs 
under  certain  peculiar  circumstances,  when  intelli- 
gence has  been  displayed  equal  to  that  of  man,  the 
following  instance  which  has  just  occurred  in 
Northumberland  during  the  recent  unexampled  snow- 
storm in  that  county  will,  I  think,  bear  a  favourable 
comparison  to  any  of  them.  On  the  morning  of 
Saturday,  the  6th  of  March,  a  collie  dog  belonging 
to  Mr.  Walter  McDonald,  farm  steward,  Ilverton, 
near  Wooler,  displayed  a  remarkable  amount  of 
sagacity,  and  rendered  good  service  in  probably 
saving  his  master's  life.  It  appears  that  a  dam  which 
conveys  water  to  the  pond  had  been  completely 
blocked  by  the  storm  of  Monday  and  Tuesday 
previous ;  and  Mr.  McDonald,  accompanied  by  his 
dog,  had  gone  to  the  head  of  the  dam,  which  is  about 
a  mile  distant,  to  ascertain  what  strength  would  be 
required  to  clear  this  away  for  the  free  run  of  the 
water.  In  making  his  way  along  a  piece  of  sloping 
ground  he  suddenly  fell  into  a  wreath  of  snow  some 
nine  or  ten  feet  deep.  While  engaged  to  free  him- 
self, the  faithful  collie  seized  him  by  the  arm  ;  and, 
seeing  his  master  trying  in  vain  to  reach  the  branch 
of  a  tree  overhanging  him,  the  dog  instantly  sprang 
at  the  branch  and,  seizing  it,  held  it  down  to  his 
master's  grasp,  who  finally  succeeded  in  obtaining  a 
firm  footing. — Dipton  Bam. 

Birds  Singing  at  Night. — Just  after  the  break- 
up of  the  late  frost,  and  on  a  mild  and  moonlight 
night,  as  I  was  lying  awake  (time,  11.45  p.m.),  a 
blackbird  gave  out  its  well-known,  quick,  consecutive 
notes,  renewing  them  at  intervals  up  to  twelve  o'clock, 
immediately  after  which  hour  a  thrush  began  to 
sing  most  beautifully  and  joyously.  Surely  this  is 
very  unusual  so  early  in  the  year  ?  I  can  only  conclude 
that,  the  east  winds  having  so  long  kept  him  silent,  he 
couldn't  help  himself,  and  thus  serenaded  his  mate, 
who,  I  fancy,  was  not  far  off,  on  her  nest,  telling  of 
"a  good  time  coming,"  in  the  way  of  worms  and 
snails,  in  the  morning. —  Windsor  Hambrough. 

The  Violet. — I  was  surprised  to  notice  the  in- 
accuracies in  Mr.  Hampden  G.  Glasspoole's  paper  on 
"The  Violet"  in  last  May's  number.  I  will  deal 
seriatim  with  the  mistakes.  I  never  heard  of  Io  (not 
la),  a  daughter  of  Atlas,  being  pursued  by  Apollo  ; 
probably  Mr.  Glasspoole  must  have  been  thinking  of 
Daphne,  who  was — as  we  read  in  Ovid's  "Metamor- 
phoses" (book  i.  452) — turned  into  a  laurel-tree  (not 
into  a  violet)  to  escape  the  love  of  Apollo.  There 
may  be  a  myth  about  the  metamorphosis  of  a  woman 
into  a  violet,  but  her  name  was  certainly  not  Io. 
Again,  the  Greek  'lov,  "  a  violet,"  has  nothing  to  do 
with  'I«,  the  proper  name  (there  is  no  such 
woman  as  'lwv  (not  'lov)  in  Grecian  mythology. 
There  is,  however,  a  form  Ion  in  Latin,  occurring 
only  once,  I  believe — in  the  "  Aulularia"  of  Plautus 
(3,  6,  20).  The  iota  in  'lov,  "a  violet,"  is  short, 
while  it  is  long  in  'Io> ,  the  proper  name.  There  is 
no  work  of  Aristophanes  known  as  "The  Seasons"  ; 
as  I  do  not  at  present  possess  an  Aristophanes  with 
an  "  Index  Vocabulorum,"  I  cannot  discover  the 
passage  quoted  by  Mr.  Glasspoole.  The  wine  made 
by  the  Romans  from  violets  was  called  "  violatum 
vinum  "  ;  there  is  no  such  substantive  in  Latin  as 
"violatum."  "  Rosatum,"  not  "  rosaltum,"  is  the 
word  for  wine  made  from  roses.     I  must  accuse  Mr. 

Glasspoole  of  plagiarism,  as  he  has  copied,  word  for 
word,  the  all  but  last  paragraph  of  his  paper  from 
"The  Treasury  of  Botany,"  pi.  1218 — I  mean  the 
paragraph  beginning,  "  Professor  Buckman  states," 
to  "  the  troublesome  little  insect  to  be  hatched."  I 
hope  Mr.  Glasspoole  will  forgive  me  finding  fault 
with  his  otherwise  interesting  account  of  the  violet. — 
C.  Donovan,  jun.,  Westview,  Glandore,  Leap,  co.  Cork. 

Garden  Slugs. — On  April  5th  I  found  beneath 
some  old  stones  in  a  garden  two  young  Arion  ater, 
(about  the  size  of  Arion  hortensis),  which  were  white. 
Whilst  examining  them  along  with  some  other  slugs 
on  a  table,  I  happened  to  place  the  two  white  Arion 
ater  on  a  green  leaf,  and  in  a  few  minutes  they 
became  of  a  greenish  colour.  Has  any  one  else  made 
any  similar  observations  in  regard  to  slugs  ?  Along 
with  the  Arion  ater  I  found  two  full-grown  Arion 
hortensis  with  the  foot  a  deep  orange,  and  the  entire 
body  and  mantle  of  a  dull  orange,  with  the  usual 
black  lateral  bands.  I  also  examined  two  Limax 
agrestis,  var.  nigra,  which  had  been  found  in  a  garden 
at  Wakefield  by  Mr.  J.  Wilcock. —  George  Roberts, 

Tail  of  Slow-Worm  Sloughing  off. — A 
slow-worm  which  I  have  kept  since  April  1884  has 
just  died  ;  on  March  28th  the  tail  scales  were  very 
rough,  and  appeared  erect.  April  2nd  I  found  the 
tail  had  sloughed  off,  and  the  next  day  the  animal 
died.  I  shall  be  glad  if  readers  of  Science-Gossip 
can  throw  any  light  on  so  singular  a  death.  Perhaps 
I  ought  to  mention  that  in  the  same  case  there  is 
kept  a  frog  which  I  reared  from  the  spawn,  and  a 
toad. — Geo.  E.  Turner,  Winterborne  Stick/and, 

Flight  of  Bees. — In  answer  to  Mark  Antony's 
third  query  at  p.  94, 1  must  say  that  the  idea  of  a  bee 
flying  in  circles  to  and  from  the  hive,  by  which  he 
must  mean  all  the  time  it  is  on  the  wing,  is  quite 
new  to  me,  and  is,  I  think,  incorrect.  A  bee,  as 
soon  as  it  first  leaves  the  hive,  circles  round  and 
round  till  it  has  well  marked  in  its  eye  the  spot  it 
has  just  come  out  of,  and  then  it  flies  straight  away  in 
search  of  flowers  ;  and  when  it  is  on  the  return  journey, 
laden  with  sweets  and  perhaps  pollen,  it  also  flies  in 
what  likewise  has  passed  into  a  proverb  as  "  a  bee 
line."  In  late  autumn  and  early  spring,  when  bees 
get  a  chance  of  a  mild  day,  they  take  a  short  flight 
to  cleanse  themselves  of  foeces,  and  this  certainly  is 
always  in  a  circle.  But  let  any  one  stand  between  a 
field  of  white  clover  in  bloom  and  a  hive  of  bees,  and 
he  will  see  how  truly  go-ahead  is  their  journey  on 
the  wing.—  H.  W.  Lett,  ALA. 

Bird  Gossip. — The  severe  weather,  with  continued 
frost,  which  prevailed  nearly  all  through  the  first 
three  weeks  of  March,  played  sad  havoc  amongst  our 
thrush  tribe.  Our  fields  and  woods  through  these 
weeks  were  thickly  populated  by  thrushes— par- 
ticularly the  song-thrush  and  redwing ;  the  fieldfare 
and  missel-thrush  coming  next  in  proportion.  The 
blackbird  seems  to  have  been  less  numerous  ;  even  a 
pair  in  my  garden  were  seldom  seen.  This  tends  to 
show  that  blackbirds  as  a  rule  went  farther  south,  or 
that  the  main  body  of  migrants  were  later  than  the 
other  thrushes  in  returning,  and  did  not  get  caught 
in  the  late  spell  of  winter.  Many  deaths  occurred 
during  these  few  weeks,  principally  amongst  the  song- 
thrushes,  the  death-rate  of  the  redwing  and  fieldfare 
ranking  next,  while  a  few  missel-thrushes  also  suc- 
cumbed—it may  be  equally  according  to  numbers  ; 
but  they  are  much  less  plentifully  met  with  than  the 
other  thrushes.     The  deaths  appear  in  all  cases  to 

HARD  WICKE '  S    S  CIE  NCE  -  G  O  SSI  P. 


have  been  from  starvation  and  consequent  weakness, 
the  dead  birds  picked  up  being  little  but  skeleton, 
skin,  and  feathers.  I  knew  of  several  fieldfares 
captured  alive,  in  a  weak  state  and  unable  to  fly. 
With  the  change  in  weather,  however,  a  total  change 
of  scene  has  followed.  Fieldfare  and  redwing  have 
gone  north,  missel-thrushes  to  the  woods,  while  the 
blackbird  and  the  song-thrush  are  now  (March  28) 
building  their  nests,  as  is  also  the  robin.  Hedge- 
sparrows  are  courting,  while  the  greenfinches  and 
chaffinches,  which  usually  build  in  the  garden,  are 
constantly  before  us  in  sight  and  hearing.  Wrens 
are  singing  against  each  other  as  if  for  a  wager  ;  and 
a  pair  of  red  wagtails,  which  have  nested  for  several 
years  in  an  old  stem,  are  carefully  inspecting  their 
old  quarters.  The  mischievous  house-sparrow,  too, 
is  quarrelling  over  nesting  quarters,  and  pulling 
straws  out  of  the  thatch  of  the  summer-house  roof 
for  some  one  else  to  clear  up.  Already  two  of  our 
summer  migrants  have  turned  up.  Several  chiffchaffs 
were  seen  and  heard  on  the  22nd  of  March,  and  a 
pair  of  sand-martins  on  the  25th. —  William  Jeffery. 

Otters  in  the  Eastern  Counties. — I  am  not 
aware  that  the  otter  has  been  met  with  in  Cambridge- 
shire in  recent  years,  and  most  naturalists  believe  it 
to  be  extinct  in  the  county,  but  one,  if  not  two,  have 
been  lately  captured  not  far  from  the  borders  of 
Cambridgeshire.  A  fine  female  was  caught  on 
February  23rd  near  Mildenhall,  in  Suffolk. — Albert 
H.  Waters,  B.A.,  F.S.Sc. 

Lambs  Killed  by  Otters. — In  March,  on  the 
banks  of  the  Dovey  (Montgomery)  a  farmer  lost  seven 
or  eight  young  lambs.  Not  being  able  to  account  for 
it,  he  watched,  and  saw  an  otter  kill  two.  He  then 
complained  to  one  of  the  river- watchers  that  his 
otters  were  killing  all  his  lambs.     The  keeper  said  it 

was  nonsense,  and  impossible,  and  would  not  believe 
it,  till  the  farmer  told  him  he  had  seen  the  otter 
do  it.     Is  this  an    uncommon    occurrence  ? — M.  E. 


Flowers  of  Azalea. — What  is  probably  the 
reason  why  some  of  the  flowers  upon  an  azalea  shrub 
should,  year  after  year,  be  of  a  very  much  darker 
shade  of  colour  than  the  majority,  which  are  of  a  light 
pinkish  shade  ?  Those  of  the  dark  are  in  a  mass 
together. — A.  P. 

Cleaning  Echinus  Spines.— Which  is  the  best 
way  of  cleaning  the  spines  of  Spatangi  without 
injuring  them,  so  that  they  will  show  well  for 
mounting  ? —  W.  M.  Ranson. 

Food  of  Weasels. — Jesse,  in  his  "  Scenes  and 
Occupations  of  a  Country  Life,"  says  that  "keepers 
have  informed  him  that  weasels  kill  and  feed  oft- 
times  upon  snakes."  I  should  be  glad  were  some  one 
to  personally  confirm  this — T.  W.  Williams,  D.L.S. 

A  curious  instance  of  protective  sagacity  was 
shown  in  the  prescience,  as  it  would  appear,  of  a  pair 
of  swans,  who  in  July  of  1884  had  completed  their 
nest  on  the  bank  of  a  dyke  at  Washingboro',  near 
Lincoln,  preparatory  to  the  laying  of  eggs  ;  but  on 
the  fourth  day  of  the  month  were  observed  by  some 
labourers  to  set  to  work  afresh  and  raise  their  nest 
till  the  structure  was  piled  up  two  feet  higher,  as 
though  conscious  of  the  great  storm  that  was 
approaching.  On  Thursday,  the  5th,  rain  fell  in 
torrents  (accompanied  by  thunder  and  lightning),  the 
whole  land  was  flooded,  and  their  nest  would  in- 
evitably have  been  swept  away  but  for  this  precaution. 
The  eggs  were  saved  and  the  nest  left  high  and  dry 
after  the  subsidence  of  the  waters. — C.  M.  V. 


To  Correspondents  and  Exchangers. — As  we  now 
publish  Science-Gossip  earlier  than  formerly,  we  cannot  un- 
dertake to  insert  in  the  following  number  any  communications 
which  reach  us  later  than  the  8th  of  the  previous  month. 

To  Anonymous  Querists. — We  must  adhere  to  our  rule  of 
not  noticing  queries  which  do  not  bear  the  writers'  names. 

To  Dealers  and  others. — We  are  always  glad  to  treat 
dealers  in  natural  history  objects  on  the  same  fair  and  general 
ground  as  amateurs,  in  so  far  as  the  "exchanges"  offered  are  fair 
exchanges.  But  it  is  evident  that,  when  their  offers  are  simply 
disguised  advertisements,  for  the  purpose  of  evading  the  cost  of 
advertising,  an  advantage  is  taken  of  our  gratuitous  insertion  of 
"  exchanges  "  which  cannot  be  tolerated. 

We  request  that  all  exchanges  may  be  signed  with  name  (or 
initials)  and  full  address  at  the  end. 

G.  W.  C. — The  Government  of  Ceylon  have  published  a 
work  on  the  Lepidoptera  of  that  island  by  Mr.  F.  Moore,  F.L.S., 
in  two  volumes,  price  £6  10s.  Inquire  of  Messrs.  Lovell  Reeve 
&  Co.,  Henrietta  Street,  Covent  Garden,  London. 

W.  F.  C. —  The  photograph  you  sent  us  is  evidently  that  of  a 
mite  which  probably  infested  the  dipterous  insect. 

West  Kirby  (Liverpool). — The  minute  shells  are  Hydrobia 
ulvce,  common  nearly  everywhere  on  the  British  coasts.  See 
vol.  iv.  of  Dr.  J.  Gwyn  Jeffreys'  "  Manual  of  British  Mol- 

F.  W. — We  stated  in  error  last  month  that  the  "  Journal  of 
Conchology"  was  published  monthly;  we  ought  to  have  said 

T.  W.  W. — The  best  text  book  on  botany  is  by  Professor 
Sachs,  translated  and  edited  by  Professor  Thistleton  Dyer  and 
Mr.  A.  W.  Bennett,  and  published  by  the  Clarendon  Press, 
Oxford,  price  i%s. 

C.  L.  S. — You  had  better  apply  for  information  concerning  an 
exchange  list  of  British  land  and  freshwater  shells  of  the  editor 
of  the  "  Journal  of  Conchology,"  Hunslet  New  Road,  Leeds. 

G.  F.  G. — The  following  are  capital  books  of  reference  : 
"British  Bees,"  by  W.  E.  Shuckard,  price  10s.  6d.,  published 
by  Lovell  Reeve  &  Co.;  "Ants  and  Bees,"  by  Sir  John  Lub- 
bock, price  5.J.,  published  by  Kegan  Paul  &  Co.  (one  of  the 
International  Scientific  Library  Series).  Consult  also  "  British 
Insects,"  by  E.  F.  Staveley,  price  14^.,  published  by  Lovell  Reeve 
&  Co.  ;  also  "  Insects  at  Home,"  by  the  Rev.  J.  G.  Wood,  price 
18^.,  published  by  Longmans  &  Co. 

H.  H. — You  will  possibly  obtain  a  copy  of  Waterhouse 
Hawkins'  large  diagrams  of  extinct  animals,  by  applying  to 
such  scientific  booksellers  as  Mr.  William  Wesley,  28  Essex 
Street,  Strand,  London,  or  Mr.  W.  P.  Collins,  157  Great  Port- 
land Street,  London,  W. 

G.  A.  G. — You  will  find  a  capital  introduction  to  the  British 
freshwater  Alga;  in  Dr.  Cooke's  "  Ponds  and  Ditches,"  price 
2s.  6d.,  published  by  the  Society  for  the  Promotion  of  Christian 

T.  H.  C.  H. — We  are  always  pleased  to  insert  original  papers 
if  they  contain  anything  of  value,  but  we  cannot  undertake  to 
return  manuscripts  unless  accompanied  with  stamps. 


Wanted,  Coleoptera  from  foreign  correspondents.  Will 
exchange  other  Coleoptera  and  natural  history  objects,  etc. — 
D.  Dods,  47  Chepstow  Place,  Bayswater,  London. 

Large  microscope  with  accessories,  including  series  of  Ross 
objectives.  Also  portable  stand  and  student's  stand,  with  good 
i-inch  and  i-inch ;  present  owner  no  further  use  for  them. — 
F.  W.  Stoddart,  Bristol. 

Pectens  from  Hastings  in  exchange  for  other  shells  ;  also 
many  duplicates  of  foreign  shells. — C.  L.  S.,  Melrose,  Quarry 
Road,  Hastings. 

Offered,  "Nature,"  1885,  unbound;  Cassell's  "Natural 
History,"  vol.  i.  (Apes,  Lemurs,  Chiroptera,  and  Insectivora), 
unbound.  Wanted,  insect  store  boxes,  also  Lepidoptera  and 
Coleoptera  or  tropical  land  shells. — B.  Hudson,  15  Waterloo 
Road,  Middlesbrough. 

Micro  material:  what  offers  for  hairs  from  musk-rat's  tail  ? 
Wanted,  Lepidoptera  and  Coleoptera. — B.  Hudson,  15  Waterloo 
Road.  Middlesbrough. 

Wanted,  any  books  or  pamphlets  relating  to  Ventriculites  ; 
good  exchange. — F.  Challis,  10  Broomfield  Road,  Chelmsford. 
Scotch   Graptolites  offered  in  exchange  for  foreign  shells, 
land  or  marine.— Miss  F.  M.  Hele,  Fairlight,  Elmgrove  Road, 
Cotham,  Bristol. 

For  exchange :  1883-4-5  of  Science-Gossip,  unbound, 
clean,  and  as  good  as  new  ;  aLo  vols,  iii.,  iv.,  v.,  and  vi.  of 
"  Boy's  Own  Paper,"  unbound,  with  plates  and  indices.  Wanted, 
a  good  hen  canary. — W.  S.  Castle-Turner,  6  Dagnall  Park 
Terrace,  Selhurst,  S.E. 

Fossils  from  the  quartzite  pebbles  of  the  drift  of  Birmingham 
in  exchange  for  fossils  from  Cretaceous,  Red  Crag,  or  offers. — 
A.  T.  Evans,  171  Cooksey  Road,  Small  Heath,  Birmingham. 



Wanted,  parts  5,  9,  and  12  of  vol.  i.  of  the  "Journal  of 
Conchology."  Exchange  British  shells,  micro  slides,  or  offers 
requested.— J.  W.  Cundall,  Carrville,  Alexandra  Park,  Redland, 

Bri-tol.  .     ,  a.        .     ,    ,. 

For  exchange,  most  gorgeous  exotic  butterflies,  including 
Morpho  Cypris,  Morpho  Menelaus,  Omithoptera  Darsius, 
Papilio  Polyctor,  Papilio  Hector,  Apatura  Laurentia,  and 
about  forty  others  in  papers  ;  also  wings  of  Morpho  Cypris, 
Menelaus,  etc.,  for  microscopic  purposes.— Joseph  Anderson, 
hm.,  Aire  Villa,  Chichester,  Sussex. 

L.  C,  7th  ed.,  offered,  89,  133,  135.  150,  169,  174,  236,  238, 
245,  261,  350,  406,  532,  534,  575.626,  627,  634,  810 ,812,  823,  856, 
m:,  933,  1056,  1124,  1128,  1142,  1304,  1349.  M82,  1503,  1615, 
1646.    Many  desiderata.— W.  S.  Harrison,  15  Park  Place  East, 

Sunderland.  .     .    .     ,     .  ,    . 

Wanted  parts  1  to  10,  and  15  to  21,  both  inclusive,  of  the 
*'  English  Illustrated  Magazine.  '— L.  Francis,  34  Brunswick 
Terrace,  Grosvenor  Park,  Camberwell,  S.E. 

Will  exchange  6  vols,  of  "  Design  and  Work,"  for  vols,  of 
the  Chandos  Classics  (library  edition),  or  offers  in  books.— 
L.  Francis,  34  Brunswick  Terrace,  Grosvenor  Park,  Camber- 
well   S.E. 

First  15  parts  of  Cassell's  "  Our  Own  Country,"  for  other 
books  of  equal  value  treating  on  literature,  scienre,  or  art.— 
L.  Francis,  34  Brunswick  Terrace,  Grosvenor  Patk,  Camber- 
well    S.E. 

Will  exchange  Dec.  1885,  and  Jan.,  Feb.,  March,  and 
April  (18S6)  numbers  of  "  Knowledge,"  for  the  December  (1885) 
and  January  (1886)  numbers  of"  Nature."— J.  E.  Gore,  Bally- 
sodare,  co.  Sligo,  Ireland.  _ 

British  birds'  eggs:  advertiser  wishes  to  correspond  with 
a  collector  in  North  Britain  with  a  view  to  exchange  specimens. 
— W.  Gyngell,  Wellington,  Somerset. 

Offered,  cocoons  (alive,  healthy)  of  Promethia,  foreign 
beetles  and  eggs,  for  rare  old  foreign  stamps  and  British  birds' 
eges.— John  Clapperton,  Bridge  Street,  Galashiels.        _ 

"  Records  of  School  of  Mines,"  parts  t  and  2,  vol.  1.,  bound 
in  cloth,  for  fossils  from  London  Clay.— Owen  Rees,  59  Sand- 
brook  Road,  Stoke  Newington,  N. 

"  Science-Gossip"  for  1866,  1868,  1869,  1870,  1871,  and  1872 
bound  and  1882  to  date  unbound;  also  a  large  number  of 
British  and  foreign  shells  and  micro-slides.  Wanted,  books  by 
Ruskin,  Hamerton,  etc.,  or  offers.— S.  C.  Cockerell,  5  Priory 
Road,  Bedford  Park,  Chiswick,  W. 

Littorina  a-stuarii,  Jeff.,  offered  for  any  other  local  species 
of  marine,  land,  or  freshwater  shells.— W.  Jordan,  Cockfield, 
Sudbury,  Suffolk.  . 

"America  Revisited,"  by  Sala,  full  of  humorous  cuts; 
""I've  Been  a-Gipsying,"  by  George  Smith,  illustrated  ; 
Forrest's  "  Rock  Sculptures  on  Rombald's  Moor,"  pamphlet 
with  lithographs,  rare  ;  MS.  list  of  shells  of  Wakefield  brought 
down  to  1886  ;  pair  of  crossbills  alive  ;  Planorbis  corneus  alive, 
for  natural  history  books.— Geo.  Roberts,  Lofthouse,  Wakefield. 

Offered:  herbarium  specimens  of  marine  Algae,  Bostrychia 
(Cystocarps  and  Tetra'pores),  Helminthora,  Seirospora,  etc. 
Wanted  Nemalion,  Helminthocladia,  etc.— T.  H.  Buffham, 
ComelyBank  Road,  Walthamstow._  _ 

Wanted  Cooke's  "British  Fungi."  Vv  ill  give  Dr.  Buchner  s 
"Man  in  the  Past,  Present,  and  Future."— J.  W.  Williams, 
D.Sc,  27  Corinne  Road,  Tufnell  Park ,  N. 

Wanted  Cooke's  "  Rust,  Smut,  Mildew,  and  Mould.  Will 
give  Schafer's  "  Fssentials  of  Histology."— J.  W.  Williams, 
D.Sc.,  27  Corinne  Road,  Tufnell  Park,  N. 

Roscoe's  "  Chemistry,"  Jones'  "Junior  Practical  Chemistry, 
Tilden's  "  Introduction  to  Chemical  Philosophy"  ("Text-Book 
of  Science"),  and  Cooke's  "  British  Fungi"   (coloured  plates), 
for  shells  or  fossils.— Robert  Cairns,  The  Grove,  Currier  Lane, 
Ashton-under-Lyne.  . 

Exotic  butterflies  :  many  fine  and  rare  species  for  exchange. 
Collectors  please  send  duplicates  and  desiderata.— J.  C  Hudson, 
Railway  Teirace,  Cross  Lane,  near  Manchester. 

Two  micro  slides  for  each  of  the  following  numbers  of 
Science-Gossip:  Nos.  4,  April,  1865  ;  38,  Feb.,  40,  April,  1868  ; 
53,  May,  57,  Sept.,  1869;  66,  June,  71,  Nov.,  1870;  74,  Feb., 
75,  March,  1871  :  85,  Jan.,  95,  Nov.,  96,  Dec,  1872  ;  and  126, 
June,  1875.— Samuel  M.  Malcolmson,  M.D.,  55  Great  Victoria 
Street,  Belfast.  .  . 

Want  ed,  one  or  two  specimens  of  obsidian  implements  ,  a 
liberal  and  varied  exchange  offered.— Edward  Lovett,  West 
i'.irton  House,  Outram  Road,  Croydon. 

Wanted,  a  really  good  \  objective  ;  will  give  in  exchange  a 
first-class  o'xyhydrogen  microscope  for  attachment  to  lantern 
front,  has  three  powers,  rack-work,  etc.,  in  mahogany  box  with 
lork.— John  James  Stead,  Heckmondwike. 

Wanted,  unmounted  microscopic  material,  viz. :  any  rare 
insects  preserved  in  weak  spirit,  micro  fungi  or  Foraminifera 
(British  or  foreign),  of  as  many  species  as  possible  in  exchange 
for  live  microscopic  objects,  viz.:  Hydra  viridis,  Mehccrta 
ringens,  Desmids,  and  other  pond-life  as  obtainable.— W.  H. 
Pratt,  49  Dryden  Street,  Nottingham.  _ 

What  offers  in  books  (history  preferred)  in  exchange  for 
"  Engineering  "  for  May  to  October,  1885,  twenty-six  numbers, 
including  Inventions  double  number,  and  Science-Gossip, 
March  to  December,  1884?  The  whole  in  clean  condition.— 
G.  Stanton,  Darwood  Place,  St.  Ives,  Hunts. 

Wanted,  natural  history  books;  microtome;  also  book, 
"  Ed^eworth  (M.P.)  on  Pollen."  Will  give  in  exchange  first- 
class  micro  slides. — W.  S.  Anderson,  7  Granby  Street,  Ilkeston. 

Will  send  two  dozen  varieties  of  animal  hair  in  exchanee  for 
other  unmounted  objects. — A.  Harvey  Williams,  Hythe,  Kent. 

Science-Gossip  for  1865,  1868;  "  Quekett  Journal,"  vol.  i.  ; 
"The  Microscope,"  Hogg  (new  edition);  "Natural  History 
Review,''  1865  ;  "  Buffon's  Natural  History,"  W.  Smellie,  1828  ; 
"  Valentine's  Knife."  Wanted,  Science-Gossip,  1866,  1869-72, 
I875-i8-9;  "Naturalists  Library"  (Jardine),  odd  vols.;  good 
3-in.  and  ^-in.  objectives  ;  diatom  material ;  Newman's  "  Butter- 
flies and  Moths,"  or  offers.— C.  S.  Bouttell,  7  Irene  Road, 
Fulham,  S.W. 

Well-blown  eggs  of  rare  British  and  American  birds  for 
others  not  in  collection. — J.  T.  T.  Reed,  Ryhope,  near  Sunder- 

Egg  cabinet  to  exchange  for  English  or  foreign  nests  or  eggs, 
photos  of  American  Indians,  Catlin's  or  other  works  on  American 
Indians  (not  Schoolcraft's).  Particulars  of  cabinet  from  — 
George  A.  Widdas,  Woodsley  View,  Leeds. 

A  good  {J  micro  objective,  300  of  angle,  by  Wheeler  ;  as  good 
as  new;  offers  requested. — T.  B.  Forty,  Market  Square,  Buck- 

What  offers  for  three  dozen  microscopical  slides  and  cabinet  ? 
Desiderata:  Pisidium  fontinale,  I'alvata  piscina! is,  Helix 
lapicida,  vertigo,  Cyclostoma  elegans,  etc. — W.  E.  Collings, 
Springfield  Place,  Leeds. 

What  offers  for  Woodward's  "  Geology  of  England  and 
Wales  ;"also  "Manual  of  Mollusca  "1  Wanted,  Eocene  fossils. 
George  E.  East,  jun.,  10  Basinghall  Street,  London,  E.C- 

Splendid  model  horizontal  engine,  copper  boiler,  cylinder 
(2  in.  by  1  in.),  numerous  cocks,  etc.  ;  cost  £8.  What  offers  '.' 
40-inch  bicycle. — C.  T.  Fennessy,  Pallasgreen,  co.  Limerick. 

Wanted,  plants  of  Cypripedium  spectabile  or  Cypripedium 
insignc,  or  other  cool  orchids.  Will  give  in  exchange  British 
and  exotic  Lepidoptera  and  birds'  skins.  Also  wanted,  No.  2  of 
"  Knowledge  ;"  will  exchange  Lepidoptera. — Joseph  Anderson, 
jun.,  Aire  Villa,  Chichester,  Sussex. 

Science-Gossip  for  1872-1875,  bound  in  two  vols.  ;  Nichol- 
son's "Advanced  Text-book  of  Zoology"  (pub.  6s.),  nearly 
new;  Youman's  "First  Book  of  Botany "  (300  illustrations) ; 
Robertson's  "  Daily  Readings  in  Natural  Science  ;"  Dr.  W.  J. 
Hooker's  "  British  Flora  "  (pub.  1835,  but  clean  and  complete) ; 
"  Journal  of  Naturalist."  In  exchange  for  ornithological  vols, 
of  Jardine's  "National  Library." — J.  H.  Keen,  18  Church 
Street,  Spitalfields,  E. 

Scalaria  pretiosa  and  many  other  rare  shells.  What  offers? 
Micro  apparatus  or  slides  prelerred. — J.  E.,  3  Eton  Grove, 
Dacre  Park,  Lee,  S.E. 

"An  Intermediate  Physical  and  Descriptive  Geography" 
(London:  Edward  Stanford). — "Synopsis  of  the  Natural 
Orders  of  British  Flowering  Plants,"  by  J.  W  Oliver  (London  : 
Simpkin  &  Marshall). — "A  Photograph,  and  How  to  Take  It," 
by  A.  A.  Wood  (London:  E.  G.Wood,  Cheapside). — "Lecture 
Notes  and  Problems  in  Sound,  Light,  and  Heat,"  by  C.  Bird 
(London:  Relf  Bros.). — "Journal  of  the  Royal  Microscopical 
Society"  (April). — "Graphic  Microscopy,"  No.  1,  by  E.  T. 
Draper.—"  Transactions  of  the  Ottawa  Field  Naturalists' 
Club,"  1884-85. — "The  Scientific  Enquirer,"  No.  3.—"  Report 
of  Bath  Microscopical  Society." — "  Journal  of  Microscopy  and 
Natural  Science  "  (April). — "Illustrated  Science  Monthly." — 
"Annual  Report  of  the  Yorkshire  Philosophical  Society." — 
"  Science." — "Journal  of  the  New  York  Microscopical  Society." 
— "The  Canadian  Entomologist."  —  "The  Amateur  Photo- 
grapher."— "  Ben  Brierley's  Journal." — "  The  Rochdale  Field 
Naturalists'  Journal."  — "  Feuille  des  Jeunes  Naturalistes." — 
"The  Garner."— "The  Naturalist."— "  Botanical  Gazette."— 
"The  Victorian  Naturalist,"  Nos.  7,  8,  9,  to.— "The  Midland 
Naturalist." — "Journal  of  the  Quekett  Microscopical  Club." 
— "The  American  Naturalist." — "  Proceedings  of  the  Academy 
of  Natural  Sciences,  Philadelphia." — "American  Florist." — 
"Sixteenth  Annual  Report  Wellington  College  Natural  History 
Society."    &c.        &c.        &c. 

Communications  received  up  to  the  12TH  ult.  from  : 
S  M.  P.-S.  H.— W.  K.  M.— J.  W.  W.— B.  H— F.  W.  S.— 
T.  H.  L.— A.  W.  H.— H.  H.— S.  A.  B.— D.  D.— A.  G.  McR. 
_A  P.— D.  B.-W.  B.  R.— W.  E.  C— W.  H.-F.  M.  H.— 
I  E.  L.— T.  W.  C— C.  L.  S.— H.  B.  U.  C— C.  F.  W.  T.  W. 
_T.  W.— W.  H.— J.  E.  L.-F.  M.  H.-W.  S.  H.— R.  F.  M. 
_F.  K.— W.  F.-G.  A.  G— J.  A.  jun.— A.  H.— W.  S.  C  T. 
-T  D.  A.  C— F.  C— E.  L.— P.  H.  S— Dr.  H.  W.— H.  U.— 
S.  F._j.  E.  G.-W.  G.-W.  J.-A.  T.  E.— J.  C— W.  B.  C— 

0.  R.— M.  T.  M— H.  W.  L.-S.  C.  C— G.  E.  T.— T.  H.  B.— 
W.  T— T-  T.—  T.  H.  C— J.  R.  B.  M.— G.  R.— G.  F.  G.— 
W.  E.  C.-G.  E.  E.  jun.— T.  B.  F.— W.  F.  jun.-G.  S.- 
T.  C.  H.— G.  A.  W.— W.  H.  P.— W.  M.  R.— A.  P.— W.  S.  A. 
—A.  H.  W.— C.  S.  B.-I.  T.  T.  R.-M.  E.  T.— A.  H.  W.— 
S.  A.   B.-R.  C.-S.  M.   M.-J.  W.  W.-J.  L.— J.   J.  S.— 

1.  H.  K.— J.  A.  jun.— C  T.  F.— E.  F.  S.-J.  E.— O.  S.— 
F.  R.  L.— &c  &c 




By    Dr.    G.    W.    M.    GILES. 

[  Concluded/}  om  p.  1 1 1 .] 

T  is  curious  to  observe 
how  the  turning  on 
of  the  air  will  revive 
an  apparently  dead 
organism.  I  once 
produced  consider- 
able amusement 
amongst  my  topo- 
graphical colleagues 
in  the  Survey  by 
this.  A  small  branch 
of  a  hydroid  zoo- 
phyte was  under 
observation,  and 
running  over  it, 
busily  browsing  on 
the  expanded  ten- 
tacles, was  a  small 
isopod  crustacean. 
As  long  as  the  bub- 
bles continued  to 
pass,  the  tentacles  remained  expanded,  gently  moving 
in  the  current  produced,  while  the  isopod  made 
greedy  use  of  his  time.  But  within  a  minute  of  its 
being  turned  off  the  zoophyte  heads  shrank  up,  the 
little  cannibal  dropped  to  the  bottom  of  the  cell, 
and  both  seemed  to  all  appearance  dead.  On  now 
again  supplying  the  vivifying  stream  the  zoophyte 
would  be  seen  to  gradually  expand,  and  the  crus- 
tacean to  pick  himself  up  and  resume  his  feast  as 
calmly  as  if  nothing  whatever  had  happened  to  in- 
terrupt it.  This  was  repeated  several  times,  until  a 
too-protracted  deprivation  of  oxygen  killed  the  pair 
in  good  earnest. 

If  serious  work  be  intended,  as  many  species  as 
possible  should  be  accurately  drawn,  and  for  this 
purpose  a  camera  lucida  is  an  indispensable  acces- 
sory :  one  of  those  forms  which  admit  of  the  micro- 
scope being  kept  vertical  being  alone  suitable  for 
the  purpose. 

Most  Crustacea  are  provided  with  such  a  multi- 
plicity   of  variously  formed   appendages   that   it   is 
No.  258.— June  1886. 

generally  practically  impossible  to  obtain  a  correct 
drawing  of  the  whole  while  the  animal  remains 
entire.  In  order  to  overcome  this  difficulty  it  is  a 
good  plan,  after  drawing  the  body,  the  attachments 
of  the  appendages,  and  such  of  them  as  are  clearly 
visible,  to  separate  the  limbs  one  by  one  from  the 
body,  by  dissection  under  the  simple  microscope, 
and  to  arrange  them  in  order  on  a  glass  slip.  They 
can  be  then  readily  drawn  to  the  same  scale,  and  the 
separate  drawings  fitted  on  to  that  of  the  body  in 
such  positions  as  not  to  hide  each  other. 

After  the  locomotive  appendages  have  been  sepa- 
rated, the  gnathopoda  may  be  dealt  with  in  the 
same  way,  and  drawn  separately  under  a  higher 
magnification,  and  the  remainder  of  the  body  torn 
open  and  flattened  out  under  a  cover  ;  a  proceeding 
which  will  often  enable  one  to  ascertain  certainly  the 
sex  of  the  individual. 

During  the  process  of  examination  and  delineation 
it  will  be  often  found  desirable  to  substitute  direct 
for  transmitted  illumination,  and  to  effect  this  change 
expeditiously  I  find  no  appliance  so  useful  as  the 
old-fashioned  but  much-neglected  Luberkhun.  To 
stop  out  the  central  rays  of  light  I  employ  small  discs 
of  vulcanite,  sawn  out  of  a  thin  piece  of  sheeting. 
By  simply  wetting  them,  these  can  be  made  to 
adhere  to  any  part  of  the  under  surface  of  the  slide, 
and  can  be  shifted  about  if  necessary  with  the  tip  of 
the  finger,  without  removing  the  slide  from  the 
stage.  By  alternately  employing  direct  and  trans- 
mitted light,  many  details  of  structure  can  be  learnt 
which  could  not  possibly  be  made  out  by  either 
alone.  It  enables  one  also  to  fill  in  the  natural 
colours  in  the  finished  drawing,  which  are  quite  lost 
by  transmitted  light. 

And  now,  as  to  the  readiest  methods  of  preserving 
such  organisms  as  permanently  mounted  microscopic 
objects.  I  fear  I  shall  be  considered  unorthodox, 
but  can  only  record  my  own  impression,  that  Canada 
balsam  and  other  resinous  media  are  quite  unsuited 
for  the  purpose.  Soft,  gelatinous  creatures,  such  as 
Sagittoe,  Salpae,  etc.,  are  so  shrunken  by  the  action  of 



HARD  WICKE '  S  S  CIE  NCE-  G  O  SSI  P. 

the  turpentine  or  other  clearing  agent,  that  they 
become  mere  mummified  caricatures  of  the  originally 
plump  structure.  Animals  provided  with  a  chitinous 
armour  suffer,  of  course,  much  less  in  this  way  ;  but 
even  with  them  the  shrinking  action  is  very  percep- 
tible, and  I  can  see  no  advantage  whatever  in  resinous 
over  glycerine  mounting.  Moreover,  when  the  cell  is 
of  any  depth,  the  intrusion  of  bubbles  during  the 
prolonged  process  of  drying  is  a  source  of  continual 
annoyance.  On  this  account  I  am  accustomed  to 
use  glycerine  or  glycerine  jelly  for  all  forms  save 
shelled  mollusca  and  worms.  For  the  former 
glycerine  is  undesirable,  on  account  of  its  action  on 
their  shells  ;  for  the  latter,  because  for  some  reason 
neither  this  nor  any  other  medium  that  I  have 
tried  preserves  them  in  anything  like  their  pristine 

A  strong  solution  of  chloride  of  calcium,  to  which 
has  been  added  a  little  glycerole  of  salicylic,  or  boracic 
acid,  proved  more  satisfactory  than  anything  else 
experimented  with ;  but  a  good  preservative  is  a 
great  desideratum,  as  when  first  taken  such  things  as 
Polynae,  etc.,  are  amongst  the  most  beautiful  of  our 
captures.  For  mollusks  nothing  is  better  than  mount- 
ing in  spirit  ;  but  in  this  hot  climate  such  mounts 
lack  permanence,  so  that  chloride  of  calcium  is 
usually  used  for  them  also. 

A  good  supply  of  cells,  of  all  possible  depths — 
from  a  mere  ring  of  cement  to  glass  rings  \  in.  deep — 
is  indispensable  to  the  microscopist  who  wishes  to 
preserve  his  captures  permanently.  The  material  of 
these  is  a  matter  of  little  moment,  but  for  all'  except 
the  deepest,  where  glass  or  vulcanite  is  preferable,  I 
have  come  to  prefer  metal  rings  cemented  with  marine 
glue.  Two  points  are  important  :  first,  to  make  use 
of  cells  no  deeper  than  is  absolutely  necessary ; 
second,  to  employ  thin  glass  slips,  in  order  that  it 
may  be  possible  to  examine  both  sides  of  the  objects 
under  moderate  powers.  For  cases  where  it  happens 
to  be  specially  desirable  to  be  able  to  examine  both 
sides,  it  is  a  good  plan  to  have  ready  a  number  of 
cells,  to  one  side  of  which  a  thin  cover  has  already 
been  cemented.  By  wetting  the  outer  surface  of  this, 
it  will  adhere  to  an  ordinary  glass  slide  quite  firmly 
enough  to  hold  it  while  the  process  of  mounting  is 
completed  in  tbe  usual  way.  When  the  cement  has 
dried,  the  little  box  is  placed  in  the  opening  in  one 
of  "Carpenter's"  wooden  slides,  and  retained  in 
place  by  a  couple  of  perforated  labels.  For  this 
purpose  broad-edged  vulcanite  cells  are  the  best,  as 
their  large  outer  dimensions  permit  of  the  cement 
being  inspected,  and  fresh  coatings,  if  necessary, 
applied  without  disturbing  the  paper  labels. 

Before  quitting  the  subject  of  mechanical  tech- 
nique, let  me  describe  a  method  of  obtaining  thin 
sections  of  Fntomostraca  and  other  minute  crusta- 
ceans, which  is,  I  believe,  somewhat  novel.  On 
account  of  their  small  size  and  the  hardness  of  their 
chitinous  coats,  they  do  not  lend  themselves  well  to 

the  paraffin  method,  as  the  knife  is  apt  either  to  ride 
over  them  or  to  compress  them,  and  drive  out  the 
paraffin  filling  up  their  interstices.  Moreover,  on  ac- 
count of  the  bulk  of  the  apparatus  and  the  difficulty 
of  maintaining  a  constant  temperature  by  means  of 
spirit-lamps,  it  is  extremely  difficult  in  practice  to 
carry  it  out  on  shipboard.  The  method  to  be  de- 
scribed is,  however,  a  somewhat  rough  and  uncertain 
one,  and  it  is  only  occasionally  that  results  at  all 
comparable  to  those  of  the  paraffin  method  are  ob- 
tained. It  is,  moreover,  applicable  only  to  very 
minute  organisms.  The  course  of  procedure  is  as 
follows :  The  animal  is  taken  from  absolute  alcohol 
and  immersed  in  oil  of  cloves,  where  it  is  left  until  it 
is  completely  clarified.  It  is  then  placed  in  a  watch- 
glass  containing  a  few  drops  of  Canada  balsam  (un- 
diluted), and  placed  over  a  spirit-lamp  at  such  a 
height  as  to  melt  without  danger  of  burning  the 
balsam.  In  about  a  quarter  of  an  hour  the  balsam 
has  driven  out  the  clarifying  agent,  and  penetrated 
throughout  the  entire  structure  of  the  animal.  A 
single  drop  of  balsam  is  now  placed  on  a  glass  slip, 
and  heated  until  it  cools  hard.  Now  take  up  the 
animal,  together  with  a  bead  of  balsam,  on  the  point 
of  a  needle,  and  place  it  on  the  balsam  on  the  slide, 
previously  warmed,  and  prop  it  up  in  such  a  position 
that  the  plane  of  the  sections  desired  may  be  parallel 
to  that  of  the  slide,  holding  it  thus  until  the  balsam 
has  cooled  sufficiently  to  keep  it  so. 

There  is  just  one  consistency  of  balsam  at  which 
it  may  be  readily  sliced  with  a  razor,  without  stick- 
ing to  the  blade,  and  yet  is  not  brittle  ;  and  it  is 
this  condition  which  it  is  desired  to  obtain  for  the 
bead  on  the  slide.  Accordingly,  when  quite  cold,  it 
should  be  tested  with  the  edge  of  a  scalpel.  If  too 
soft,  the  slide  must  be  warmed  over  the  lamp  for  a 
while ;  if  too  hard,  it  must  be  removed  from  the 
slide  and  replaced  in  the  watch-glass,  to  which  a 
drop  of  fresh  balsam  has  been  added.  In  the! diffi- 
cult}' of  obtaining  exactly  the  right  consistence  lies 
the  uncertainty  of  the  method  ;  but,  when  this  is  hit 
upon  successfully,  really  beautiful  sections  can  be 
most  easily  obtained  by  slicing  down  the  bead  with  a 
sharp  razor  or  lancet,  as  in  the  ordinary  hand  method. 
The  sections  may  be  allowed  to  fall  from  the  razor 
on  to  the  slide  until  all  the  material  is  exhausted, 
and  then  covered  with  dilute  balsam,  under  a  large 
cover-glass,  or  they  may  be  picked  up  one  by  one  on 
the  point  of  a  needle,  and  arranged  in  order  on  a 
separate  slide,  which  has  been  varnished  with  a  thin 
coat  of  balsam  so  as  to  retain  them  in  their  respective 
places  while  mounting.  The  method  is  also  useful 
for  obtaining  sections  of  coralline  Algre,  whose  struc- 
ture, when  deprived  of  their  lime,  is  so  rotten  that 
it  is  extremely  difficult  to  mount  even  the  smallest 
sections  whole,  unless  supported  by  some  exception- 
ally linn  imbedding  material. 

I  have  little  more  to  add.  The  present  papers  are 
intended    to   be   but  a  description  of  methods  and 



appliances  that  in  the  course  of  actual  work  have 
proved  useful  and  readily  obtainable. 

Out  here  in  India,  scientific  appliances  can  be 
purchased  only  in  the  presidency  towns  ;  and  even 
in  these  the  stock  is  of  a  most  meagre  and  limited 
description.  Hence,  as  it  takes  between  two  and 
three  months  to  obtain  anything  from  home,  one's 
invention  is  very  often  stimulated  by  dire  necessity. 
Rude,  however,  as  some  of  the  methods  and  appli- 
ances may  appear,  they  have  at  least  the  merit  of 
being  inexpensive,  and  readily  obtainable  anywhere. 

Did  space  permit,  I  should  have  much  liked  to 
have  concluded  with  a  few  sketches  of  some  of  the 
queer  monstrosities  that  get  entangled  in  my  toils, 
but  I  fear  I  must  have  already  unduly  tried  the 
patience  of  my  readers,  and  occupied  far  too  many 
lines  of  their  very  useful  "  Gossip  "  journal.  I  hope, 
however,  "if  permission  be  accorded,"  as  polite 
Orientals  always  say  in  making  any  proposition,  to 
do  this  at  some  future  time.1 

My  main  desire  has  been  to  show  how  easily 
surface-net  work  may  be  prosecuted,  and  how  small 
is  the  "plant"  required  for  the  purpose;  and  thus 
to  open  up  this  most  fruitful  field  of  scientific  enter- 
tainment to  the  large  numbers  of  microscopists  who 
annually  visit  the  seaside,  or  make  voyages  of  business 
or  pleasure.  Indeed  I  can  imagine  no  more  pleasant 
way  of  whiling  away  the  monotony  of  a  long  sea 
voyage  than  this.  As  yet,  what  experiments  I  have 
made  at  devising  a  collecting  apparatus  for  use  at 
high  speed  have  not  proved  particularly  successful  ; 
but  sufficient  material  may  be  generally  collected 
during  the  halts  necessary  for  coaling,  re-packing 
cylinders,  etc.,  to  fully  occupy  one's  spare  time  in 
the  interval. 

Marine  Survey  Office,  Poona. 


Part  III. 

Terrestrial  Gasteropoda  {continued). 

[Continued  from  p.  98.] 

IN  Limncea  and  Helix  scalariform  specimens  are 
abnormal ;  but  in  Scalaria  hyalina  and  other 
species,  they  are  normal.  According  to  the  "  Zoologi- 
cal Record"  for  1880,  Helix  rupestris,  a  species  not 
normally  scalariform,  is  represented  in  the  Isle  of 
Syra  by  very  numerous  scalariform  individuals  and 
very  few  typical  ones. 

Taking  cases  of  sinistrorsion,  we  find  that  : 

(1.)  Of  all  the  genera  of  Mollusca  a  very  few  are 

sinistral ;  e.g.  Physa  ; 
(2.)  of  all    the    species    of  Helix,    a   normally 
dextral  genus  of  Mollusca,  a  very  few  are 
sinistral ;  e.g.  H.  Lvvipes  ; 

(3.)  of  all  the   specimens  of  Helix  hortensis,  a 

normally  dextral  Helix,  a  very  few  are 

sinistral ;  e.g.  those  found  by  Miss  Hele 

near  Bristol ;  anil  then  again,  according 

to  Hartman,  in    the   genus  Partula,   we 

find  that  in 

(1.;  P.  affinis,  one  in  several  hundred  is  sinistral  ; 

(2.  (in  P.  vexillum,  one  in  fifty  is  sinistral ; 

(3.)  in  P.  otahcitana,  the  majority  are  sinistral ; 

(4.)  in  P.  spadicca,  all  are  sinistral. 
Helix   nemoralis. — This   most   interesting    species 
may  be  divided  into  groups  according  to  the  ground 

(1.)  rubella.     Shell  pink  or  rose  colour.     This  may 
again  be  divided  into  sub-varieties,  according  to  the 
band-formula.     My  notes   on   the   subject  of  band- 
formulae  are  very  incomplete,  I  fear ;  but  I  have  the 
following  forms  of  rubella  on  record  for  the  district : — 
rubella        00000.   Minster   (S.C.C.),    Chislehurst, 
on    fronds    of    Pteris,    Farn- 
borough.     Not  so  common  as 
might  be  expected. 
,,  oo^oo.   (Numbers    below   the    line    are 

meant  to  indicate  bands  de- 
veloped very  little,  sometimes 
being  confined  to  a  mere  trace 
near  the  lip  of  the  shell.) 
Dartford,  amongst  ivy. 
,,  00300.   Ealing,     Chislehurst,     Minster, 

Dartford,  &c.  There  is 
usually  a  light-coloured  por- 
tion bordering  the  lower  edge 
of  the  band,  so  that  there  is 
an  appearance  of  a  double 
band,  the  upper  and  larger 
portion  being  dark,  and  the 
lower  portion  light. 
,,  003,,0.  One  at  Eltham. 

,,  0030^.  Dartford,  amongst  ivy. 

,,      oo,40  and  o2345.  Dartford,  with  the  last. 
,,  °-345-  Chislehurst,  one  specimen  had 

the    bands     interrupted,    but 
otherwise   well   marked  ;    an- 
other had  continuous  bands. 
,,  1-345-  Dartford.      ^345.    Ealing     and 

„  12345.  Ealing,  Kenley,  Dartford,  Chisle- 

hurst, Eltham,  &c. 
,,         120(45).   One    at    Beckenham,    but    not 

found  elsewhere  in  district. 

,,     i(23)(45).  Dartford  (12345),  Bickley  ;  other 

gradations  occur. 

A  monstrosity,  caused  by  repair  of  fracture,  found 

on  Chislehurst  Common,  has  a  deep  and  rather  wide 

umbilicus  ;  it  belongs  to  rubella  00000.     A  specimen 

of  rubella  00300  from  Minster  has  also  a  thin  white 

line  or  band,  nearly  in  the  position  of  band  No.  10  of 

a  normal  specimen  ;  whether  it  is  analogous  to  the 

G   2 



white  band,  often  found  running  with  No.  3,  I  do 
not  know  ;  but  such  is  probably  the  case. 

A  shell  of  rubella  oo34o  from  St.  Mary  Cray  is 
unusually  thin,  and  is  of  a  light  pinkish  yellow  or 
flesh  colour. 

(2.)  Shell  orange  colour.  This  might  be  called 
aurantia.  I  have  only  taken  a  bandless  form,  which 
is  fairly  common  on  a  bank  at  Crayford. 

T.  D.   A.  COCKERELL. 

August,  1885. 


IN  Science-Gossip,  Vol.  XVII.  p.  59,  there  is  an 
interesting  article  on  frog-spawn  and  its  develop- 
ment by  M.  H.  Robson,  Hon.  Sec,  North  of  England 
Microscopical  Society.     As  he  has  so  recently  given 

external  gills  (branchiae)  disappeared  ;  22nd,  all 
took  to  floating  on  their  backs,  and  continued  to  do 
so  for  some  days.  I  could  see  their  viscera  as  shown 
in  Fig.  75.  23rd,  viscera  as  shown  in  Fig.  76.  I  could 
see  that  their  bodies  were  beautifully  splashed  with 
golden  colour.  Up  till  the  23rd  those  in  the  shallow 
vessel  had  kept  pace  in  growth  with  those  in  the  fish- 
globe,  after  then  they  did  not  increase  either  in 
length  or  breadth  for  a  fortnight,  at  the  expiration  of 
which  time  I  removed  them  into  a  vessel  containing 
about  three  times  the  quantity  of  water,  with  more 
weed,  for,  although  I  wanted  to  keep  them  back,  I 
did  not  wish  them  to  die.  They  immediately  made  a 
fresh  start,  but  never  grew  or  developed  so  quickly  as 
those  in  the  fish-globe,  so  that  when  those  in  the  last- 
named  vessel  had  become  lung-breathing  batrachians, 
which  some  did  as  early  as  May  26th,  and  the  last  of 
that  lot  by  the  middle  of  June,  I  removed  those  in 
the  smaller  vessel  into  the  fish-globe,  and  they  did 
not  fully  develop  until  the  end  of  August ;  these  later 

Fig.  75. — Tadpole,  twelfth  day  (much  enlarged). 

Fig.  76. — Tadpole,  thirteenth  day  (much  enlarged). 

us  remarks,  accompanied  with  plates,  on  the  first 
stages  of  its  development,  I  shall  not  dwell  particu- 
larly on  this  portion  of  the  subject,  only  sufficiently 
to  show  the  difference  in  the  time  of  development, 
owing  to  difference  of  temperature. 

On  March  nth,  1881,  I  procured  some  frog- 
spawn,  and  placed  some  of  it  in  a  fish-globe  con- 
taining river  water  and  aquatic  plants,  principally 
Anacharis  Canadensis  and  tiitella,  and  a  smaller 
quantity  of  the  spawn  I  placed  in  a  shallow  vessel 
containing  about  a  pint  and  a-half  of  water  and  some 
Anacharis.  The  two  vessels  were  kept  in  a  room 
with  a  fire  in  it  all  day,  and  the  aspect  south-east. 

Now  if  you  will  compare  M.  H.  Robson's  account 
with  mine,  you  will  see  the  difference  of  time  in  the 

March  1  ith,  in  situ.  13th,  cleavage  or  segmentation 
of  eggs  ;  14th,  much  larger  ;  began  to  move  and  turn 
their  heads  and  tails  together  in  their  efforts  to  free 
themselves  from  the  gelatinous  egg  mass  which  sur- 
rounded   them  ;   18th,  tadpoles  had  emerged  ;  21st, 

ones  grew  to  be  much  larger  as  tadpoles  (also  as  frogs) 
than  the  earlier  ones.  I  found  it  very  interesting  to 
examine  them  under  the  microscope.  They  can  be 
easily  kept  quiet  by  adopting  M.  H.  Robson's  plan, 
or  when  quite  small  one  can  be  placed  in  a  cell,  but 
it  should  not  be  left  to  remain  in  there  longer  than 
necessary  for  examination,  or  it  will  die.  I  had  one 
in  a  cell  one  evening,  and  left  it  until  the  following 
evening,  when  on  placing  it  under  the  microscope,  to 
examine  its  branchiae,  I  found  the  circulation  had 
quite  ceased  in  that  on  one  side  of  the  head,  but  was 
flowing  rapidly  in  the  opposite  one.  I  judged  it  was 
dying,  and  such  was  the  case,  for  it  immediately 
expired.  I  was  much  vexed  to  think  that  through 
my  thoughtlessness  the  little  creature  had  died. 

I  used  to  watch  their  movements  with  much 
interest,  and  speculate  on  the  causes  which  affected 
their  actions.  I  found  light,  temperature  and  aliment 
had  much  to  do  with  them.  On  dull  cold  days  the 
tadpoles  would  be  seen  at  the  lower  part  of  the  vessel, 
moving  about  slowly,  and  even  hiding  under  the  stones 



and  debris  there  ;  quite  the  contrary  on  bright  sunny 
warm  days,  which  seemed  to  act  as  a  stimulant  on 
them,  for  they  would  come  more  to  the  top  of  the 
vessels,  and  move  about  quickly,  and  in  the  act  of 
feeding  their  little  mouths  would  work  up  and  down 
with  rapidity. 

Taking  into  consideration  that  when  tadpoles  were 
in  a  pond  in  a  natural  condition  they  must  necessarily 
have  a  variety  of  food — whatever  a  sudden  gust  of 
wind  or  chance  might  place  in  their  way,  such  as 
dead  mice,  birds,  etc. — I  procured  as  much  variety 
for  them  as  I  could,  and  I  found  them  very  quick 

they  eagerly  seized  on  it.  I  used  to  take  a  piece  of 
raw  beef,  mutton,  or  lamb,  about  the  size  of  a  large 
marble,  and  tie  it  on  to  the  end  of  a  piece  of  thread, 
so  that  I  could  easily  draw  it  out  of  the  water,  for  if 
left  in  too  long  the  meat  will  foul  it.  I  then  lowered 
the  meat  into  the  water  ;  soon  the  tadpoles  would  all 
get  together,  but  quite  in  the  opposite  direction  to 
where  it  was.  They  would  seem  very  fussy  and 
uncertain  what  to  do,  until  one  would  come  forward 
and  attack  the  meat ;  the  rest  would  immediately 
follow,  and  during  the  rest  of  the  day  the  meat  would 
be  covered  with  them  ;  and  when  in  the  evening  I 

Fig.  79. — Third  Frog  Stage 
(natural  size). 

Fig-  77- — First  Frog  Stage  (enlarged). 

Fig.  78.— Second  Frog  Stage  (enlarged). 

Fig.  80.— Fourth  Frog  Stage 
(natural  size). 

to  discover  anything  different  in  the  shape  of  aliment 
to  what  they  were  used  to  having.  A  little  finely 
chopped  hay,  sprinkled  on  the  top  of  the  water,  they 
would  discover  immediately,  and  it  would  busy  them 
for  the  rest  of  the  day.  Dead  caddis-worms  and  dead 
water-snails  they  greedily  devoured  ;  in  fact  nothing 
came  amiss  to  them  in  the  form  of  decaying  animal  or 
vegetable  matter,  for  they  are  thorough  scavengers, 
and  follow  out  this  law  of  their  nature,  even  to  eating 

their  dead  relations. 

I  used  to  give  them  meat  nearly  every  day,  and 

found,  quite  contrary  to  what  M.  H.  Robson  says,  that 

went  to  take  out  what  was  left  they  would  not 
relinquish  their  hold  of  it  until  they  found  themselves 
in  the  air,  and  then  they  would  drop  back  into  their 
native  element.  The  meat  used  to  be  considerably 
torn  about  and  much  diminished.  M.  H.  Robson 
evidently  had  not  the  time  to  devote  to  watching 
his  tadpoles  as  I  had  to  watching  mine,  so,  on  finding 
the  meat  not  wholly  consumed,  came  to  the  conclusion 
that  they  did  not  appreciate  it. 

Mr.  Fullagar,  whose  name  is  well  known  to  the 
readers  of  Science-Gossip  in  connection  with  Amoe- 
ba;,   etc.,    witnessed  the  aforementioned    statement, 



and   he   laughed  heartily  at  the  tenacity  with  which 
my  little  captives  would  cling  to  the  meat. 

One  day  I  put  one  of  my  fingers  into  the  water  ;  it 
was  soon  surrounded  by  my  ever-hungry  pets,  who,  in 
their  efforts  to  gain  nourishment  from  it,  caused  a 
titillation  not  altogether  pleasant  to  bear  for  any 
length  of  time.  After  I  had  tried  them  every  day  for 
a  week  they  would  not  come  near  it,  they  were 
evidently  conscious  from  past  experience  that  my  finger 
was  too  hard  for  their  little  horny  processes  to  make 
any  impression  on. 

Sometimes  I  have  seen  two  tadpoles  meet  and  put 
their  mouths  together  and  remain  in  that  attitude 
towards  each  other  for  quite  one  minute,  as  if  they 
were  holding  some  friendly  communion  ;  then  they 
would  separate,  slowly  gliding  past  each  other. 
Often  I  have  seen  one  go  off  at  full  speed  as  if  some 
sudden  frenzy  had  seized  it,  and  go  the  round  of  the 
globe  several  times,  and  then  as  suddenly  stop. 
Could  it  have  been  in  pursuit  of  anything  ;  or  could 
a  sudden  fear  have  seized  it,  or  only  a  little  exu- 
berance of  spirits  ? 

For  some  time  before  their  posterior  limbs  pro- 
truded, they,  as  well  as  the  fore-limbs  or  graspers, 
could  be  seen  forming  underneath   the   translucent 
skin   which   envelopes   the   tadpole  ;    then   the   toes 
protruded,    and    in    a    few    days    the    whole    of    the 
posterior  limbs   and   the   body  assumed   the  form  as 
represented  in  Fig.  77.   In  some  three  or  four,  and  in 
others   only   one   day   would   intervene    before    the 
graspers  would  be  suddenly  put  forth,  and  then  the 
body,  head  and  posterior  limbs  would  assume  a  more 
rounded  appearance,  as  represented  in  Fig.  78.  At  this 
stage   of  their  life-changes  they  presented    a   most 
helpless  appearance,  constantly  panting  and  resting 
un  the  aquatic  plants  near  the  surface  of  the  water, 
with  their  graspers  in  the  position  shown  in  Fig.  78. 
Many    died,    and    were    greedily    devoured    by  their 
surviving  relations  not  yet  so  far  advanced  as  them- 
selves.    I  never  found  any  eating   those  which  were 
in    the    same   stage    of  development    as    themselves. 
When  the  tadpoles  arrived  at  the  stages  represented 
in  Figs.  79  and  So,  they  found  their  way  on  to  the  cork 
which  had  been  placed   on   the  top  of  the  water  for 
the  reception  of  the  young  batrachians.     I  then  found 
it  necessary  to  remove  them  (if  I  wished  to  save  any 
from  the  jaws  of  death)  to  a  vessel  where  there  was 
less  water  and  a  larger  resting-place  ;   but   not  any 
lived  longer  than  six  weeks.   The  difficulty  was  how  to 
feed  them.     1  procured  small  insects  off  plants,  gave 
them   crumbs  of  bread,  and   tried  them  with  minute 
pieces  of  beef,  and  upon  one  occasion  I  induced  one 
nog  to  eat  a  piece.     I  have  been  told  since  that  they 
can  be  kept  alive  on  boiled  livers. 

The  tadpole's  tail  did  not  become  absorbed  so 
quickly  as  I  had  been  made  to  expect  :  it  went  through 
quite  three  stages,  until  nothing  of  it  was  to  be  seen 
but  a  knol)  at  the  lower  part  of  the  back  of  the  young 
frog,  and  even  that  took  some  time  before  it  disappeared. 

I  took   sketches    and    watched   particularly  these 

latter  transformations  of  the  tadpole,  because  I  was 

told   that   they  dropped   their  tails   and   turned   into 

frogs,  and  I  find  many  educated  persons  (even  men) 

believe  such  is  the  case.     On  showing  my  sketches  to 

a  gentleman,  he   asked  if  I  was  quite  sure  they  were 

not  different  families  of  the  same  species.     How  is  it 

educated  persons  know  so  little  of  what  are  common 

objects    of    natural     history?      Because     "  ea    sub. 

oculis     posita     negligimus  ;     proximorum     incuriosi 

longinqua  sectamur."     I  ask,  Why  disdain   to  study 

those    things    which    nature    broadcasts    around    us, 

simply  because   they  are  common,   as  long  as  their 

habits  and  economy  (which   are   most  wonderful  and 

interesting)  are  as  great  a  mystery  to  many  of  us  as 

those  of  the  rarest  ? 

Clara  Kingsford. 




By  W.  Finch,  jun. 
HE  beautiful  leafy  month  of  June  is  now  at  hand, 

JL  and  the  numbers  of  insects  are  steadily  in- 
creasing. The  lepidopterist  to  fill  his  boxes  and  to 
study  his  captures  will  have  to  work  night  and  day. 
Indeed,  in  the  midst  of  the  mass  of  work  around  him, 
he  will  very  often  have  to  stop  to  consider  what  he 
shall  do  next.  The  energetic  worker  and  true  lover 
of  nature  will  by  this  time  have  a  pretty  numerous 
collection  of  insects,  and  should  be  able  to  show  a 
quantity  of  notes  in  his  diary.  Let  him  not  fail  in 
this  latter  respect,  for  he  will  derive  much  pleasure 
from  the  perusal  of  them  at  the  end  of  the  year,  and 
will  also  be  instructed  by  them  what  to  do  and  the 
best  way  of  doing  it,  in  the  following  season. 

We  must  now  be  out  in  the  hot  sunshine  with  the 
net ;  out  in  the  darkness  of  night  with  the  net,  lamp, 
and  treacle-pot  ;  up  early  in  the  morning  setting 
out  our  captures  of  the  previous  day  or  night,  and 
then  off  for  an  hour  at  the  fences  and  tree-trunks.  And 
so  on  throughout  the  whole  season,  work,  work, 
work  ;  from  now  it  will  be  all  hard  work.  But  you 
may  depend,  that  however  much  we  may  feel  inclined 
to  grumble  now  at  the  continual  worry  and  work,  we 
shall  not  do  so  at  the  end  of  the  season,  providing 
that  we  have  had  moderate  success. 

Many  and  varied  are  the  beautiful  forms  of  life  we 
shall  see  this  month,  some  of  them  too  are  curious  ; 
all  of  them  teach  lessons,  and  I  believe  were  meant 
to  do  so  when  they  were  first  created.  If  not,  then 
why  was  so  much  care  and  wisdom  shown  in  their 
construction?  How  each  little  life  is  complete  in 
itself,  and  yet  is  merely  the  forerunner  of  another  life 
to  come,  each  more  and  more  wonderful  than  the  one 
left  behind.  In  the  insect  life,  and  especially  in  the 
life  of  the  lepidopterous  insects,  I  always  feel  that 
God  intended  a  parable.     For  the  lives  of  these  small 

HARD  WICKE '  S  S  CIE  NCE  -  G  O  SSI  P. 


creatures  are  strangely  symbolical  of  our  own  :  first 
the  germ  or  egg,  from  which  springs  an  active 
creature,  a  voracious,  greedy,  earthly  thing,  which, 
after  living  a  changeful  life  sinks  into  sleep,  as  it 
were  into  the  tomb ;  here  it  lies  a  curious  thing, 
inert,  utterly  helpless,  yet  not  entirely  at  the  mercy 
of  the  outer  world,  for  during  its  former  life  it  was 
taught  and  given  opportunity  to  prepare  for  itself 
suitable  protection,  so  that  there  shall  be  no  spot  or 
blemish  to  mar  its  future  beauty  when  as  an  ethereal 
being  it  wings  through  the  upper  air,  all  beauty, 
purity,  and  grace.  Indeed  the  lepidopterist  may 
always  find  much  in  his  favourite  insects  for  admira- 
tion, wonderment,  and  serious  contemplation. 

A  look-out  must  still  be  kept  for  ova ;  many  eggs 
now  taken  will  soon  hatch.  When  a  butterfly  is  seen 
flitting  along  in  a  pensive  sort  of  way  over  the 
herbage,  and  now  and  then  settling  thereon,  it  will 
often  be  found  that  it  is  a  female,  and  is  in  the  act  of 
depositing  its  ova.  Female  moths  taken  on  the  wing 
will  as  a  rule  be  impregnated,  and  if  it  is  wished  to 
rear  the  species  thus  taken,  the  moth  should  be  kept 
alive  until  she  has  deposited  her  ova.  A  spray  of  the 
larval  food-plant  will  be  a  great  inducement  to  this 
end.  Those  of  my  readers  who  are  microscopists 
will  find  in  these  insect  ova  some  very  beautiful 
objects  for  their  study. 

Larvae  reared  from  the  egg  should  in  the  earlier 
stages  be  confined  in  fine  muslin  bags  and  fed  therein. 
Many  young  larvae  have  a  propensity  to  wander,  and 
in  a  breeding  cage  are  thus  lost ;  whilst  when  kept  in 
bags  all  their  attention  is  concentrated  on  the  food, 
and  they  cannot  wander. 

Many  larvae  are  to  be  found  this  month.  Strange 
and  weird  are  some  of  them  in  appearance,  some 
even  appalling ;  others  are  resplendent  in  vivid 
colouring  and  velvety  coats.  Now  is  the  time  for 
larva;  preserving.  The  lepidopterist  should  work 
hard  at  this  particular  branch  of  his  study,  for  the 
tempting  time  will  soon  be  over.  The  beautiful 
larva  of  P.  machacm  is  now  to  be  found  in  the  fen 
districts  on  Pcuceda?ium  palustre.  This  larva  cannot, 
unfortunately,  be  reared  away  from  its  marshy  home. 
T.  betuhe  is  to  be  found  too  on  sloe-bushes  near 
woods  ;  also  G.  rliamni,  on  the  buckthorn.  Nettles 
will  produce  the  larvae  of  the  Vanessidaa  this  month. 
Those  curious  fellows,  N.  ziczac,  may  also  be  found 
in  their  various  hues,  feeding  on  a  variety  of  trees. 
Old  junipers  in  shrubberies  should  be  searched  for 
E.  sobrinata  ;  C.  ligniperda  may  be  taken  at  night 
with  the  aid  of  the  lantern — and  the  nose— on 

With  regard  to  pupae ;  we  shall  row  be  able  to 
look  for  the  pretty  angular  chrysalids  of  the  butter- 
flies ;  the  pupa;  of  moths  enclosed  in  their  variously 
constructed  cocoons,  attached  to  the  stems  of  grass 
and  low  herbage,  to  the  twigs  and  branches  of  trees  ; 
and  in  some  instances  we  must  look  for  cocoons 
under  the  ground. 

The  number  of  imagos  to  be  taken  this  month  is 
often  bewildering  to  the  tyro.  It  would  be  useless  to 
enumerate  any  species  here,  as  there  are  so  many 
"  good  things"  to  be  taken  now,  and  our  space  is 
limited.  We  will  content  ourselves  with  just  men- 
tioning the  best  methods  and  places  for  securing 
specimens.  The  long  and  brilliant  days  of  June 
promise  excellent  sport  to  the  energetic  worker.  It 
is  hot  work  wielding  the  net  this  month,  and  those 
wretched  pests,  the  flies,  are  so  aggravating  ;  if  how- 
ever, the  face  be  anointed  with  a  solution  of  camphor 
or  borax  these  little  nuisances  will  be  kept  somewhat 
in  check  ;  a  smoker  need  not  fear  them. 

In  day  searching,  the  beating-stick  must  be  ever  at 
hand  ;  always  beat  shrubs  and  bushes  from  below, 
beating  from  above  has  the  effect  of  driving  the  moths 
further  down  into  the  bush.  Have  an  eye  to  sweet- 
scented  flowers,  also  thistles,  ragwort,  and  blackberry 
blossoms  ;  but  beware  of  the  thorns.  The  exudations 
from  cossus-infected  trees,  and  also  the  gummy  matter 
from  fruit-trees  are  an  attraction  for  butterflies  and 
moths  alike.  Lime  and  other  trees  which  bloom  this 
month  should  receive  every  attention. 

Some    collectors   sugar   flowers   by   day  for   both 
butterflies  and  moths ;  I  cannot  recommend  it,  how- 
ever,   never   having   tried    it  myself.     Treacling   by 
night  may  again  be  resorted  to,  and  is  a  profitable 
mode  of  capture.     Do  not  sugar  too  many  trees,  or 
too  close  together.     Do  not  give  the  moths  time  to 
fill  themselves  with  the  sweets,  for  such  will  invariably 
cause   discoloration   and   grease  in  the  specimens  at 
some  time  or  other.     Some  will  tell  you  that  it  is  of 
no  use  to  treacle  on  a  moonlight  night  ;  I  have  found 
such  nights  often  more  productive  than   others.     If 
there  be  slight  rain  and  threatening  of  thunder,   so 
much  the  better  for  treacling.     Beware  of  the  bats, 
for  they  will  pick  off  the  moths  from  your  treacles  if 
you  do  not  watch  ;  look  out  for  toads  too  at  the  foot 
of  the  tree  ;  these  knowing  rascals  seem  to  understand 
the  treacling  business  quite  well,  and  it  is  "  all  up  " 
with  any  moth  that  chances  to  fall  to  the  ground. 
"Light"  will  be  useful  for  capturing;  many  good 
insects  are  thus  taken.      Fences  and  tree-trunks  as 
before — "  only  more  so  "  :  many  moths  have  a  habit 
of  sinking  their  bodies  into  crevices  of  the  bark,  and 
extending  the  wings  pressing  them  quite  flat.     These 
are  rather  difficult  to  find,  but  once  get  used  to  it  and 
you  will  be  able  to  pick   them  out  on  a  tree  a  great 
distance  off.     It  is  always  as  well  after  examining  a 
tree  to  give  it  a  sharp  blow  before  leaving,  it  will 
often  bring  forth  something  we  little  expected.    There 
is  a  sort  of  honey-dew  on  many  low-growing  plants 
(nettles,  etc.),  this  is  often  an  attraction  to  moths  ; 
plants  so  affected  are  often  seen  covered  with  ants  ; 
these  little  creatures  seem  exceedingly  fond   of  this 
sticky  exudation. 

If  a  male  insect  be  seen  when  flying  to  dart  sud- 
denly and  quickly  into  a  bush,  it  should  if  possible  be 
traced,  and  will  often  be  found  paying  attentions  to 



a  wingless,  grub-like  lady  of  its  own  species.  This 
is  a  good  way  to  procure  these  wingless  female  moths, 
which  otherwise  would  not  be  found,  for  they  are 
strange  "stay-at-homes,"  often  remaining  altogether 
on  the  cocoon  from  which  they  have  emerged, 
patiently  awaiting  the  advent  of  a  sweetheart. 

158  Arkwright  Street,  Nottingham. 


AMONG  the  early  March  and  April  flowers  which 
carpet  the  lower  slopes  of  the  Swiss  pastures, 
orchards,  and  valleys,  the  several  species  of  Corydalis 
are  truly  remarkable.  As  soon  as  the  grass  begins 
to  grow,  and  that  marked  change  in  verdure  takes 
place  which  is  a  herald  of  the  early  Swiss  spring, 
thousands  of  shoots  appear  from  the  hidden  bulbs  of 
the  Corydalis.  Rapidly  the  leaves  expand,  and  the 
flower-spikes    unfold,    covering    the    meadow    with 

of  C.  solida  are  sweet-scented,  the  other  is  scentless. 
All  Swiss  species  of  Corydalis  are  bulbous  with  the 
exception  of  C.  lutea,  a  species  growing  on  old  walls 
surrounding  the  vineyards,  in  warm  and  sunny  situa- 

There   should   be  little  difficulty  in  distinguishing 
between   the   genera   Fumaria  and   Corydalis  :    the 

Fig.  81. — Corydalis  cava. 

delicate  blossoms  of  the  most  varied  shades  of  colour 
— crimson,  purple,  pink,  cream  or  pure  white,  stand- 
ing in  great  contrast  to  the  blue-green  of  the  deeply 
cut  glaucous  leaves.  On  the  undulating  slopes, 
beneath  walnut,  apple,  or  chestnut,  the  surface  of 
the  ground  is  literally  a  blaze  of  colour,  so  thickly 
grows  the  Corydalis ;  and  this  is  before  March  has 
given  place  to  the  more  genial  April. 

Corydalis  cava  is  the  species  so  commonly  dis- 
tributed in  Canton  Vaud,  while  the  C.  solida,  a  plant 
even  more  attractive  and  graceful,  is  characteristic  of 
Canton  Valais.  The  two  species  are  frequently 
confused,  but  can  be  readily  distinguished  if  com- 
pared with  each  other.  The  most  evident  distinction 
lies  in  the  shape  of  the  bracts,  which  are  digitate  as 
regards  C.  solida,  and  entire  in  C.  cava ;  the  flowers 

former  has  silicules,  the  latter  siliques  ;  in  this  respect 
the  order  Fumariacex  borders  on  the  cruciferous 

Genus  Corydalis,  DC.  :  sepals  2,  dehiscent  ; 
corolla,  4  petals,  irregular,  hypogenous,  connivent ; 
the  two  lateral  ones  joined  at  the  summit,  the  superior 
one  prolonged  into  a  spur ;  stamens  6,  hypogenous, 
in  two  groups  ;  anthers  prominent,  the  two  lateral 
ones  in  each  group  i-lobed,  the  centre  one  2  lobed  ; 
ovary  free,  i-celled  ;  styles  joined  in  one  filiform 
column  ;  stigma  bilobed  ;  fruit  a  silique,  2-valved, 
many-seeded ;  grains  shiny  or  black.  Eeaves  alter- 
nate, without  stipules  ;  flowers  with  bracts.  Plants 

a.  root  bulbous,  stem  simple. 

j8.  root  fibrous,  stem  branched. 



1.  C.  cava,  Schw. :  bulb  becoming  hollow  with 
age,  and  covered  with  small  fibres  above.  Flower- 
stem  solitary  or  numerous,  without  scales  at  the 
base  ;  leaves  bi-ternate,  with  blunt  segments  ;  bracts 
■entire,  spur  somewhat  inflated  and  bent ;  corolla 
purple,  pink,  or  white  ;  pedicel  three  times  shorter 
than  the  capsule  ;  plant  glaucous.     March — April. 

2.  C.  fabacea,  DC.  :  stem  with  a  scale  at  the 
base  ;  bracts  entire  ;  spur  prolonged  and  straight ; 
•leaves  ternate.     May. 

3.  C.  solida,  Sm.  :  (C.  digitata,  Pers.),  stem  with 
one  or  two  scales  ;  bracts  digitate  ;  spur  less  inflated 
and  bent ;  bulb  small,  with^fibres  at  the  base  ;  leaves 
bi-ternate,  with  rounded  segments  ;  corolla  crimson, 
pink,  slate-grey  or  white.     March — April. 

C.  Intea,  DC.  :  leaves  bi-tripinnate  ;  segments 
obovate,  entire  or  trilobed  ;  bracts  linear  ;  entire 
spur  blunt;  flowers  in  a  one-sided  raceme,  yellow ; 
grains  black.     April— May. 

C.  Parkinson,  F.G.S. 

By  H.  G.  Glasspoole. 

*  I  ""HE  strawberry  is  the  earliest  of  our  summer 
-L  fruits,  and  its  appearance  is  as  welcome  as  its 
flavour  is  agreeable. ,  This  plant  is  widely  diffused, 
being  found  indigenous  almost  throughout  Europe, 
and  indeed  in  most  parts  of  the  Temperate  Zone. 
Botanically  the  strawberry  belongs  to  the  genus 
Rosacea  or  Rose  tribe,  and  the  part  we  eat  is  not  a 
berry  or  even  a  fruit,  but  is  merely  a  fleshy  receptacle, 
the  true  fruit  being  the  ripe  carpels  which  are 
-scattered  over  its  surface  in  form  of  minute  grains, 
looking  like  seeds,  which  they  really  are  not,  for  the 
seed  is  enclosed  inside  of  the  shell  of  the  carpel. 
This  is  exactly  the  contrary  to  the  raspberry  :  here 
you  throw  away  the  receptacle  under  the  name  of  the 
core,  never  suspecting  that  it  is  the  very  part  you  had 
been  feasting  upon  in  the  strawberry.  In  one  case 
the  receptacle  robs  the  carpels  of  all  their  juices  in 
order  to  become  gorged  and  bloated  at  their  expense, 
in  the  other  case  the  carpels  act  in  the  same  selfish 
manner  upon  the  receptacle  (see  Lindley,  "Ladies' 
Botany.")  In  ancient  history  we  do  not  find  the 
strawberry  mentioned  by  the  old  Greek  authors, 
and  it  is  but  slightly  so  by  Virgil,  Ovid  and  Pliny. 
The  first  author,  in  his  third  Eclogue  enumerates 
it  as  one  of  the  beauties  of  the  field,  and  Ovid, 
speaking  of  the  simplicity  of  living  during  that  happy 
period  which  existed  only  in  the  poets'  imagination — 
the  "  Golden  Age  " — says  the  people  were 

"  Content  with  food  which  nature  freely  bred, 
On  wildings  and  on  strawberries  they  fed." 

Pliny  only  mentions  it  in  connection  with  the 
arbutus-trees.  In  book  15,  chap.  24,  he  says  the  tree 
is  termed  the  strawberry-tree  ;  and  there  is  not  any 
other  tree  that  gives  fruit  which  resembles  the  fruit 
of  an  herb  growing  by  the  ground.  There  is  no 
mention  of  its  being  cultivated,  but  Soyer  tells  us 
that  both  Greeks  and  Romans  were  fond  of  it,  and 
both  applied  the  same  care  to  its  cultivation,  and  that 
it  graced  the  tables  of  the  Luculli  by  the  side  of  its 
more  humble  sister  the  wild  strawberry ;  but  this 
author  gives  no  statement  on  what  authority  he  gets 
his  information. 

The  strawberry  does  not  appear  to  have  been 
cultivated  in  the  early  days  of  English  horticulture, 
probably  from  the  fact  that  it  was  found  plentifully 
as  a  wild  fruit  in  the  woods,  and  thence  brought  to 
towns  and  sold  in  the  streets  and  markets,  as  it  is 
in  the  present  day  in  Italy  and  other  parts  of  Europe. 
The  earliest  record  we  have  of  this  fruit  is  mentioned 
in  the  household  rolls  of  the  Countess  of  Leicester  for 
the  year  1265.  This  fruit  was  known  in  London  as 
an  article  of  ordinary  consumption  in  the  time  of 
Henry  VI.  In  a  poem  of  that  age  called  "  London 
Lyckpeny,"  by  John  Lydgate,  who  died  about  1483, 
he  mentions  that  "  Strabery  rype  !  "  was  one  of  the 
street  cries  of  that  period. 

From    the   chronicles  of  Holinshed,  published  in 
1577,  we  learn  that  strawberries  were  cultivated  in 
the  gardens  of  the  Bishop  of  Ely  in  Holborn  about 
the  year  1483.     Ely  Place,  Holborn,  was  the  ancient 
site  of  the  stately  palace  of  the  Bishops  of  Ely.     The 
gardens  and  grounds  were  forty  acres  in  extent,  and 
celebrated   for    their    roses,    saffron,    crocuses,    and 
strawberries.     Holinshed  describes  a  scene  in  which 
these  gardens  and  fruit  are  introduced,  which  was 
afterwards  dramatised  by  Shakespeare  in  his  plays. 
The  old  historian  refers  to  the  conduct  of  Richard 
III.,  then  Duke  of  Gloucester,  on  the  morning  of  the 
execution  of  Lord  Hastings,  sitting  with  others  in 
council  devising  the  honourable  solemnities  for  the 
king's    coronation.      Gloucester,    after   talking   with 
them,  said  to  the  Bishop  of  Ely,  "  My  lord,  you  have 
very  good  strawberries  in  your  garden  in  Holborn.     I 
require  you  to  let  us  have  a  mess  of  them."    "  Gladly, 
my  lord,"  quoth  he  ;  "  would  God  I  had  some  better 
thing  as  ready  to  your  pleasure  as  that ;  "  and  there- 
with in  all  haste  he  sent  his  servant  for  a  mess  of 
strawberries.     The  garden  in  Holborn  was  at  that 
period  one  of  the  most  celebrated  in  the  kingdom  :  it 
seems  to  have  been  an  object  of  great  care  with  the 
episcopal  owners,  for  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth  we 
find  that  the  Bishop  of  Ely  was  obliged  to  grant  it  on 
lease  to  Sir  Christopher  Hatton,  stipulating  for  the 
right  of  walking  in  it  and  gathering  twenty  bushels  of 
roses  yearly. 

From  the  Hampton  Court  accounts  in  the  time  of 
Henry  VIII.  we  learn  that  strawberry  roots  were 
sold  at  4</.  per  bushel,  and  were  no  doubt  plants  of 
the   wood   strawberry.      Tusser,    who   wrote   in  the 



latter  part  of  this  reign,  in  his  advice  to  the  farmer 
in  giving  directions  to  his  wife,  says — 

"Wife,  into  the  garden,  and  set  me  a  plot 
With  strawberry  roots  of  the  best  to  be  got ; 
Such  growing  abroad  among  the  thorns  of  the  wood 
Well  chosen  and  picked,  prove  excellent  good." 

This  same  old  author  mentions  that  when  thus 
transplanted  the  best  spot  in  the  garden  to  cultivate 
them  is  under  other  shrubs  ;  thus  he  says — 

"The  gooseberry,  respis,  and  roses  all  three. 
With  strawberries  under  them  fitly  agree." 

Thomas  Hyde,  writing  in  1523,  informs  us  that  "  this 
fruit  be  much  eaten  at  all  men's  tables  in  summer, 
and  they  grow  in  gardens  unto  the  largeness  of  a 

At  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  century  there 
was  another  celebrated  garden  in  Holborn,  which  was 
then  the  most  aristocratic  portion  of  London,  belong- 
ing to  Gerard,  where  he  appears  to  have  cultivated 
this  plant.  In  his  Herbal  he  says  "  Strawberries  grow 
upon  hills  and  valleys,  likewise  in  woods  and  other 
places  which  be  somewhat  shadowie.  They  prosper 
well  in  gardens."  He  also  mentions  white  and  green 
varieties,  but  which  are  only  to  be  found  in  gardens. 
Strawberries  are  mentioned  by  Spenser  in  "The 
Faerie  Queene  ;  "  and  Shakespeare  says 

"The  strawberry  grows  underneath  the  nettle; 
And  wholesome  berries  thrive  and  ripen  best 
Neighboured  by  fruit  of  baser  quality." 

This  occurs  in  "Henry  V."  (act.  i.  sc.  1).  The 
Bishop  of  Ely,  in  speaking  of  the  young  king,  likens 
his  good  qualities,  which  lie  beneath  the  surface,  to  the 
charms  of  the  fruit  which  are  overshadowed  by  noxious 

In  an  article  on  this  fruit  in  the  "Gentleman's 
Magazine"  for  1879,  by  W.  Collett  Sanders,  he 
informs  us  that  Sir  Philip  Sidney,  in  his  "Arcadia," 
published  1590,  was  the  first  writer  who  mentions  the 
inimitable  combination  of  strawberries  and  cream. 
In  describing  a  milk-white  horse,  Sir  Philip  says  that 
upon  his  shoulders  and  withers  he  was  freckled  with 
red  stains,  as  when  a  few  strawberries  are  scattered 
into  a  dish  of  cream. 

We  find  one  of  Ben  Jonson's  personages  saying, 
"My  son  hath  sent  you  a  pot  of  strawberries,  ga- 
thered in  the  wood,  to  mingle  with  your  cream."  The 
strawberry  at  this  period  must  have  been  generally 
cultivated ;  and  it  appears  a  strange  statement  that 
John  Tradescant  the  elder,  who  was  gardener  to 
Charles  I.,  and  the  Paxton  of  England  in  those  days, 
first  saw  the  strawberry  as  a  cultivated  and  cherished 
plant  in  a  woman's  garden  near  Plymouth,  whose 
little  daughter  had  transplanted  it  from  the  woods 
for  the  sake  of  its  beautiful  flower  and  fruit.  Forced 
strawberries  and  cherries  are  mentioned  as  being 
served  at  an  installation  dinner  at  Windsor,  23rd  of 
April,  1667. 

[To  be  continued.) 


~T}EES  and  Bee-Keeping :  Scientific  and  Practical, 
J—)  Vol.  i.  Scientific,  by  Frank  R.  Cheshire,  F.L.S., 
etc.  (London  :  L.  Upcott  Gill).  Of  late  years  bee- 
lovers  cannot  complain  of  want  of  literature.  Almost 
every  bee-master  has  thought  it  necessary  to  write  a 
little  book  on  the  subject.  The  consequence  is  there 
are  few  good  ones.  Mr.  Cheshire  is  well  known  for 
his  scientific  as  well  as  practical  knowledge  of  bees 
and  their  diseases,  and  this  volume  presents  us  with 
the  scientific  aspect  of  bee-life.  It  is  a  beautifully 
got-up  work,  full  of  original  and  well-drawn  illustra- 
tions. In  short,  it  really  deals  with  the  physiology 
and  natural  history  of  the  bee,  and  we  have  sincere 
pleasure  in  recommending  it  to  both  naturalists  and 
apiculturists  as  by  far  the  best  manual  of  the  subject 

Outlines  of  Geology,  by  James  Geikie,  LL.D. 
(London  :  Edward  Stanford).  From  a  comparative 
dearth  of  really  good  manuals  on  geology,  all  of  a 
sudden  there  has  issued  a  rush.  Perhaps  this  was 
because  so  many  good  geologists  and  teachers  found 
out  the  want  at  the  same  time.  Thus  we  have  had 
manuals  from  Duncan,  Seeley,  Ftheridge,  Prestwich, 
A.  Geikie,  and  now  another  from  James  Geikie.  AH 
of  them  are  excellent,  and  in  no  science  is  the  student 
now  better  off  for  guides  than  in  geology.  Dr.  James 
Geikie's  new  book  is  specially  calculated  for  young 
beginners,  and  the  patient,  thoughtful  manner  in 
which  he  has  laid  himself  out  to  fully  explain  those 
parts  which  beginners  find  it  most  difficult  to  under- 
stand, will  earn  him  the  gratitude  of  the  latter.  No 
better  "introduction"  to  the  science  of  geology 
exists  in  our  language. 

Upland  and  Meadow:  a  Poaetquissing's  Chronicle, 
by  Charles  C.Abbott,  M.D.  (London  :  Sampson  Low 
&  Co.)..  Dr.  Abbott  is  an  old  friend  and  contributor 
to  Science-Gossip,  and  his  pleasant  papers  will  be 
remembered  by  hosts  of  our  readers.  We  are  there- 
fore all  the  more  pleased  to  congratulate  him  on  the 
great  success  which  the  present  volume  has  obtained 
on  this  side  the  Atlantic.  It  is  altogether  a  delight- 
ful book,  reminding  one  of  Thoreau,  but  containing 
more  accurate  zoological  and  botanical  knowledge, 
and  possessed  besides  of  a  peculiar  humour,  not 
American  after  the  common  use  of  the  term,  but  the 
overflowing  pleasure  which  breaks  into  laughter. 
We  cordially  recommend  our  readers  to  forthwith 
procure  this  charming  volume  of  natural  history 
essays  for  themselves. 

British  Fungi,  by  the  Rev.  John  Stevenson,  in  two 
vols.  Vol.  i.  Agaricus-Bolbitus  (London  and  Edin- 
burgh :  William  Blackwood  &  Sons).  The  author  is 
the  author  of  "  Mycologia  Scotica,"  and  Hon.  Sec. 
of  the  Cryptogamic  Society  of  Scotland,  so  that  he 
comes  before  the  public  with  good  credentials.  This 
is  a  first-class  manual,  intended  for  earnest  students, 
not  mere  dilettanti ;  but  an  excellent  work  of  refer- 



•ence  notwithstanding.  Dr.  Cooke's  two  volumes  on 
the  subject  fetch  high  prices,  which  is  a  good  indica- 
tion of  their  rarity,  and  of  the  necessity  for  a  book 
like  the  present  to  be  published.  The  woodcut 
illustrations  are  neat,  artistic,  and  accurate,  as  one 
would  naturally  expect,  seeing  that  they  are  all  the 
work  of  Mr.  Worthington  G.  Smith.  Mr.  Stevenson 
has  laid  all  possible  authors  under  tribute,  and  he 
shows  himself  admirably  capable  of  acting  as  a 
mycological  guide  to  the  British  fungi.  This  volume 
will  be  an  acceptable  addition  to  every  botanical 

Our  Island  Continent :  a  Naturalises  Holiday  in 
Australia,  by  Dr.  J.  E.  Taylor,  F.L.S.  etc.  (London  : 
Society  for  Promoting  Christian  Knowledge).  Our 
position  with  regard  to  this  little  book  precludes  our 
doing  more  than  announcing  its  publication.  The 
chapters  are  as  follows  :  I,  Outward  Bound  ;  2,  The 
Indian  Ocean  ;  3,  First  Glimpses  of  Australia ; 
4,  South  Australia  :  Adelaide ;  5,  The  Environs  of 
Adelaide  ;  6,  In  the  Bush  ;  7,  Victoria  :  Melbourne  ; 
•8,  The  Environs  of  Melbourne  ;  9,  Victorian  Wan- 
derings and  Ramblings ;  10,  Australia  Felix;  11, 
A  Visit  to  the  Crater  Lakes  of  Western  Victoria  ; 
12,  The  Victorian  Forests  ;  13,  Cobb's  Coaches  :  on 
the  Road;  14,  Overland;  15,  New  South  Wales: 
Sydney ;  16,  The  Environs  of  Sydney  ;  and  17,  The 
Blue  Mountains. 

The  Naturalist's  Diary :  a  Day  Book  of  Meteo- 
rology, Phenology  and  Rural  Biology,  by  Charles 
Roberts,  F.R.C.S.  (London :  Swan  Sonnenschein 
&  Co.).  This  book  admirably  carries  out  a  capital 
idea.  It  is  practically  a  ready  work  of  reference  to 
the  climate  and  general  natural  history  of  the 
British  Islands.  The  introduction  covers  very  ex- 
tensive ground,  including  health  resorts,  climates, 
periodicity  of  natural  phenomena,  migration  of  birds, 
-etc.  Each  day  of  the  year  has  a  column  assigned  to  it, 
showing  the  average  or  mean  temperature,  maximum 
and  minimum,  in  sun  and  shade,  mean  barometer, 
rainfall,  the  plants  and  trees  usually  blossoming, 
what  plants  to  look  out  for,  the  trees  and  shrubs 
leafing,  insects,  larvre,  etc.  appearing ;  birds  mi- 
grating to  and  from,  singing  etc.  ;  what  animals  are 
seen,  shooting,  fishing,  sports,  etc.  From  all  of 
which  the  reader  will  see  that  this  is  a  most  useful 
and  handy  book  of  reference. 

Mind-Cure  on  a  Pliysical  Basis,  by  Sarah  E. 
Titcomb  (Boston  :  Cuppler,  Upham  &  .  Co.).  We 
confess  we  do  not  like  meddling  with  these  subjects, 
but  we  were  attracted  by  the  earnestness  of  the 
author  to  read  sufficient  of  this  book  to  see  that  it 
differs  much  from  all  previous  works  on  the  subject. 
The  author  holds  that  she  can  cure  disease  simply  by 
concentrating  her  mind  upon  the  thought  that  the 
patient  has  no  disease,  and  she  thinks  this  method 
can  be  used  by  anybody.  We  have  not  had  time  to 
try  it. 

The    Young    Collector:  "Sea-weeds,   Shells,   and 

Fossils,"  by  Peter  Gray  and  B.  B.  Woodward  ;  and 
"  English  Coins  and  Tokens,"  by  St.  Jewill  and  B.  V. 
Head  (both  by  Messrs.  Swan  Sonnenschein  &  Co.). 
Although  neither  of  these  handbooks  comes  up  to 
the  unusally  high  character  of  Mr.  Bagnall's  work 
on  Mosses,  they  are  nevertheless  admirable  helps 
to  young  students,  to  whom  their  cheap  price  (one 
shilling)  will  be  very  welcome. 

An  Intermediate  Pliysical  and  Descriptive  Geography 
(London  :  Ed.  Stanford).  This  little  book  is  intended 
for  school  use,  and  is  abridged  from  the  well-known 
and  larger  "  Physical,  Historical,  and  Descriptive 
Geography "  of  the  late  Mr.  Keith  Johnston.  We 
have  long  held  the  latter  work  to  be  the  most 
admirable  scientific  treatise  that  ever  appeared,  and 
we  are  glad  that  this  smaller  work,  containing  the 
method  which  made  Mr.  Johnston's  work  valuable,  is 
based  on  the  same  lines. 

Official  Year-Book  of  the  Scientific  and  learned 
Societies  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  (London  : 
Chas.  Griffin  &  Co.).  This  is  the  third  annual  issue 
of  a  valuable  and  handy  book  of  references.  It 
gives  a  list  of  the  papers  read  during  1S85  before 
societies  engaged  in  fourteen  departments  of  research, 
with  the  names  of  their  authors  ;  and  there  is  besides 
a  full  and  copious  index.  It  also  contains  notices  of 
the  various  Government  departments  of  science,  such 
as  the  Royal  Observatory,  Geological  Survey,  etc. 

Malvern  :  its  Flowers,  Ferns,  Butte/fies,  Minerals, 
Fossils,  and  Birds,  by  C.  E.  Mackie,  M.A.  (Malvern  : 
"Advertiser"  Office).  This  is  a  neat,  well-printed, 
and  altogether  nicely  got  up  little  field  handbook, 
absolutely  necessary  to  a  naturalist  visiting  the 
Malverns.  In  view  of  the  next  meeting  of  the  British 
Association  at  Birmingham,  when,  among  the  nu- 
merous excursions,  one  or  more  is  sure  to  be  made  to 
this  interesting  district,  the  issue  of  this  little  manual 
is  very  opportune. 

Photog7-aphy  for  Amateurs,  by  T.  C.  Hepworth, 
F.C.S.  (London  :  Cassell  &  Co.).  Mr.  Hepworth 
is  never  more  at  his  best  than  when  he  is  retailing  his 
large  experience  for  the  use  of  beginners  in  the 
sciences  he  has  studied.  There  are  few  pursuits  more 
generally  popular  than  that  of  photography  ;  and, 
although  there  are  several  capital  little  books  known 
to  amateurs,  we  do  not  know  of  any  so  cheap  or 
practically  useful  as  the  one  before  us.  We  specially 
recommend  it  to  ladies  who  have  now  added  amateur 
photography  to  their  numerous  accomplishments. 

Another  old  contributor  to  our  magazine — a  man 
whom  Dr.  Samuel  Smiles  made  known  to  the  public 
some  years  ago,  Mr.  Thomas  Edward,  of  Banff — has 
just  died  at  the  age  of  seventy-two.  Edward  was  a 
thorough,  open-air  naturalist,  one  to  whom  science' 
was  dearer  than  gold  or  comfort,  or  even  fame.  He 
lived  a  happy,  useful,  and  honoured  life,  although  he 
never  earned  a  pound  a  week. 




By  W.  A.  Hyslop. 

No.  II. 

CLOSELY  allied  to  the  Diptera,  though  even  the 
traces  of  wings  seem  completely  lost,  are  the 
Aphaniptera,  or  fleas,  a  large  and  important  division 
of  parasites,  and,  so  far  as  I  know,  except  for  various 
articles  in  magazines,  undescribed.  A  number  of 
species  are  described  and  figured  in  Science-Gossip 
for  1 87 1,  p.  100.  I  do  not  intend  entering  upon  any 
description  of  the  Aphaniptera,  but  would  merely 
point  out  that  there  is  much  scope  for  research  in  this 
branch  of  entomology,   as  the  various  writers  who 

Fig.  84.— Flea  of  Dog  [Pulex  cam's),  male  enlarged. 

Fig.  85. — Flea  of  Mole  [Pulex  talpa),  male,  enlarged. 

mention  fleas  show  great  variety  of  opinion  as  regards 
the  number  of  different  species,  some  describing 
about  twenty  varieties,  while  others,  such  as  M. 
Megnin,  only  mention  about  ten.  M.  Megnin  seems 
to  consider  that  the  species  of  other  authors  are  all 
identical  with  one  or  other  of  those  described  by  him. 
The  size  and  number  of  combs  on  the  head  and 
thorax  seem  one  distinguishing  feature.  Among  the 
fleas   should   be    mentioned    the    chigoe    of    South 

America,  the  female  of  which  burrows  below  the  toe- 
nails, and  causes  much  annoyance  and  pain. 

Passing  over  the  Heteroptera,  or  bugs,  which  do 
not  fall  under  the  definition  of  parasite  adopted  in 
this  article,  we  come  to  the  Anoplura,  or  lice,  and  it 
is  to  this  division  I  wish  more  particularly  to  draw 
attention.  Before  doing  so,  however,  we  may  briefly 
consider  the  remaining  kinds  of  animal  parasites,  viz. 
those  of  the  genera  Ixodes  and  Acari. 

The  Ixodes,  or  ticks,  are  well  known,  and  species- 

Fig.  86.— Flea  of  Bat  [Pulex  ■vespertilionis),  male,  enlarged  - 

Fig.  87.— Chigoe  [Pulex  j>e>ietra?ts),  enlarged. 

may  be  found  on  most  of  our  quadrupeds,  notably 
the  dog.  They  should,  if  one  adhered  closely  to  the 
definition  of  parasite  already  given,  be  excluded,  as 
they  live  in  the  grass  and  underwood,  and  fix  them- 
selves to  passing  animals  in  order  to  suck  their  blood 
and  drop  off  when  satisfied.  The  body  of  the  female 
expands  when  full  of  blood,  being  to  a  certain  degree 
elastic,  while  that  of  the  male  does  not.  The  adult 
specimens  are  always  furnished  with  eight  legs,  but 



the  young,  which  are  six-legged,  are  frequently  met 
with.  Snakes  are  infested  by  a  species  of  Ixodes 
called  by  Mr.  Murray  Ophiodes  ;  but  little  seems  to 
be  known  regarding  the  differences  of  the  various 

Before  considering  the  Acari,  we  may  notice  two 
large  and  important  divisions  of  the  Ixodes,  viz.  : — 

I.  Trombidiidse,  or  harvest-mites,  which  are  sub- 
divided into  several  families.  It  may  suffice  to 
mention  the  Tctranychiis  autumnalis,  or  harvest-bug, 

Fig.  88. — Flea  of  Birds,  enlarged. 

the  beetle,  and  also  on  the  humble  bee.  Another 
weli-known  species  is  the  Dermanyssus  avium,  which 
is  common  about  the  cages  of  canaries  and  other  cage- 
birds  ;  species  very  closely  allied  frequent  swallows'- 
nests  and  also  poultry-houses. 

The  Acari  proper  are  divided  into  a  large  number 
of  sub-genera,  and  are  a  subject  of  very  great  interest ; 
but  space  will  not  permit  my  doing  more  than 
mentioning  a  few  of  the  many  interesting  species 
which  are  found  leading  a  parasitic  life. 

1.  Hypoderidoe,  found  living  between  the  skin  and 
muscle  of  some  birds,  such  as  the  pigeon.  They  are 
oblong,  oval,  and  almost  transparent. 

2.  Dermaleichidx. — This  sub-genus  contains  by  far 
the   largest  number   of   species,    almost   every  bird 

Fig.  8q. — Flea  of  Squirrel  [Pulex  sciurorum),  male,  enlarged. 

Fig.  90. — Listophorus  of 
Hare.     X  100. 

Fig.  91. — Dermaleichus  of 
Chaffinch.     X  100. 

Fig.  92. — Hypopus  of  Fly.      Fig.  93. — Harvest-Bug  [Tetra- 
X  220.  nychus  autumnalis).     X  100. 

which  is  of  a  brick-red  colour,  and  so  minute  as 
scarcely  to  be  visible  to  the  naked  eye.  They  live 
among  bushes  and  grass,  and  fix  themselves  to 
passers-by,  causing  much  uneasiness  and  pain. 
Another  well-known  species  of  the  Trombidiidre  is 
the  Scirus  insectorum,  which  is  the  small  red  parasite 
frequently  found  on  the  harvest  spider  and  other 

2.  Gamasidre. — This  is  a  large  family,  the  greater 
number  of  which  are  parasitic.  Perhaps  the  best- 
known  species,  and  one  showing  the  principal  features 
of  the  family,  is  Gamasus  colcoptratorum,  found  on 

having  one  peculiar  to  itself,  and  several  being 
infested  by  two  or  three  distinct  varieties  ;  in  the 
latter  case  we  find  that  each  variety,  as  a  rule,  fre- 
quents a  different  part  of  the  body,  the  primary 
feathers  of  the  wing  being  a  favourite  resort,  where, 
from  their  small  size,  these  parasites  look  like  fine 
dust.  Figure  91  shows  a  typical  example.  In  some 
species,  such  as  one  of  the  varieties  found  on  the 
sparrow,  the  third  pair  of  legs  are  very  much  enlarged 
in  the  males,  but  are  of  the  normal  size  in  the  females. 
The  body  is  covered  by  a  chitinous  skin,  which  is 
delicately  striated. 



3.  Listophoridos  may  be  considered  as  the  con- 
necting link  between  the  Dermaleichidae  and  the 
Scaroptidre.  The  commonest  species,  L.  gibbus,  is 
found  on  the  hare  and  rabbit,  often  in  large  numbers. 
In  connection  with  this  parasite,  though  belonging  to 
a  different  class,  may  be  mentioned  the  Cheyletus 
parasitivorax,  also  found  on  the  rabbit  and  hare,  and 
whose  vocation  in  life  it  is  to  live  not  upon  the  hare 
or  rabbit,  but  upon  the  species  of  L.  gibbus  already 
mentioned,  the  hare  or  rabbit  merely  forming  the 
happy  hunting-ground. 

4.  Sarcoptidge,  or  itch-mites,  which  are  allied  to 
the  last  sub-genera  in  many  respects,  but  differ  from 
them  in  their  habits,  and  also  in  being  injurious  to 
their  hosts.  These  mites,  of  which  there  are  a 
number  of  varieties,  all  burrow  below  the  skin  and 
live,  multiply,  and  die  there.  The  common  fowl  is 
affected  with  one  species  ;  the  mange  of  the  horse  is 
caused  by  a  second  ;  while  the  disease  of  sheep  known 
as  scab  is  occasioned  by  a  third.  All  are  of  small 
size,  and  resemble  in  appearance  the  A  cants  scabiei, 
specimens  of  which  are  to  be  found  in  most  collections 
of  microscope  slides. 

5.  Hypopidae. — There  has  been  a  good  deal  of 
controversy  regarding  this  sub-genus,  as  to  whether  it 
is  a  distinct  species  or  only  the  transition  stage  of 
some  other  Acarus ;  but  into  this  discussion  it  will  be 
unnecessary  to  enter.  The  two  best-known  species 
are  //.  muscarum  (see  Fig.  92),  from  the  fly,  and  //. 
arvicola,  from  the  field-mouse.  In  the  above  sketch 
many  interesting  species  have  had  to  be  passed  over, 
such  as  the  genus  Myobia,  found  on  the  mouse,  and 
the  Demodex,  found  in  the  pores  of  the  skin. 

By  W.  Mattieu  Williams,  F.R.A.S.,  F.C.S. 

A  TORTOISE  PARASITE.  —  Mr.  Hyslop's 
"  Chapters  on  Animal  Parasites  "  reminds  me 
of  a  curious  creature  I  found  adhering  to  the  leg,  or 
rather  between  the  leg  and  abdomen,  of  a  tortoise 
that  had  lived  for  some  time  in  my  garden.  It  was 
similar  to  a  sheep-tick,  but  much  larger— about  the 
size  of  a  shilling,  but  oval — with  light  fawn-coloured 
back  and  belly,  and  short  dark  legs.  In  shape  and 
general  appearance  it  curiously  resembled  its  host, 
to  the  hard  warty  skin  of  which  it  was  very  firmly 
hooked,  after  the  usual  habit  of  these  amiable 
creatures,  whose  beneficent  agency  is  not  satisfac- 
torily defined  in  any  of  the  Bridgewater  Treatises. 
I  make  a  note  of  finding  this  animal,  as  it  strikingly 
illustrates  the  universality  of  such  pests  ;  a  tortoise 
with  its  hard  shell  and  small  exposure  of  horny  skin 
being  apparently  so  well  protected.  Mr.  Ilyslop 
will  probably  tell  us  something  about  other  similar 
creatures.  It  appears  to  me  that  the  parasites  of 
reptiles  have  been  but  little  studied.     Do  the  scales 

of  a   crocodile   completely  protect   him   from   their 
attacks  ? 

Saccharin. —  Many  paragraphs  have  lately  ap- 
peared concerning  this  substance.  In  these  it  is 
described  as  something  quite  newly  discovered.  This 
is  a  mistake.  It  was  discovered  in  1879  by  Fahlen- 
berg  and  Remsen,  who  named  it  anhydro-orthosul- 
phaminebenzoic  acid,  in  accordance  with  the  descrip- 
tive practice  which  I  have  already  discussed  in 
previous  gossip.  It  was  obtained  by  the  oxidation 
of  orthotoluenesulphonamide.  Experiments  have 
been  recently  made  by  Stutzer  in  order  to  ascertain 
whether  its  remarkable  sweetening  properties  may 
become  practically  useful.  He  sweetened  the  food 
of  rabbits  and  dogs  with  it,  watched  its  effect  on  the 
animals,  and  observed  nothing  injurious.  It  passed 
through  the  bodies  of  these  animals  without  change. 
It  is  so  intensely  sweet  that  one  part  dissolved  in 
10,000  parts  of  water  perceptibly  sweetens  it.  It 
has  in  addition  a  slight  almond  flavour.  Stutzer 
concludes  that  it  will  in  future  be  used  instead  of 
cane  sugar  for  sweetening  pastry,  liqueurs,  medi- 
cines, etc. 

I  am  very  sceptical  concerning  the  desirability 
of  using  it  for  sweetening  any  kind  of  food.  The 
dogs  and  rabbits  were  not  killed,  but,  being  unable 
to  answer  questions  concerning  the  state  of  their 
health  and  feelings,  their  evidence  is  of  little  value. 
The  introduction  of  a  foreign  substance  which  passes 
through  the  body  without  being  assimilated  or  other- 
wise changed  may  not  produce  violent  mischief,  but 
it  must  act  somehow  if  it  has  any  decided  chemi- 
cal energies  ;  and  any  interference  with  the  normal 
healthy  actions  of  the  bodily  functions  is  likely  to  be 
damaging  rather  than  beneficial.  The  most  plausible 
excuse  for  using  this  substance  is  for  sweetening 
the  food  of  diabetic,  gouty  and  other  patients,  who 
may  be  injured  by  using  sugar.  There  is  however 
a  much  safer  mode  of  overcoming  this  difficulty — 
that  of  resisting  the  childish  craving  for  sweeties  and 
sweetening,  which  is  easily  done  by  simple  abstinence. 
I  have  met  with  several  cases  of  men  who  have  thus 
abstained  ;  all  have  found,  after  a  while,  that  their 
desire  for  sugar  was  an  acquired  habit,  and  that 
finally  they  preferred  their  tea,  coffee,  etc.,  without 

The  name  of  saccharin,  as  now  applied  to  this 
substance,  is  unfortunate,  this  name  having  been 
applied  in  1880  to  the  carbohydrate  obtained  by  the 
action  of  lime  on  common  cane  sugar. 

Poisonous  Cheese. — In  1883-4  as  many  as  three 
hundred  persons  were  taken  ill  in  Michigan  after 
eating  certain  cheeses  ;  the  symptoms  were  vomiting 
and  purging,  followed  by  signs  of  failure  of  the  heart, 
and  nervous  prostration.  The  cheeses  had  no  special 
or  peculiar  flavour,  but  when  cut  a  slightly  opalescent 
acid  fluid  exuded.     Dogs  and   cats  refused   to  eat 



them.  Microscopic  examination  revealed  numerous 
micrococci.  These  were  cultivated  and  injected  into 
rabbits  with  negative  results,  but  an  acid  watery 
extract  was  obtained  from  the  cheese,  and  from  this 
a  precipitate  that  was  soluble  in  ether.  This  solution 
on  evaporation  gave  crystals  which  were  found,  when 
taken  by  men,  to  produce  the  symptoms  above 
described.  It  was  therefore  the  poison,  and  has 
received  the  name  of  tyrotoxican.  The  "Journal  of 
the  Chemical  Society "  of  April  last,  from  which  I 
obtain  these  particulars,  says  nothing  about  the 
origin  of  the  cheeses.  The  locality  suggests  a  sus- 
pcion.  American  ingenuity  has  devised  a  method 
oj  obtaining  both  butter  and  rich  fat  cheese  from  the 
s;me  milk  plus  a  cheap  ingredient.  The  cream  is 
tiken  from  the  milk,  and  the  curd  precipitated  from 
tie  skimmed  milk.  Ordinary  skim-milk  cheese  is 
\ery  hard,  dry  and  unsaleable  ;  but  these  defects  have 
teen  remedied  by  intimately  mixing  with  the  curd  an 
jmount  of  hog's  lard  sufficient  to  represent  the 
tbstracted  butter.  Query :  Were  these  poisonous 
theeses  samples  of  this  peculiar  mode  of  manufacture  ? 

The  Evolution  of  Grasses.— A  very  interesting 
paper  was  read  at  the  Geologists'  Association  by 
|.  Starkie  Gardner  on  this  subject.  The  present  pre- 
ponderance of  grasses  over  all  other  forms  of  vegetation 
B  very  remarkable.  There  are  over  3000  species, 
estimated  to  occupy,  under  cultivation,  one  third  of 
lurope.  Into  this  country  alone  their  products  are 
imported  to  the  value  of  nearly  one  hundred  millions 
st'rling.  About  95  per  cent,  of  the  plants  growing  in 
oldinary  meadow  land  are  grasses.  Mr.  Gardner 
ccncludes  that  there  was  no  great  development  of 
gnsses  until  towards  the  close  of  the  Eocene,  no 
definite  remains  having  been  found  associated  with 
tht  older  Eocene  floras  of  temperate  latitudes,  as 
th«y  should  be  had  they  then  existed  in  any  abun- 
dance. The  later  deposits,  such  as  the  Miocene  beds 
throughout  Europe,  are  crowded  with  them.  In 
further  support  of  this  conclusion,  it  was  shown  that 
the  teeth  of  all  the  early  Eocene  herbivorous 
Mammalia  were  adapted  for  crunching  fruits,  snap- 
pingtwigs,  and  grubbing  up  roots,  rather  than  brows- 
ing qi  such  food  as  grass.  The  geological  history  of 
insecis  was  also  put  in  evidence  to  support  the  theory 
of  the  post  mid-Eocene  date  of  grass.  The  remains 
of  grais  in  the  Tertiary  deposits  of  Spitzbergen  may 
be  older,  but  their  age  has  not  yet  been  accurately 
correlated.  These  conclusions,  if  confirmed,  indicate 
a  very  distinctly  marked  epoch  in  the  evolution  of 
both  vegetable  and  animal  life,  as  the  introduction 
of  such  an  aggressive  type  must  have  altered  the 
charactei  of  both  flora  and  fauna  of  the  Temperate 
Zones  to  an  extent  quite  equal  to  that  which  the 
other  geologists  attributed  to  violent  catastrophes. 

Magic  Uirrors. — Professors  W.  E.  Ayrton  and 
John   Terry  have   accidentally    discovered   that   the 

amalgamation  of  metals  is  accompanied  with  great 
expansive  force.  If  one  side  of  a  thick  straight  brass 
bar  be  amalgamated,  this  side  becomes  convex,  and 
the  opposite  side  concave.  They  suppose  that  the 
Japanese  magic  mirrors  which  have  excited  so  much 
controversy  may  be  explained  by  an  action  of  this 
kind.  These  mirrors  are  made  of  bronze,  are  polished 
on  one  side,  and  have  raised  figures  on  the  other,  the 
polished  reflecting  surface  appearing  perfectly  smooth 
and  regular,  without  any  trace  or  indication  of  the 
figures,  yet  when  light  is  reflected  from  this  surface 
and  thrown  upon  a  screen  the  luminous  image  of  the 
mirror  displays  the  figures  that  stand  out  on  the  back. 
In  a  paper  read  some  time  ago  before  the  Royal 
Society,  Messrs.  Ayrton  and  Perry  have  already  shown 
that  this  magic  result  is  due  to  the  polished  side- 
opposite  to  the  thinner  parts  of  the  casting  being 
more  convex  than  that  opposite  to  the  raised  parts,  a 
conclusion'  they  have  verified  by  showing  the  reversal 
of  the  pattern  when  formed  by  a  convergent  beam  of 
light.  This  would  be  the  condition  of  such  a  casting 
if  the  whole  of  the  reflecting  surface  were  subject  to 
an  uniform  expansive  stress,  as  the  thinner  or  weaker 
parts  would  thereby  become  less  concave  or  more 
convex  than  the  thicker  parts.  The  authors  now 
suppose  that,  instead  of  this  irregularity  being  pro- 
duced intentionally  in  the  course  of  manufacture,  it 
may  have  arisen  accidentally  from  the  use  of  a 
mercury  amalgam  in  the  polishing  of  the  reflecting 
surface  of  the  mirror. 

Arctic  Ground  Ice. — "  The  Popular  Science 
Monthly  "  states  some  facts  indicating  that  the  depth 
of  frozen  soil  in  Arctic  America  is  much  greater  than 
is  usually  supposed.  In  1SS3  Lieutenant  P.  II.  Ray, 
U.S.A.,  sank  a  pit  near  Point  Barrow  to  a  depth  of 
3S  feet.  At  28  feet  from  the  surface  the  temperature 
of  the  soil  was  120  Fahr.,  and  the  same  at  3S  feet. 
Taking  the  unit  of  increase  of  temperature  per  unit  of 
depth  as  i°  Fahr.  to  64  feet,  he  computed  the  total 
thickness  of  ice  at  about  1300  feet.  The  depth  to 
which  the  summer  thaw  extends,  and  its  rate  of 
progress,  are  more  variable,  as  they  depend  more  on 
the  season  and  exposure  than  does  the  depth  of  frozen 
soil.  In  some  respects  the  frozen  substratum  may  be 
advantageous,  as  it  moderates  the  effect  of  the  scorch- 
ing heat  of  continuous  Arctic  sunshine,  and  supplies- 
moisture  to  the  roots  of  cereals  when  they  most 
require  it.  This  is  so  much  the  case  that  General 
Lefroy,  who  has  studied  the  subject  in  Siberia, 
believes  that  agricultural  experience  in  the  north- 
west would  be  in  favour  of  retaining  the  frozen  ice- 
even  if  it  were  possible  to  get  rid  of  it. 

Arctic  Summers. — There  are  few  subjects  con- 
cerning which  popular  delusions  are  more  generally 
diffused  than  that  of  Arctic  climate.  The  very  name 
of  "the  Arctic  Regions  "  is  so  firmly  associated  in 
our   minds    with   ice   and   snow,    polar    bears,    and 



freezing  mercury,  that  the  idea  of  oppressively  hot 
weather  within  the  Arctic  Circle  appears  a  ridiculous 
paradox.  Nevertheless  such  weather  is  experienced 
in  these  latitudes  whenever  the  sky  is  free  from 
clouds,  and  nowhere  within  the  tropics  are  mos- 
quitoes so  intolerably  abundant  and  active  as  on 
the  island  of  Magero,  whose  culminating  cliff  forms 
the  North  Cape.  One  of  my  travelling  companions 
in  this  region,  a  sturdy  German  Uhlan  officer,  who 
had  ridden  safely  through  the  thickest  dangers  of  the 
Franco-German  war,  was  vanquished  and  unhorsed 
in  the  course  of  his  struggles  with  the  clouds  of 
mosquitoes  that  blinded  and  choked  him  as  he  rode 
from  the  landing-place  of  Kjelvig  to  the  top  of  the 
Cape.  Describing  his  battle  with  them,  he  said  :  "  I 
•did  breeve  mosquitoes,  I  did  spit  zem  out  of  my 
mous."  I  never  suffered  more  from  oppressive  heat 
than  in  the  course  of  a  walk  up  the  Tromsdal,  to  visit 
•the  Laplanders  that  are  there  encamped. 

It  should,  however,  be  understood  that  special 
conditions  are  necessary  in  order  to  experience  fully 
the  torrid  effect  of  Arctic  sunshine.  On  a  second 
visit  to  the  Lapps  in  the  Tromsdal  at  about  the  same 
time  of  year  I  found  the  weather  quite  chilly,  but  this 
time  it  was  during  a  cloudy,  drizzling  summer.  On 
the  first  occasion  the  sun  had  been  shining  con- 
tinually all  day  and  all  night  long  for  several  weeks 
through  a  bright  blue  sky,  free  from  even  a  fleck 
of  cloud.  Besides  this,  one  must  be  clear  of  glaciers 
to  experience  such  summer  weather.  Smith's  Sound, 
the  usual  track  of  our  Arctic  explorers,  is  a  great 
fjord,  the  outlet  of  a  multitude  of  glaciers  which  the 
utmost  energies  of  the  continuous  summer  sunshine 
fail  to  melt. 

I  have  described  this  subject  more  fully  in  a  paper 
on  "Aerial  Exploration  of  the  Arctic  Regions," 
{see  "Science  in  Short  Chapters")  and  have  no 
doubt  that  if  the  conditions  of  surface  are  favourable 
— that  is  if  there  is  an  absence  of  glacier-forming 
mountains  and  valleys — the  North  Pole  and  its 
immediate  surroundings  is  a  region  of  very  hot 
summer-time,  and  possibly  of  rich  summer  vegetation, 
similar  to  that  of  the  plains  of  Arctic  Siberia,  which 
are  so  luxuriant  in  summer  and  so  horrible  in  winter. 

Low  Ceilings. — To  advocate  these  as  advan- 
tageous from  a  sanitary  point  of  view,  and  more 
especially  in  reference  to  ventilation,  appears  very 
bold  indeed.  Nevertheless  this  is  done  in  "  The 
Popular  Science  Monthly  "  of  April.  In  such  rooms, 
it  is  argued,  the  window  tops  being  nearer  the 
ceiling,  there  is  a  better  sweeping-out  and  changing 
of  the  general  atmosphere  of  the  room,  whereas,  if 
the  ceiling  is  higher,  only  the  lower  part  of  the  air  is 
moved,  and  an  inverted  lake  of  foul  and  hot  air  is  left 
floating  in  the  space  above  the  window-tops.  It  is 
further  argued  that  the  stagnant  atmospheric  lake 
under  the  ceiling,  although  motionless,  keeps  actively 
at   work,  under  the  law  of  the   diffusion  of  gases, 

fouling  the  fresh  currents  circulating  beneath  it. 
With  low  ceilings  and  high  windows  such  accumula- 
tion of  foul  air  is  not  possible,  the  whole  height  of 
the  room  being  swept  by  the  currents  as  the  dust  of 
the  floor  is  swept  by  a  broom.  Low  ceilings  enable 
a  room  to  be  warmed  with  less  expenditure  of  heat 
and  less  cost  of  fuel. 

I  may  add  to  this  that  such  a  room,  with  a  window 
reaching  to  within  a  few  inches  of  the  ceiling,  may 
be  safely  warmed  by  a  gas  or  paraffin  stove  without 
any  chimney,  especially  if  the  window  is  opeied 
above  to  the  extent  of  about  one-eighth  or  one-quaiter 
of  an  inch.  In  this  case  the  room  is  warmed  chiefly 
by  a  mild  and  well-diffused  radiation  from  the  ceilhg, 
which  under  such  conditions  will  be  the  warmest  pirt 
of  the  room. 


Wr  H I LE  walking  round  the  garden  on  June  30tl, 
my  attention  was  drawn  towards  a  humbli- 
bee,  which  had  alighted  on  the  flowers  oiAntirrhinun 
majus.  Being  interested  in  the  subject  of  tie 
fertilisation  of  flowers,  I  watched  the  action  of  tie 
bee  for  some  time.  Instead  of  trying  to  force  its  wiy 
into  the  throat  of  the  flower,  it  applied  itself  in  ea<k 
case  to  the  saccate  base  of  the  corolla,  and  made  a 
small  puncture,  as  bees  have  been  observed  to  do  in 
the  case  of  Erica  cinerea,  and  E.  tetralix.  Tie 
honey  was  obtained  by  this  means,  without  any  pirt 
of  the  insect  coming  in  contact  with  the  essenial 
organs  of  the  flower.  All  the  plants  in  the  garcen 
have  been  visited  in  this  way,  and  in  many  cases,  .he 
large  buds  have  been  pierced  before  they  hive 
expanded  into  flowers. 

This  appears  worthy  of  notice,  and  if  any  realers 
of  Science-Gossip  should  make  similar  observatbns, 
I  should  be  glad  to  receive  their  confirmation. 

Muller,  in  his  work  on  "The  Fertilisatioi  of 
Flowers,"  makes  no  mention  of  this  methed  of 
approaching  the  antirrhinum,  but,  after  dnwing 
particular  attention  to  the  closed  entrance  .vhich 
excludes  the  smaller  bees,  he  goes  on  to  say,  '  This 
shows  clearly  how  far  the  fast  closure  of  the  mouth  is 
useful  to  the  plant  ;  if  the  small  bees  could  ento:  from 
the  first,  they  would  use  up  much  of  the  honey,  and 
the  flowers  would  be  less  diligently  visited  by  the 
humble  bees." 

I  have  marked  some  of  the  buds  whLh  have 
already  been  pierced,  and  intend  to  keep  a  record  of 
the  number  of  capsules  which  ripen  in  these  marked 
cases,  taking  care  that  no  bees  visit  the  marked  buds 
in  the  legitimate  way,  after  they  have  exp.tnded.  It 
does  not  appear  likely  that  many  will  make  the 
attempt  after  finding  that  the  honey  has  leen  already 



Dr.  Ogle  found  that  antirrhinum  produced  no  seeds 
when  protected  from  insects  by  a  tent  of  wire  gauze. 

A   most    interesting   question    arises   from    these 

observations  :  are  the  bees  increasing  in  intelligence, 

and,   having   found  that   the  method    of  puncturing 

answers  so  well  in  the  case  of  the  heaths,  are  they 

applying  it  to  other  flowers,  which    are   somewhat 

difficult  of  access? 

Robert  Paulson. 

Mars  will  be  a  morning  star  during  the  whole 
month.  Jupiter  will  be  an  evening  star  throughout 
the  month. 

Saturn  will  be  too  near  the  sun  for  observation. 

Rising,  Southing,  and  Setting  of  the  Principal 
Planets  at  intervals  of  Seven  Days. 


By  John  Browning,  F.R.A.S. 

A  T  the  meeting  of  the  Royal  Astronomical  Society 
-L\-  on  the  9th  of  April,  an  old  legal  document  bear- 
ing the  signature  of  Mr.  Chester  Moor  Hall,  who 
was  the  inventor  of  the  achromatic  telescope  a  quarter 
of  a  century  before  Dollond,  was  presented  to  the 
Society  by  Mr.  R.  B.  Prosser,  of  the  Patent  Office. 
The  council  ordered  this  document  to  be  framed  and 
suspended  in  the  council-room. 

The  remarkable  new  star  which  burst  out  about 
the  17th  of  August  last  in  the  nebula  of  Andromeda 
was  observed  at  the  Radcliffe  Observatory,  Oxford, 
up  to  the  10th  of  December,  when  it  had  become 
reduced  to  a  14th  magnitude,  and  was  only  just 
discernible  with  an  object  glass  of  seven  inches 
aperture.  Professor  Asaph  Hall,  of  Washington, 
observed  this  star  with  a  twenty-six  inch  object  glass 
until  February  7.  It  was  then  barely  visible  with 
that  gigantic  instrument,  and  did  not  exceed  a  16th 
magnitude.  Mr.  Monck,  of  Ireland,  assumes  that  this 
star  is  one  of  the  swiftly  moving  ones  that  in  rushing 
through  the  nebula  had  been  set  on  fire.  Mr.  Monck's 
theory  is  that,  "as  shooting  stars  are  known  to  be 
dark  bodies  rendered  luminous  for  a  short  time  by 
rushing  through  our  atmosphere,  new  stars  are  dark 
or  faintly  luminous  bodies  which  acquire  a  short- 
lived brilliancy  by  rushing  through  some  of  the 
gaseous  masses  which  exist  in  space." 

Mr.  Brooks,  of  Red  House  Observatory,  Phelps, 
New  York,  discovered  another  comet,  stated  to  be 
bright  on  the  evening  of  the  30th  of  April.  It  was 
then  almost  exactly  midway  between  a  and  /3  Pegasi, 
moving  slowly  in  a  northerly  direction  towards  the 
latter  star. 

Mercury  will  be  at  the  least  distance  from  the  sun 
on  the  24th  of  June  at  8  a.m.  Venus  will  be  at  the 
least  distance  from  the  sun  on  the  26th  of  June  at 
8  P.M. 

There  will  be  no  occupation  of  any  star  above  the 
fifth  magnitude. 

The  sun  will  enter  Cancer,  and  summer  will 
commence  on  June  21st  at  7  A.M. 

In  June  there  is  no  real  night,  but  always  either 
daylight  or  twilight. 

Mercury  will  be  a  morning  star  until  the  24th  of 
June.     Venus  will  be  an  evening  star. 

Mercury  5     A 




h.  m. 
3   20M 

3  35M 

4  5M 
4  47M 


h.  m. 

II    I9M 

11   i6m 

0  35A 

1  9A 

h.  m. 

7  1  8a 

8  17A 

9  5A 
9  3iA 

Venus  ?    .     A 



2  13M 

2      2M 
I    52M 
I    43M 

9     7M 
9    9^ 
9  13M 
9  17M 

4       IA 

4  i6a 
4  34A 
4  5!A 

Mars  d     .     A 


II    50M 
II    39M 
II    30M 
II    23M 

6  23A 
6     6a 
5  5oa 
5  35A 

0  58.M 
0  35« 

O    I2M 

11  47A 

Jupiter  ¥.     .] 



O   38A 

O    I3A 

II    48M 

II    23M 

6  56a 
6  30A 
6     4A 
5  38a 

i  iSm 

0  50M 

0  24M 
11  53A 

Saturn  T>. 




5  32M 
5     8m 
4  45  m 

4   22 M 

1  44A 
1  20A 
0  57A 
0  35A 

9  56a 
9  32A 
9     9A 
8  44A 

Meteorology. — The  mean  temperature  for  the  week 
ending  the  17th  of  April  was  430  7',  which  was  3°  6 
below  the  average.  Rain  fell  on  four  days  to  the 
aggregate  amount  of  010  of  an  inch.  The  mean 
temperature  of  the  week  ending  the  24th  of  April  was 
480  1',  which  corresponded  with  the  average.  Rain 
fell  on  one  day,  the  19th,  to  the  amount  of  0^09  of  an 
inch.  The  mean  temperature  of  the  week  ending  the 
2nd  of  May  was  470  7',  which  was  about  i°  below  the 
average.  Rain  fell  on  two  da}sof  the  week  to  the 
aggregate  amount  of  C36  of  an  inch.  The  mean 
temperature  for  the  week  ending  the  Sth  of  May  was 
550  2',  which  was  50  5'  above  the  average.  The 
week  was  rainless,  as  only  C55  of  an  inch  (about 
60  tons  to  the  acre)  of  rain  fell  during  the  month 
ending  May  Sth  ;  for  the  neighbourhood  of  London 
the  rainfall  was  but  little  more  than  half  the  average. 

The  average  mean  temperature  for  June  is  6o° 
Fahr.  from  the  Midlands  to  near  the  south  coast. 
The  influence  of  the  sea  reduces  the  temperature 
about  one  degree  just  along  the  coast. 

The  average  rainfall  for  June  is  2  inches. 

No  fewer  than  twelve  genera  of  fossil  Reptiles  have 
recently  been  described  by  M.  Gaudry,  from  the 
Permian  formation  of  Bohemjja.  They  are  all  of 
small  size  and  inferior  development,  as  compared 
with  the  Reptiles  of  the  Secondary  period. 




/I  LB  ANY  Naturalists'  Club,  Edinburgh.  Hon. 
^J-  President,  Rev.  J.  Pulsford,  D.D. ;  Presidents, 
Rev.  A.  B.  Morris  and  W.  E.  Hoyle,  M.A.,  F.R.S.E., 
M.R.C.S. ;  Secretary,  P.  Caradoc  Williams,  F.I.C. 

Clydesdale  Naturalists'  Society.  President,  T.  J. 
Henderson,  24  Florence  Place,  Hillhead  ;  Vice- 
Presidents,  E.  C.  Eggleton,  R.  Christie,  John  M. 
Campbell  ;  Hon.  Secretary,  John  Mackay,  78 
Gloucester  Street,  Kingston,  Glasgow. 

Great  Eastern  Railway  Mechanics''  Institution,  Na- 
tural History  and  Microscopical  Section.  President, 
Mr.  Thomas  Rea ;  Hon.  Secretaries,  Mr.  Claud  S. 
Scott  and  Mr.  D.  O.  Ewing.  The  meetings  are 
held  at  G.  E.  R.  Mechanics'  Institution  at  Stratford, 
Essex.  The  "Section"  has  been  in  existence  one 
year,  and  numbers  about  fifty  members ;  started  to 
encourage  the  study  of  natural  history  and  micro- 
scopy amongst  the  men  employed  on  the  Great 
Eastern  Railway. 

Guernsey  Society  of  Natural  Science.  President, 
T.  Guille,  Esq.,  Montauban ;  Hon.  Secretary,  Wm, 
Sharp,  Granville  House,  Mt.  Durand. 

Hackney  Microscopical  and  Natural  History  Society 
(The  Morley  Hall,  Hackney).  President,  Dr.  M.  C. 
Cooke,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  F.L.S.,  146  Junction  Road, 
Upper  Ilolloway.  Hon.  Curators,  F.  Coles,  F.L.S., 
C.F.  Holland,  F.R.M.S. ;  Hon.  Librarian,  R.  Paul- 
son; Hon.  Secretary,  Collis  Willmott,  F.R.M.S., 
Triangle,  Hackney. 

Hampshire  Field  Club.  (Established  18S5,  for  the 
study  of  the  Natural  History  and  Antiquities  of  the 
County.)  President,  Professor  F.  S.  P.  F.  de  Chau- 
mont,  M.D.,  F.R.S.;  Hon.  Treasurer,  W.  E.  Darwin, 
J.  P.,  B.A.,  F.G.S.  ;  Hon.  Secretaries,  Morris  Miles, 
44  Carlton  Road,  Southampton,  T.  W.  Shore,  F.G.S. , 
F.C.S.,  Hartley  Institution,  Southampton ;  Hon. 
Local  Secretaries  :  Alton — Rev.  J.  Vaughan,  M.A.  ; 
Andover  —  Rev.  H.  R.  Clutterbuck,  A.K.C.L.  ; 
Bournemouth— R.  G.  Pinder,  M.R.I. B.A. ;  Fording- 
bridge— E.  Westlake,  F.G.S.;  Winchester,  C.  R. 
Pink,  M.R.I. B.A. 

Lincoln  Science  Club.  President,  the  Rev.  W.  W. 
Fowler,  M.A.,  F.L.S.,  etc.  The  School-house. 
Vice-President,  Mr.  W.  J.  Gant,  M.R.C.S.,  etc.  ; 
Hon.  Secretary,  the  Rev.  W.  W.  Fowler.  Members 
meet  at  each  other's  residences  once  a  month. 

Liverpool  Science  Students'  Association.  President, 
Mr.  William  Narramore  ;  Vice-Presidents,  Mr.  Henry 
Ashton  Hill,  Mr.  Osmund  W.Jeffs;  Hon.  Secretary, 
Mr.  W.  H.  Read,  24  Fern  Grove,  Lodge  Lane, 
Liverpool  ;  Hon.  Treasurer,  Mr.  John  Edwards ; 
Hon.  Librarian,  Mr.  E.  O.  Windle ;  Botanical 
Referee,  Mr.  H.  Leaton  Edwards. 

Royal  Historical  Society.  President,  the  Lord 
Aberdare,  G.C.B.,  F.R.S.  ;  Librarian,  W.  E.  Poole, 
II  Chandos  Street,  Cavendish  Square,  W. ;  Secretary, 
P.  Edward  Dove,  F.R.A.S.,  23  Old  Buildings, 
Lincoln's  Inn,  W.C.  Cambridge  Branch — Professor 
J.  R.  Seeley,  M.A.  (Caius),  Chairman;  J.  R.  Tanner, 
B.A.  (St.  John's),  Hon.  Secretary. 

School  of  Pharmacy  Students'  Association.  Presi- 
dent, Professor  Attfield,  F.R.S.  ;  Hon.  Secretary 
and  Treasurer,  Mr.  F.  W.  Short,  17,  Bloomsbury 
Square,  London,  W.C. 

Society  of  Amateur  Geologists,  31  King  William 
Street,  London,  E.C.  President,  A.  C.  Maybury, 
D.Sc,  F.G.S.;  Secretary,  G.  F.  Harris,  F.G.S.,  49 
Gloucester  Street,  Belgrave  Road,  S.W. 


Mr.  E.  F.  im  Thurx  recently  read  a  paper  at  the 
Linnean  Society  on  the  plants  found  by  him  during, 
his  ascent  of  the  singular  mountain,  Roraima, 
British  Guiana.  Among  them  are  three  new  genera 
and  fifty-four  new  species.  The  mountain  appears  to- 
have  been  a  centre  of  distribution. 

The  meeting  of  the  British  Association  for  1S87 
will  be  held  in  Manchester,  and  it  is  expected  that 
Professor  Sir  Henry  Roscoe  will  be  President. 

A  LONG  and  animated  discussion  took  place  at  the 
recent  meeting  of  the  Entomological  Society,  on  the 
proposal  to  transpose  many  of  the  most  familiar 
generic  names.  The  project  was  almost  unanimously 

Apropos  of  "Primrose  Day,"  a  correspondent 
expresses  his  opinion  that  Conservatives  would  act 
better  up  to  their  political  creed  by  planting  primroses. 
on  that  day,  rather  than  gathering  them  by  tons,  and 
thus  helping  to  destroy  the  prettiest  and  most  charac- 
teristic of  our  English  wild-flowers  ! 

We  are  pleased  to  notice  that  Liverpool  is  about 
to  do  honour  to  one  of  its  most  distinguished  and 
us-eful  citizens — a  man  who  has  spent  his  life  in  the 
cause  of  scientific  education.  A  subscription  has 
been  opened  to  present  the  Rev.  H.  H.  Higgins  with, 
a  testimonial  in  recognition  of  his  scientific  services. 

Dr.  Richardson's  "Asclepiad"  for  the  current 
quarter  is  well  worth  buying,  if  only  for  the  sake  of 
the  article  on  "The  Poverty  of  Wealth.'' 

Mr.  Josiah  Rose  has  written  a  charming  little 
brochure  entitled  "  Notes  on  Fairs."  It  is  printed  in 
blue  ink  on  green  English  paper,  as  an  optical 
experiment,  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  as  to  the 
greater  comfort  of  reading  print  under  these  circum- 



The  lengthy  Report  of  the  British  Association 
Committee  (edited  by  Mr.  William  Topley,  F.G.S.) 
on  the  "  Erosion  of  the  Sea-coasts  of  England  and 
Wales,*'  has  been  published.  It  also  contains  a  full 
chronological  list  of  books  and  papers  on  the  subject, 
compiled  by  Mr.  William  Whitaker,  F.G.S. 

An  extra  number  of  the  "  Amateur  Photographer  " 
has  appeared,  entitled  "  Home  Portraiture  Inter- 
national Competition  for  1SS6,"  and  containing  a 
series  of  capitally  executed  facsimiles  of  photographs 
taken  by  amateur  photographers,  with  descriptive 

We  are  pleased  to  see  that  Mr.  H.  W.  S.  Worsley- 
Benison's  presidential  address,  delivered  before  the 
Highbury  Microscopical  and  Scientific  Society,  on 
"Charles  Darwin,"  has  been  reprinted  from  the 
"Journal  of  Microscopy,"  etc.  It  is  an  admirable, 
loving,  and  reverent  study  of  a  great  man's  life  and 
works,  untainted  by  the  slightest  breath  of  fetishism. 

Mr.  A.  A.  Wood,  F.C.S.,  has  published  a  very 
useful  little  pamphlet,  entitled  "A  Photograph,  and 
How  to  Take  It,"  which  must  be  of  great  use  to 

The  event  of  the  month  has  been  the  opening  of  the 
Colonial  and  Indian  Exhibition  at  South  Kensing- 
ton. The  naturalist  and  geologist  will  there  find  an 
excellent  and  various  exhibition  of  animals,  plants, 
minerals,  etc.,  characteristic  of  the  different  colonies. 
Those  from  Australia  are  particularly  interesting. 

In  last  month's  "Entomologist"  there  is  a  figure 
of  an  unknown  African  lepidopterous  hairy  cater- 
pillar nearly  six  inches  long  !  A  few  of  these  would 
not  make  bad  crossing-sweepers. 

At  a  recent  meeting  of  the  Plertfordshire  Natural 
History  Society,  a  mosf  elaborate  paper  was  read 
by  Mr.  William  Ransom,  F.L.S.,  entitled  "An 
account  of  British  and  Roman  remains  found  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Hitchin."  Mr.  Ransom  has  been 
successful  in  discovering  an  enormous  and  varied 
number  of  remains. 

Under  the  title  of  "  Lecture-Notes  and  Problems 
on  Sound,  Light,  and  Heat,"  Mr.  Charles  Bird,  B.A., 
has  issued  a  very  useful  and  compendious  note-book, 
which  will  prove  of  much  service  to  teachers  as  well 
as  students. 

In  last  month's  number  of  the  "  Annals  and 
Magazine  of  Natural  History  "  there  is  an  account  of 
a  Brazilian  frog  which  does  not  deposit  its  eggs  in 
water,  but  in  the  leaves  of  willow-trees,  each  leaf 
being  then  bent  over  so  as  to  form  a  closed  basket. 

We  have  received  from  Messrs.  Dulau,  37  Soho 
Squaie,  W.,  their  recently  issued  and  very  useful 
catalogue  of  geolog  ical,  palaeontological,  and  minera- 
lojjical  works. 

Science  in  Lincoln  is  making  strong  way.  During 
the  summer  the  new  Schools  of  Science  and  Art  will 
be  opened.    They  have  been  built  at  a  cost  of  £"jooo. 

The  eighth  edition  of  "The  London  Catalogue  of 
British  Plants  "  has  just  been  published  by  Messrs. 
G.  Bell  &  Sons,  4  York  Street,  Covent  Garden. 

All  entomologists  who  have  the  chance  should 
read  the  annual  address  of  Dr.  C.  V.  Riley,  delivered 
before  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washington,  and 
recently  reprinted  by  Messrs.  Gibson  Bros.,  of  that 

Entomologists  will  be  glad  to  learn  that  the 
Rev.W.  W.  Fowler  has  placed  in  the  hands  of  his 
publishers  (L.  Reeve  &  Co.)  the  first  portion  of  the 
MS.  of  his  new  work  on  the  British  Coleoptera.  A 
large-paper  edition  with  coloured  plates  is  also  pro- 
posed, if  adequate  support  can  be  obtained  to  justify 
the  large  outlay  that  must  necessarily  be  incurred  for 
artistic  work. 


New  Slides. — We  have  received  an  admirably 
mounted  and  most  instructive  slide  from  Mr.  E. 
Hinton,  12  Vorley  Road,  Upper  Holloway,  showing 
vertical  section  of  an  entire  foetal  mouse,  in  which 
are  all  the  principal  organs  and  structures,  eye,  ear, 
brain,  vertebra;,  heart,  lungs,  kidney,  spleen,  in- 
testines, etc.  It  is  impossible  for  a  young  biologist 
to  work  at  a  more  profitable  slide.  Mr.  J.  Harbord 
Lewis,  of  145  Windsor  Street,  Liverpool,  has  also 
sent  us  three  of  his  fine  Desmid  mounts,  with  list  of 
species  accompanying  each  slide.  The  richest  slide 
is  from  Capel  Curig,  and  contains  no  fewer  than 
sixty-eight  species  alone.  This  is  by  far  the  best  and 
easiest  way  of  studying  the  Desmids,  especially  if 
the  student  have  the  means  of  referring  to  Dr. 
Cooke's  or  Ralfs'  works. 

Cole's  "Studies  in  Microscopical  Science." 
— The  fourth  volume  of  this  deservedly  widely  known 
and  most  useful  work  is  now  commencing.  It  will 
be  divided  into  four  sections  as  usual,  viz.  :  Animal 
and  Botanical  Histology,  Pathological  Histology, 
and  Popular  Studies,  all  or  any  of  which  can  be 
separately  subscribed  for.  No  literary  caterer  for 
microscopical  students  better  deserves  success  than 
Mr.  Cole. 

Mr.  Cole's  New  Slides. — We  have  received 
three  slides  from  Mr.  A.  Cole  which  deserve  more 
than  passing  notice.  They  are  mounts  of  diatoms 
in  cassia  oil  alone,  and  are  remarkable  for  the 
sharpness  and  clear  definition  with  which  every  line 
and  dot  on  the  frustules  stands  out.  The  objects 
include  HcliopelUc,  Navicula  from  Japan,  Triceratium. 
These  slides  establish  the  superiority  of  cassia  oil  as 
a  medium  beyond  doubt. 



"  Journal  of  the  Royal  Microscopical 
Society." — The  April  part  contains,  besides  the 
usual  admirable  summary  of  current  researches  in 
every  department  of  zoology,  botany,  &c,  the  full 
address  of  the  President  (Dr.  Dallinger),  whose 
partial  publication  in  the  "  Times  "  and  other 
London  newspapers,  immediately  after  being  de- 
livered, excited  much  attention.  This  address  is  illus- 
trated by  plates  of  all  the  micro-organisms  referred 
to,  and  also  by  an  admirable  portrait  of  Dr.  Dallinger 

Mounting  in  Balsam. — The  query  by  Alfred 
Pinnock  (p.  113)  is  easily  answered.  From  the 
description  of  his  method  of  working,  it  would  appear 
that  when  his  object  is  fairly  in  the  balsam,  and  the 
cover-glass  on,  he  puts  a  clip  which  presses  out  all 
the  balsam  except  a  small  portion,  sufficient  to  fill 
the  space  around  the  object  between  the  cover-glass 
and  slide.  The  balsam  pressed  out  soon  begins  to 
harden,  and  this  naturally  prevents  the  evaporation  of 
the  liquid  or  spirituous  portion  of  the  balsam,  contained 
under  the  cover-glass  ;  but  as  soon  as  he  has  removed 
this  the  evaporation  goes  on  more  readily  and  rapidly 
of  the  balsam  included  with  the  object ;  this  naturally 
lessens  its  bulk ;  and,  as  his  clip  has  pressed  the  two 
glasses  as  close  together  as  the  object  will  allow,  it 
naturally  follows  that  less  bulk  requires  less  space, 
and  that  gives  room  for  the  admission  of  air.  The 
cure  will  be  to  refrain  from  putting  so  much  pressure 
on  the  cover-glass,  and  the  exercise  of  a  little  more 
patience  for  the  hardening  process  to  be  completed. 
— C.  Croydon. 

there  any,  and  if  any  what,  method  of  keeping  gum- 
tragacanth  good,  free  from  mould,  and  ready  for 
use,  for  any  length  of  time  ?  When  simply  soaked 
with  water  it  usually  gets  mouldy  in  a  few  days. —  V. 


The  Distribution  of  Mollusca  in  the  Lake 
OF  Geneva. — A  large  species  of  Anodonta,  common 
in  the  lake,  appears  to  obtain  the  assistance  of  small 
fish  in  order  to  convey  the  "spat  "  to  new  grounds 
in  the  following  manner.  When  the  tiny  fish  is  at 
hand,  the  germ  of  the  mollusk  is  deposited  actually 
on  the  back  of  the  fish  in  some  manner  ;  it  is  thus 
distributed  in  fresh  parts  of  the  lake,  evidently  be- 
coming detached  from  the  convenient  locomotive.  I 
do  not  know  if  the  fact  is  new  to  students  of  biology. 
It  was  pointed  out  to  the  writer  by  the  curator  of 
a  Swiss  museum.  In  a  fresh-water  aquarium  the 
Anodonta  flourished  vigorously  ;  in  the  same  tank 
the  immature  fish  were  darting  about  from  weed  to 
weed,  having  bright  silvery  spots  attached  to  the 
back,    somewhat   like    air-bubbles.      These    minute 

points,  the  curator  informed  me,  develop  into  tiny 
mollusks,  and  are  suddenly  thrown  off  the  fish  to  the 
gravelly  bottom. — F.  G.  S. 

"  The  Rotifera,  or  Wheel-Animalcules." 
— We  have  received  the  third  part  of  this  splendid 
and  useful  monograph,  in  which  the  Melicertiadse 
are  continued,  every  genus  and  species  being  fully 
described  and  figured.  Chapter  vii.  is  devoted  to 
the  order  Bdelloida,  which  includes  the  Philodinadse 
and  Adinetadae.  Chapter  viii.  deals  with  the  order 
Plo'ima,  containing  the  families  Microcodidse,  As- 
planchnadre,  and  Synchoetadae.  This  third  part 
concludes  the  first  volume  of  the  work,  for  which 
Dr.  Hudson  has  written  the  Preface.  It  contains 
fifteen  plates,  all  in  the  highest  style  of  art. 

Tengmalm's  Owl. —  A  specimen  of  this  rare 
pigmy  was  killed  in  East  Aberdeenshire  a  short 
time  ago.  It  was  a  female  in  good  order  (and  is 
now  preserved),  but  weighed  only  35  ounces. —  W. 
Sim,  Fyvie. 

Provincial  and  other  Societies. — The  num- 
ber of  "  Proceedings,"  "  Transactions,"  &c,  we  are 
constantly  receiving  from  all  parts  of  the  British 
dominions  plainly  indicate  the  widespread  and  rapid 
progress  of  scientific  study  and  inquiry.  The  "  Pro- 
ceedings of  the  Royal  Society  of  Tasmania  "  for 
1SS5  are  especially  rich  in  papers  relating  to  the 
geology,  botany,  and  zoology  of  the  island.  Mr. 
R.  M.  Johnston  is  a  large  contributor  to  the  geology, 
Mr.  Baston  to  the  botany,  the  Hon.  W.  Macleay  to 
the  zoology.  The  present  volume  also  contains  a 
sketch-map  of  the  general  geology  of  Tasmania,  by 
Messrs.  C.  P.  Sprent  and  R.  M.  Johnston.  We  have 
also  received  the  "Transactions  of  the  Hertfordshire 
Natural  History  Society  "  for  February  and  March, 
1886,  containing  title  page,  etc.,  list  of  members, 
proceedings  for  last  year,  report  of  the  council,  etc. 
The  sixteenth  Annual  Report  of  the  Wellington 
College  Natural  Science  Society  for  18S5  contains 
accounts  of  the  excursions,  together  with  entomo- 
logical, meteorological,  and  phenological .  reports. 
It  also  gives  capital  digests  of  the  lectures  delivered 
before  the  members  of  the  society. 

Chameleonic  Arions. — Mr.  Roberts's  note  on 
page  118  deals  with  some  extremely  interesting 
phenomena  which  have  hitherto  received  but  scant 
attention.  It  is  well  known  that  the  slugs  have  the 
power  of  throwing  out  quantities  of  slime,  which 
covers  their  bodies,  and  experiment  will  readily  show 
that  in  some  instances,  when  the  slime  is  coloured, 
they  can  by  this  means  change  their  apparent  colour 
from  grey  to  yellowish,  or,  as  in  the  case  of  the 
small  A.  ater  found  by  Mr.  Roberts,  from  white  to 
pale  greenish.  Mr.  Roberts  has  sent  me  some  of  his 
orange-yellow  Avion  hortensis,  and  it  is  perfectly 
clear  they  derive  their  orange  tint  solely  from  the 
colour  of  their  slime,   and  if  this  is  wiped  off  they 



appear  grey  with  black  bands.  This  slime-coloured 
variety  of  A .  hortensis  is  far  from  rare  ;  I  have  seen 
specimens  from  Clonmel,  Ireland  (A.  H.  Delap)  ; 
Louth,  Lines.  (H.  Wallis,  Kew)  ;  Truro,  Cornwall 
(J.  H.  James)  ;  and  Headley  Lane,  near  Boxhill, 
Surrey.  I  may  mention  here  that  Mr.  Delap  has 
sent  me,  from  near  Clonmel,  two  examples  of  Limax 
arborum  var.  metadata,  of  which  only  one  example 
was  hitherto  known  (from  Mayo).  The  form  is  so 
distinct  from  typical  arborum  that  I  doubt  whethe 
they  ought  not  to  be  specifically  separated. —  T.  D.  A. 
Cockerell,  Bedford  Park,  Chisivick. 


Peloric  Orchids. — In  reply  to  the  remark  of 
M.  John  Rasor  in  Science-Gossip,  1885,  p.  184,  I 
may  state  that  the  peloric  form  of  Orchis  is  not  so 
uncommon  a  teratological  example  as  he  seems  to 
think.  In  his  "  Flore  Francaise,"  published  in  1836, 
Mutel  enumerates  the  peloric  form  of  O.  bifolia, 
O.  laxiflora,  0.  morio,  0.  latifolia  (t.  iii.  pp.  232-242). 
In  his  recent  "  Flore  de  la  Cote  d'Or,"  1883,  p.  498, 
Royer  notes  a  curious  sort  of  peloria  with  diminution 
of  the  number  of  the  organs.  He  describes  an 
O.  maculata,  the  perianth  of  which  had  but  four  pieces, 
viz.  two  internal  and  two  external,  and  two  stamens 
with  bilobate  anthers,  and  which  bore  neither  lip  nor 
spur.  Is  anything  of  that  sort  mentioned  in  the 
"Vegetable  Teratology"  by  Maxwell  T.  Masters, 
London,  1869  ?  I  have  not  that  work  at  my  dis- 
posal.— C.  Copineau,  Doullcns  (Sommc). 

The  Watson  Botanical  Exchange  Club. — We 
have  received  the  Second  Annual  Report  of  this  Club, 
of  which  Mr.  A.  R.  Waller,  Low  Ousegate,  York,  is 
the  Hon.  Sec.  The  number  of  plants  received  for 
distribution  by  means  of  its  exchanges  was  4,754,  from 
28  members.  The  report  gives  many  new  records  of 
plants  from  various  localities  in  the  kingdom. 

Abnormal  moncecious  condition  of  Empe- 
trum  nigrum,  OR  Crowberry. — In  my  botanical 
rambles  one  morning  last  month  among  the  heather, 
I  picked  up  specimens  of  Etiipetrum  nigrum  in  fine 
flower,  and  on  examining  them  at  home  I  found  on 
a  branch  of  one  of  the  stemmate  plants  a  good-sized 
berry  of  last  year  just  immediately  below  a  good 
cluster  of  flowers  in  full  bloom.  Has  this  ever  been 
observed  before  ''.—Thomas  Fisher. 

Iceland  is  a  favourite  country  with  naturalists. 
Mr.  Arthur  Bennett,  F.L.S.,  has  published  a  paper 
entitled  "  Recent  Additions  to  the  Flora  of  Iceland" 
in  the  "  Journal  of  Botany." 

Swans. — A  flock  of  twenty-one  passed  here  on  the 
1 8th  of  April,  probably  migrating  to  their  breeding 
haunts  in  the  far  north  ;  such  a  flight  is  rarely  seen 
in  this  inland  district. —  IV.  Sim,  Fyvie. 


"  British  Petrography."— The  fourth  part  of 
this  work,  by  Mr.  J.  J.  Harris  Teall,  F.G.S.,  is 
published,  continuing  the  microscopic  structures  of  the 
igneous  rocks.  Mr.  Teall  groups  the  porphyritic 
rock  into  seven  groups,  according  to  the  modifications 
of  the  ground  mass.  The  coloured  plates  are  very 
beautiful  and  of  high  artistic  and  careful  finish.  They 
portray  the  microscopic  structure  and  appearance  of 
hornblendic  diabase,  junction  of  troktolite  and  ser- 
pentine, augite-picrite  (four  figs.),  and  hornblende- 

The  Sedgwick  Prize  (in  honour  of  the  late  Pro- 
fessor Sedgwick),  which  is  given  triennially  for  the 
best  essay  by  a  graduate  of  the  University  of  Cam- 
bridge, on  a  selected  subject  connected  with  geology, 
has  this  year  been  awarded  to  Mr.  Thomas  Roberts, 
B.A.,  F.G.S.,  of  St.  John's  College  and  the  Wood- 
wardian  Museum.  The  value  of  the  prize  is  about 
£70.  The  essay  is  on  "  The  Jurassic  Rocks  of  the 
Neighbourhood  of  Cambridge,"  and  will  shortly  be 
published,  forming  no  doubt  a  valuable  contribution 
to  local  geology. 

At  a  recent  meeting  of  the  Ipswich  Scientific 
Society,  Dr.  J.  E.  Taylor  gave  an  account  of  a  large 
collection  of  animal  remains  he  had  obtained  since 
Christmas  from  the  low-level  valley  gravels  close  to 
the  town,  which  have  been  lately  opened  for  road 
materials.  They  included  bones  of  rhinoceros,  ele- 
phant, ox,  deer,  etc.,  together  with  numerous  teeth 
of  horse,  ox,  etc.,  nine  molars  of  rhinoceros,  and 
seven  ditto  of  the  mammoth. 

MR.  T.  M.  Reade,  F.G.S.,  has  a  work  in  the 
press  which  will  be  of  great  interest  to  geologists, 
entitled  "  The  Origin  of  Mountain  Ranges,  con- 
sidered Experimentally,  Structurally,  Dynamically, 
and  in  relation  to  their  Geological  History." 


Aurora  Borealis. — On  March  30  the  northern 
lights  were  very  vivid  ;  they  are  called  "  streamers  " 
in  this  part  of  the  country.  It  was  remarked  by 
several  persons  how  close  they  were  to  the  earth, 
seemingly  not  more  than  100  to  150  yards  distant. 
It  is  stated  that  the  first  time  they  appeared  in  Britain 
was  about  the  time  Sir  W.  Raleigh  was  beheaded. — 
S.  A.  B.,  Cushendun. 

"  Query  for  Teetotallers."— I  think  the  expla- 
nation of  the  phenomena  alluded  to  by  "W.  H."  in 
"  A  Query  for  Teetotallers  "  is  to  be  found  in  the  dif- 
ference of  composition  between  the  spirits  in  question. 
Whisky  is  a  spirit  containing  no  sugar,  while  genuine 
brandy  contains  it  in  an  appreciable  quantity,  and 
"  doctored  "  brandies  to  a  much  larger  extent.  It  is 
owing  to  the  presence  of  this  substance  in  brandy 
that  The  frothiness,  when  mixed  with  seltzer  or  soda- 



water,  is  due,  the  presence  of  sugar  in  aerated  waters 
accelerating  the  escape  of  the  carbonic  acid  gas  with 
which  they  are  charged. — E.  F.  Salmon. 

Singular  Meteorological  Phenomena. — On 
Thursday  last,  and  also  on  Saturday,  we  had  a  hail- 
storm and  a  snowstorm  within  a  quarter  of  an  hour. 
My  son  asked  how  it  was  that  such  phenomena 
occurred  ;  what  were  the  distinct  and  different  con- 
ditions of  the  atmosphere  to  produce  them  ?  I  could 
not  explain,  and  therefore  I  venture  to  ask  you.  He 
also  asked  me  to  explain  the  difference  of  hail  and 
snow  as  frozen  rain.  Will  you  kindly  give  a  slight 
explanation  in  your  next  number  ?  My  sight  is  bad, 
so  pray  excuse  pot-hooks. — R.  F.  Z.,  Jl/i/ford, 

Starlings. — I  think  the  following  may  serve  in 
some  degree  to  explain  S.  II.  Davey's  query.  About 
five  miles  west  of  Ponsnook  are  the  extensive  woods 
of  Teleidy,  which  abound  in  pines,  firs,  and  thick 
underwood,  and  are  the  usual  roosting-place  in  winter 
of  the  vast  flocks  of  starlings  which  leave  south-west 
Cornwall  in  summer,  or  disperse  to  their  various 
nesting-places  in  the  north  of  the  county.  Starlings 
do  not  seem  to  have  begun  to  breed  to  any  extent  in 
Cornwall  south  of  Truro,  where  a  few  nested  about 
nine  years  ago.  Until  about  fifteen  years  ago  not  a 
single  pair,  I  think,  were  known  to  nest  in  the  county. 
I  have  often  observed  the  enormous  flocks  of  birds 
passing  over  Redruth,  half-way  between  Ponsnook 
and  Teleidy,  morning  and  evening,  and  noticed  the 
different  heights  of  flight.  The  only  explanation  I 
can  offer  is  that  in  the  early  morning  the  birds  are 
fresh  and  active,  and  thus  able  to  follow  the  line  of 
the  country,  so  as  to  pick  out  suitable  feeding  grounds  ; 
but  when  tired,  after  their  day's  flight,  they  rise  in 
the  first  instance  to  a  great  height,  and  then  do  the 
five  miles  homewards  on  a  gentle  incline,  which 
tactic  causes  them  much  less  exertion  than  if  they 
rose  gradually  with  the  rising  ground  they  have  to 
pass  en  route.  I  have  many  times  seen  whole  flocks 
pass  over  Redruth  to  the  westward,  with  wings  quite 
motionless. — Chas.  y.  yenkin. 

Poisonous  Character  of  the  Yew. — There 
seems  no  doubt  that  the  eating  of  the  leaves  of  the 
yew-tree  is  frequently  fatal  to  cattle.  I  sent  you  the 
narrative  of  a  lady  who  actually  witnessed  the  death 
of  a  donkey  from  the  same  cause.  Gilbert  White,  in 
his  "  Natural  History  of  Selborne,"  chap,  v.,  says  that 
milch  cows  died  even  from  eating  yew-berries.  But 
I  think  this  must  be  a  mistake.  The  so-called 
"berry"  of  the  yew  is  perfectly  harmless,  though 
the  seed  within  the  enlarged  fleshy  calyx  is  slightly 
acrid  or  bitter.  The  only  conifer  that  I  know  of  that 
is  deleterious  is  the  savin,  which  has  rather  strong 
medicinal  properties.  But  what  peculiar  property 
there  is  in  the  young  shoots  and  leaves  of  the  yew  to 
cause  death  to  cattle  "in  a  few  minutes  "  (these  are 
the  words  of  Gilbert  White,  and  they  are  borne  out 
by  the  narrative  enclosed),  I  am  unable  to  conjecture. 
I  used  to  think  the  cause  of  death  might  be  attributed 
to  the  tough  and  leathery  nature  of  the  leaflets,  which 
animals  would  possibly  be  unable  to  digest.  But  if 
this  were  the  cause,  such  a  speedy  death  would  not 
ensue.  The  subject  is  most  perplexing.  I  have 
macerated  some  yew-leaves  in  boiling  water,  and 
tasted  the  liquor,  but  there  is  nothing  in  it  to  suggest 
the  idea  of  poison.  Gilbert  White  adds:  "  Even  the 
clippings  of  a  yew  hedge  have  destroyed  a  whole 
dairy  of  cows  when  thrown  inadvertently  into  a  yard, 
and  yet  sheep  and  turkeys,  and,  as  park-keepers  say, 
deer,  will  crop  these  trees  with  impunity." — F.  A. 
Paley,  LL.D. 

Ventriculites  in  the  Drift  Gravels. — Any 
reader  of  Science-Gossip  having  any  information 
on  this  subject,  I  should  be  very  pleased  to  have  it. — 
F.  C ha  His. 

Tame  Elephants  Breeding. — The  following  is 
an  extract  from  a  reputed  letter  of  Mr.  P.  T.  Barnum 
to  a  friend  in  London  :  "  As  we  have  had  good  luck 
in  breeding  elephants,  having  three  baby  elephants  of 
American  birth  now  on  hand,  besides  a  couple  of 
young  Jumbos  on  the  stocks,  due  in  four  and  seven 
months,  I  hope  for  the  same  good  fortune  with  Widow 
Alice."  I  should  be  glad  to  see  some  opinions  on 
the  above,  as  it  is  generally  stated  that  the  domesti- 
cated female  elephant  will  breed  with  the  wild  male 
only. —  IV.  A.  Gain. 

Our  Robins. — -At  a  country  house  not  far  from 
London,  a  robin  has  since  last  November  been  in  the 
habit  of  going  to  breakfast  every  morning  with  the 
family.  It  comes  in  at  any  window,  and  will  walk 
about  the  table,  pick  up  crumbs,  and  even  take  small 
pieces  from  the  finger  and  tongue  of  those  at  breakfast. 
Now  that  the  severe  weather  is  over,  it  still  goes,  and 
is  now  paying  for  its  window  feeding  by  charming 
little  bursts  of  song.— Z.  IV.  IV.  P. 

Mason-Wasps. — The  insect  mentioned  in  last 
month's  Science-Gossip  by  Rev.  S.  A.  Brenan 
belongs  to  the  genus  Odynerus,  generally  known  as 
the  mason-wasps.  These  insects  are  generally  seen 
in  pairs  ;  the  female  it  is,  however,  who  constructs  the 
nest.  This  is  done  by  burrowing,  or  more  properly 
speaking  excavating,  in  the  warm  and  sunny  sand- 
banks, the  dry  grains  of  sand  being  removed  by  the 
labour  of  the  insect,  and  carried  to  a  distance  from 
the  excavation.  The  insect  forms  a  sort  of  basket 
with  its  legs,  and,  collecting  the  sand  therein,  flies 
away  and  scatters  it  on  the  ground.  The  cavity, 
completed  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  insect,  is  then 
closed  by  a  small  stone,  or  several  of  the  same,  so 
carefully  adjusted  that  it  is  with  difficulty  one  can 
discover  it  again.  Finally  the  insect  procures  flies  or 
other  insects,  which  it  kills  and  deposits  in  the  burrow, 
at  the  same  time  freely  depositing  its  eggs  amongst 
them.  The  larvae  when  hatched  from  these  eggs 
feed  upon  the  insects  entombed  with  them,  finally 
pupating,  and  in  a  short  time  they  burst  from  their 
tomb  winged  insects,  as  the  parents.  Of  the  above 
family  of  insects  Mellinus  arvensis  collects  flies  in  its 
burrow,  Ammophila  gabulosa  collects  caterpillars, 
Philanthus  trianguhun  honey-bees,  which  it  stings  to 
death.  Pemphudon  Ingubris  burrows  in  decayed 
wood,  and  stores  in  its  burrow  various  Aphides.  All 
these  insects  collected  are  destined  to  feed  the  larvae 
of  the  mason-wasps. — William  Finch,  jun.,  Notting- 

Arion  ater,  var.  cinerea,  Westrel. — Mr.  T. 
D.  A.  Cockerell  has  demurred  on  p.  1 14  of  last 
Science-Gossif,  in  a  note  at  the  base  of  the  second 
column,  from  my  translation  of  var.  cinerea  of  Arion 
ater  in  Westerhmd's  monograph  on  the  Scandi- 
navian Mollusca,  but  he,  in  transcribing  the  con- 
chologist's  own  words,  has  reservedly  kept  what  he 
considers  to  be  the  right  meaning  of  its  discoverer 
to  himself.  I  myself  put  too  great  faith  in  Wester- 
lund's  naming  to  think  for  once  that  he  ever  named 
any  other  variety  than  an  ash-coloured  one  cinerea, 
and  this  I  take  it  is  a  very  cogent  reason  indeed  to 
describe  the  variety  as  an  "ashy  one,"  which  I 
unqualifyingly  did  in  the  March  instalment  of  my 
article ;  otherwise  I  cannot  make  any  sense  or 
reason  out  of  "lateribus  pallidis  sesqui-pollicaris." 
"  Sesqui-pollicaris "  has   a   meaning  to    me   in  the 



phrase  "  a  thumb  and  a  half,"  but  I  cannot  for  all 
the  world  of  reason  see  its  application  in  the  descrip- 
tion of  a  slug.  Thumbs  differ,  and  my  thumb  may- 
be larger,  equal  to,  or  smaller  than  Mr.  Cockerell's. 
But  perhaps,  as  Mr.  Cockerell  has  drawn  attention 
to  it,  he  will  tell  us.  I  am  very  pleased  indeed  to  see 
that  Mr.  Baker  Hudson  has  been  so  fortunate  as  to 
find  those  two  rare  slugs,  Avion  ater,  var.  albo- 
lateralis,  Roebuck,  and  Limax  cinereo-niger,  Wolf. 
I  was  totally  unaware  of  his  finds,  else  I  should  have 
given  them  a  notice  in  my  article. — J.  W.  Williams. 

Flight  of  Bees. — In  reply  to  H.  M.  Lett,  M.A.  : 
supposing  a  bee  was  taken  into  quite  a  new  locality, 
it  surely  could  not  "mark  in  its  eye"  a  field  of 
clover  two  miles  off.  If  such  is  the  case  they  must 
either  have  a  wonderful  vision,  and  can  see  an 
immense  distance  (in  fact  their  eyes  must  possess 
a  power  perfectly  telescopic),  or  they  have  the  power, 
like  a  carrier  pigeon,  of  remembering  the  exact  point 
from  which  to  start.  Again  it  must  be  extremely 
difficult  to  tell  what  a  bee  does  in  a  flight  of,  say,  two 
miles.  That  they  do  "circle"  is  certain,  for  I  have 
seen  them,  but  this  I  admit  has  only  occurred  when 
starting  and  returning.  I  quite  agree  with  Mr.  Lett 
that  on  its  return  journey,  when  laden  with  sweets 
and  perhaps  pollen,  instinct  would  suggest  flying  back 
in  as  straight  a  line  as  possible  ;  but  the  mere  fact  of 
circling  round  "to  mark  in  its  eye"  a  starting-point 
must  presuppose  some  experience,  and  in  gaining 
that  experience  who  can  tell  what  may  have  occurred  ? 
Naturalists  vary  greatly  ;  for  instance,  Goldsmith 
says  :  "  Every  bee  when  it  leaves  the  hive  to  col- 
lect honey  enters  into  the  cup  of  the  flower."  I  beg 
most  distinctly  to  say  every  bee  does  nothing  of 
the  kind,  for  I  have  seen  the  common  hedge-bee 
(there  are  about  221  species  according  to  Kirby) 
break  through  the  flower  from  the  outside — even  the 
common  broad  bean — and  extract  the  honey  that 
way.  For  instance,  it  would  be  quite  impossible 
for  bees  to  fly  in  a  straight  line  in  a  very  high  wind  ; 
in  fact,  you  may  have  a  hive  of  bees  in  such  an 
elevated  position  that  one  half  will  be  killed  by  being 
dashed  against  rocks  or  trees,  and  blown  into  rivers, 
etc.  I  should  certainly  not  contradict  your  corres- 
pondent ;  but  it  has  been  stated  that  the  carpenter- 
bee  varies  the  direction  of  her  flight  every  journey 
she  takes. — Mark  Antony. 

A  Sad  End  to  Nest-building. — A  missel- 
thrush  began  a  nest  in  a  fork  of  a  large  horse- 
chestnut  tree  in  my  garden,  at  Bolingbroke  Grove, 
Wandsworth  Common,  and  the  unfinished  nest  was 
blown  down.  Nothing  daunted,  the  bird  tried  again 
in  the  same  place  with  the  same  result.  Lt  then  took 
up  a  long  piece  of  knotted  string,  wdiich  it  found  on 
the  ground,  to  begin  a  third  and,  as  it  doubtless 
hoped,  a  more  successful  attempt.  But,  in  arranging 
the  string,  one  of  the  nooses  got  round  the  bird's 
neck,  and,  the  other  end  having  been  made  safe, 
foothold  was  somehow:  lost,  and  the  poor  builder 
hanged.     Sad  and  piteous  sight  ! — J.  P.  Fannthorpe. 

Curious  instance  of  Tameness  in  Fox-cubs. 
— On  April  22  the  shepherd  from  a  neighbouring  farm 
came  and  told  us  that  a  vixen  was  lying  in  an  earth 
close  to  their  farm  buildings,  and  had  eleven  cubs 
with  her  ;  and  that  the  "  young  'uns,"  as  he  expressed 
it,  were  so  tame  that  they  would  come  out  of  the  earth 
when  whistled  for.  My  sisters  and  I  promptly 
walked  up  to  the  farm  to  have  a  look.  It  seems  the 
cubs  were  born  in  an  osier-bed,  but  when  they  began 
to  cut  the  osiers,  the  vixen  brought  six  cubs  up  to 
this  farm,  a  distance  of  over  a  mile  and  a-half,  one 
night,  and,  being  watched,  the  second  time  was  seen 

to  bring  five  more.  The  owner  of  the  land,  thinking 
so  many  cubs  would  be  too  much  for  the  vixen,  put 
down  a  pan  of  milk  by  the  earth,  when  the  cubs 
always  came  out  immediately  and  drank  it  up.  On 
arriving  at  the  earth  the  shepherd  gave  a  whistle,  and 
out  tumbled  eleven  cubs,  looking  like  so  many  little 
bears.  They  were  wonderfully  tame,  allowing  us  to 
pick  them  up  and  stroke  them  without  evincing  the 
slightest  signs  of  fear.  They  ran  between  our  legs, 
worrying  the  toes  of  our  boots,  catching  at  our  petti- 
coats, and  fighting  over  the  bits  of  meat  we  gave  them. 
It  was  the  prettiest  sight  imaginable.  The  earth  is 
on  one  side  of  a  sort  of  dell ;  and  when  we  left  the 
cubs  ran  after  us  up  the  hill,  but,  on  seeing  a  strange 
country  at  the  top,  went  racing  back  to  their  old 
quarters.  Are  not  eleven  cubs  an  unusually  large 
litter,  and  is  it  not  a  very  rare  thing  for  cubs  bred  in 
a  wild  state  to  become  so  tame  ? — M.  H.  A. 


To  Correspondents  and  Exchangers. — As  we  now 
publish  Science-Gossip  earlier  than  formerly,  we  cannot  un- 
dertake to  insert  in  the  following  number  any  communications 
which  reach  us  later  than  the  8th  of  the  previous  month. 

To  Anonymous  Querists.— We  must  adhere  to  our  rule  of 
not  noticing  queries  which  do  not  bear  the  writers'  names. 

To  Dealers  and  others. — We  are  always  glad  to  treat 
dealers  in  natural  history  objects  on  the  same  fair  and  general 
ground  as  amateurs,  in  so  far  as  the  "  exchanges  "  offered  are  fair 
exchanges.  But  it  is  evident  that,  when  their  offers  are  simply 
disguised  advertisements,  for  the  purpose  of  evading  the  cost  of 
advertising,  an  advantage  is  taken  al  our grattiitous  insertion  of 
"  exchanges  "  which  cannot  be  tolerated. 

We  request  that  all  exchanges  may  be  signed  with  name  (or 
initials)  and  full  address  at  the  end. 

G.    H.    J. — The    "Geological    Magazine"   is   published   by 
Triibner  &  Co.,  57  and  59  Ludgate  Hill,  London,  price  is.  6d. 


Wanted,  L.  C. :  7th  ed.,  37,  45,  65,  85,  90, 119, 150, 153,  156, 
159,  191,  194,  214,  215,  219,  345,  37s,  404,  536,  542,  762,  912, 
1029,  1115,  1251,  1266,  1279,  1293,  1303.  Offered,  146,  236,  353, 
500,  575,  693,  810,  859,  1026,  1270,  1309,  1314,  1327,  1482,  1503, 
1646.  Lists  exchanged. — Frederic  H.  Ward,  Springfield,  near 
Tooting,  S.W. 

Excellent  slides  of  marine  Algae,  in  fruit,  named  from  best 
recent  authorities,  offered  for  cabinet  or  boxes  for  slides.— 
T-  H.  Buffham,  Comely  Bank  Road,  Walthamstow. 

Eocene  fossils  (Barton  and  Hendon  series)  for  others  not  in 
collection. — H.   P.jDodridge,  7  Wharton  Street,  King's  Cross, 


Wanted,  the  vols,  of  Science-Gossip  for  1871  and  1872, 
bound  or  in  parts.  Will  give  12  good  micro  slides  for  each 
year. — John  J.  Andrew,  L.D.S.  Eng. 

Spy's  "  Cruise  of  the  Challencer,"  "  Naturalist's  Wanderings 
in  the  Eastern  Archipelago,"  "  Geology  of  Boston,"  etc.  Very 
fine  American  minerals.  Very  choice  American  fossils,  such  as 
the  famous  Illinois  fern  nodular  fossils,  scaphites,  baculites, 
Bronthotherium  teeth,  etc.  I  would  like  offers  of  books, 
minerals,  fossils,  microscope  apparatus,  slides  mounted,  or 
crude  material.  Would  like  a  good  microscope  complete, 
objectives,  glass  stereopticon  views,  etc. — Address,  W.  S.  Beck- 
man,  West  Medford,  via  Boston,  Mass.,  U.S.A.     P.O.B.  108. 

Will  exchange  Barton  fossils  for  those  of  other  formations. 
— H.  Elmes,  45  Wharton  Street,  W.C. 

Wanted,  clutches  of  eggs  of  many  British  species  of  birds. 
Will  give  in  exchange  natural  history  specimens. — W.  K.  Mann, 
Wellington  Terrace,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

The  undersigned  would  feel  greatly  indebted  to  collectors  in 
Great  Britain  and  on  the  Continent  for  examples  of  the 
Unionidas  (freshwater  mussels)  of  their  district,  and  would_  do 
his  best  to  make  a  suitable  return  in  shells. — G.  Sherriff  Tye, 
10  Richmond  Road,  Handsworth,  near  Birmingham. 

Microscopic  objects  for  sale,  or  exchange  scientific  books 
(microscopical  preferred)  or  lantern  slides. — S.  Harrison,  Dal- 
main  Road,  Forest  Hill. 

Wanted,  collections  of  old  foreign  stamps.  Will  give  in 
exchange  natural  history  specimens. — W.  K.  Mann,  Wellington 
Terrace,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Wanted,  collection  of  birds'  eggs  or  old  coins  in  exchange 
for  lantern  transparencies,  physiological  and  other  subjects. — 
Apply  to  Robert  Millikin,  Kirkcaldy,  N.B. 



Science-Gossip,  1865-68,  1870,  1883-85.  "  Midland  Natural- 
ist," 1884-85.  Exchange  for  Cooke's  "  Rust,  Smut,  Mildew,  and 
Mould,"  books  on  lichens  and  mosses,' or  botanical  micro  slides. 
— Musson,  23  Mapperley  Hill,  Nottingham. 

Wanted,  Savile  Kent's  "Manual  of  the  Infusoria."  Other 
works  in  exchange. — C.  L.  Lord,  34  Burlington  Crescent,  Goole. 
Wanted,  first-class  slides  of  Algae,  fungi,  eggs  of  insects, 
selected  diatoms,  spines  of  Echini,  etc.  Will  give  well-mounted 
insect  preparations  in  exchange. — C.  Collins,  Bristol  House, 
Harlesden,  N.W. 

Wanted,  the  rarer  species  and  local  varieties  of  British  land 
and  freshwater  shells.  Will  give  in  exchange  good  specimens 
of  Pis.  pusillum,  nitidum,  and  roscum.  L.  glutinosa,  Limax 
IcFvis,  Test,  haliotidea,  H.  pygmeea,  V.  antivertigo,  B.  per- 
versa, CI.  biplicata,  and  Cock,  tridens. — F.  Fenn,  20  Wood- 
stock Road,  Bedford  Park.  Chiswick,  W. 

Will  exchange  for  shells  or  butterflies:  "The  Field  Natu- 
ralist's Handbook "  (Wood  &  Wood,  pub.  5J.)  ;  "  Notes  on 
Collecting  and  Preserving  Natural  History  Specimens,"  illus- 
trated (Taj lor,  new  ed.,  pub.  y.  6d.)  :  "  Collector's  Handbook" 
(J.  Nave,  plates)  ;  "  The  Aquarium  "  (Taylor,  new  ed.,  1884)  ; 
C.  Lyell's  "  Elements  of  Geology ;"  perfectly  clean,  not  the 
least  soiled. — James  Taylor,  Duke  of  York  Hotel,  Eccles. 

Offers  requested  for  good  10-keyed  B-flat  clarinet;  con- 
certina preferred. — Florisborne,  Stevenage,  Herts. 

"  Half-hours  in  the  Green  Lanes,"  Taylor;  "  Gamekeeper 
at  Home,"  Jefferies  ;  vols,  i.-iv.  "  Popular  Educator  ;"  first 
seven  parts  of  Cassell's  "European  Butterflies  and  Moths;" 
first  sixteen  "European  Ferns;"  first  fourteen  "Natural  His- 
tory." Offers  or  good  botanical  lens. — A.  Pharaoh,  Braintree, 

Baines'  "  Yorkshire  Past  and  Present,"  2  vols.,  gilt  edges, 
full  bound,  scarlet  leather,  gilt  extra,  plates,  etc.,  in  perfect  con- 
dition. Wanted  in  exchange,  Beale's  "Protoplasm,"  Frey's 
"Manual  of  Histology,"  Huxley's  "  Lay  Sermons,"  Cooke's 
"  British  Fungi,"  or  Cole's  "  Studies,"  with  slides,  for  1883  and 
1884,  or  offers. — G.  Swainson,  no  Park  Road,  Bolton. 

Will  send  list  of  recent  school-books  in  proposed  exchange 
for  good  diatom  slides  and  micro  fungi,  etc. — G.  Swainson, 
210  Park  Road,  Bolton. 

Wanted,  some  good  specimens  of  glass  rope  sponge  {Euplec- 
tella  aspergillum  and  cummer),  varieties  of  coral,  and  curious 
foreign  shells.  Particulars  to  I.  J.  J.,  16  Waterloo  Road 
North,  Wolverhampton. 

Wanted,  Darwin's  "Origin  of  Species"  and  "Descent  of 
Man,"  Spencer's  "Principles  of  Biology"  and  "Study  of 
Sociology,"  Huxley's  "Lay  Sermons." — W.  R.  Hopkins, 
33  St.  Botolph's,  Colchester. 

Wanted,  plant  remains  from  any  formation  in  exchange  for 
other  fossils,  from  Chalk,  Greensand,  etc.  Send  list. — George 
E.  East,  jun.,  10  Basinghall  Street,  London,  E.C. 

Wanted,  good  land  and  freshwater  shells  (British)  in  ex- 
change for  "  Ants,  Bees,  and  Wasps,"  by  Sir  John  Lubbock. — 
Robert  Cairns  The  Grove,  Currier  Lane,  Ashton-under-Lyne. 

Wanted,  macro  and  micro  Lepidoptera,  also  books  on  beetles, 
bees,  spiders,  etc. — W.  Macmillan,  Castle  Cory,  Somer-et. 

Offered,  L.  C,  2,  104,  130  b,  130  c,  136,  146,  226,  237,  239, 
3*3j  399»  611,  817,  831,  912,  999,  1014,  1015,  1141,  1304,  1321, 
1349,  1483,  1504,  1519,  1630,  1654.  See  also  former  numbers  of 
this  paper.  Many  desiderata. — W.  S.  Harrison,  15  Park  Place 
East,  Sunderland. 

ino  fossils,  250  species,  from  various  formations,  offered  for 
electrical  apparatus.  Suitable  for  science  teacher. — J.  A.  Har- 
greaves,  Baildon  Woodbottom,  Shipley,  Yorkshire. 

For  exchange,  Rennie's  "  Field  Naturalist,"  vol.  i.,  1833-34  '. 
twelve  numbers  of  Newman's  "Entomologist,"  1872-73.  Wanted, 
Dr.  Cooke's  "Ponds  and  Ditches,"  Nicholson's  "Advanced 
Zoology,"  Buckland's  "British  Fishes,"  or  botanical  collecting 
case. — T.  J.  Porter,  Perranarworthal,  Cornwall. 

Wanted,  perfectly  fresh  specimens  of  CEcidium  composi- 
tartdn  on  the  leaves  of  the  coltsfoot,  and  of  CEcidium  borberi- 
dis  on  the  leaves  of  the  barberry.  Exchange,  micro  slides. 
Before  sending,  communicate  with  A.  J.  Doherty,  33  Burling- 
ton Street,  Manchester. 

Wanted,  botflies  [CEstrus  boris  and  CEstnis  oris),  with  the 
larva;  and  pupae  preserved  in  acetic  acid  or  spirit,  or  mounted, 
in  exchange  for  rare  Acari,  Foraminifera,  and  other  micro  slides. 
— H.  E.  Freeman,  60  Plimsoll  Road,  Finsbury  Park,  N. 

Helix  Skinneri,  H.  Waltoni,  H.  Rivoiii,  Cyclop/writs  men- 
kiana,  C.  annulata,  Cataulus  decorus,  C.  Templemanii,  and 
many  other  land  shells  from  Cevlon.  State  offers  in  foreign 
shells  or  continental  fossils. — Miss  Linter,  Arragon  Close, 

Can  offer  sections  of  clematis,  stained  six  different  colours, 
also  about  three  dozen  varieties  of  animal  hair,  and  about  one 
dozen  varieties  of  feathers,  brilliant  natural  colours,  in  exchange 
for  slides  or  unmounted  objects. — A.  Harvey  Williams,  H>the, 

Wanted,  egg  cabinet.  Will  exchange  cylinder  electric 
machine  in  case,  2  quart  Leyden  jars,  discharging  rod,  etc.— 
E.  J-  Towill,  5  Alexander  Road,  Hoylake. 

Five  vols,  of  Jardine's  "  Naturalist's  Library,"  with  coloured 
plates  complete,  in  exchange  for  any  one  vol.  of  Wood's 
"  Natural  History." — J.  H.  K..,  18  Church  Street,  Commercial 
Street,  E. 

Wanted,  books  on  science,  natural  history,  sports  and 
pastimes,  or  good  illustrated  books,  in  exchange  for  valuable 
architectural  works.  Returnable  list  sent. — P.  Payne,  The 
Borough,  Hinckley. 

Several  hundred  odd  numbers  of  "  English  Mechanic  "  be- 
tween 324  and  938,  and  wish  to  exchange  two  of  them  for  one 
No.  1  of  the  "Northern  Microscopist,"  or  reply  paid  offers.— 
Whitmar-.h,  Wilton. 

Wanted,  good  works  on  "china  marks,"  in  exchange  for 
British  land  and  fre.-hwater  shells  (also  a  few  marine),  North. 
American  shells,  green-house  exotic  ferns,  blooming  plants  (not 
bedding),  and  the  finest  varieties  of  the  cactus  tribe,  and 
fossils. —  E.  R.  F.,  82  Abbey  Street,  Faversham,  Kent. 
•  "The  Ocean,"  P.  H.  Gosse,  and  "The  Natural  History  of 
Selborne,"  Gilbert  White  (both  new).  What  offers  in  micro 
slides  or  material  ? — C.  H.  O.,  51  Melbourne  Grove,  S.E. 

Wanted,  Carpenter's  or  Beale's  "  Microscope  Manual." 
Exchange  only.  Cassell's  "European  Ferns,"  handsomely 
bound,  value  22J.  6d.,  or  3  vols.  "Amateur  Work,"  value 
31J.  6d. — Mr.  Ebbage,  165  Hagley  Road,  Birmingham. 

Good  octagon  aquarium,  siate  bottom,  in  good  condition, 
size  about  18  in.  by  15  in.  ;  will  exchange  for  good  microscopic 
objects  or  unmounted  material,  or  offers.  No  books. — R.  Mason, 
24  Park  Road,  Clapham,  S.W. 

Wanted,  to  correspond  with  a  worker  in  marine  Polyzoa  and 
Hydrozoa. — Geo.  Merritt,  282  Commercial  Road,  London,  E. 

For  exchange,  Joseph's  "A. B.C."  water-testing  apparatus 
(12J.  6d.),  with  pamphlet,  most  interesting;  will  take  Cooke's 
"British  Fungi,"  back  numbers  of  Science-Gossip— 1884,  1885 
especially — or  well-mounted  micro  slides. — H.W.  Case,  Cotham, 

Wanted,  clutches  of  British  birds'  eggs,  especially  from 
remote  districts.— W.  ,K.  Mann,  Wellington  Terrace,  Clifton, 

Wanted,  very  old  collections  of  foreign  postage  stamps  ; 
natural  history  specimens  offered  in  exchange. — W.  K.  Mann, 
Wellington  Terrace,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

"Bees  and  Bee-Keeping :  Scientific  and  Practical,"  vol.  i., 
by  F.  R.  Cheshire  (London:  L.  Upcott  Gill).— "  Outlines  of 
Geology,"  by  Dr.  James  Geikie  (London:  Ed.  Stanford). — 
"  Upland  and  Meadow,"  by  Dr.  C.  C  Abbott  (London : 
Sampson  Low  &  Co.)—"  British  Fungi,"  by  the  Rev.  James 
Stevenson  (London  and  Edinburgh  :  W.  Blackwood  &  Sons). 
— "Our  Island  Continent,"  by  Dr.  J.  E.  Taylor  (London: 
S.  P.  C.  K.).— "The  Naturalist's  Diary,"  by  Charles  Roberts 
(London:  Swan  Sonnenschein  &  Co.). — "The  Young  Collector: 
Seaweeds,  Shells,  and  Fossils,"  by  Peter  Gray  and  B.  B. 
Woodward. — "English  Coins  and  Tokens,"  by  St.  Jewill  and 

B.  V.  Head  (London:  Swan  Sonnenschein  &  Co.). — "Official 
Year-Book  of  the  Scientific  and  Learned  Societies  of  Great 
Britain"  (London:  Charles  Griffin  &  Co.). — "Malvern:  its 
Flowers,  Ferns,   Butterflies,   Minerals,   Fossils,  and   Birds,"  by 

C.  E.  Mackie  (Malvern  :  "Advertiser"  Office). — "  Photography 
for  Amateurs,"  by  T.  C.  Hepworth  (London  :  Cassell  &  Co.). 
—  "TheRotifera,"by  Dr.  C.  T.  Hudson  and  P.  H.  Gosse,  part 
iii.  (London:  Longmans  &  Co.). — "British  Petrography,"  by 
J.  J.  Harris  Teall,  part  iv.  (Birmingham:  Watson  Bros.). — 
"  Sixteenth  Annual  Report,  Wellington  College  Nat.  Science 
Society." — "  Proceedings  of  Royal  Society  of  Tasmania  for 
18S5." — "  Transactions  of  Hertfordshire  Nat.  Hist.  Society." — 
"The  Fungi  of  the  North  of  Ireland,"  by  H.  W.  Lett.— 
"Brooks'  Popular  Botany,"  No.  1. — "Journal  of  the  Royal 
Microscopical  Society"  (April).— "  The  Scientific  Enquirer," 
May.—"  The  Hooder  Naturalist."—"  The  Garner,"  May.— 
"The  Asclepiad." — "The  Canadian  Entomologist." — "The 
Botanical  Gazette." — "  Ben  Brierley's  Journal." — "  Illustrated 
Science  Monthly." — "  Revista  Scientifica,"  Porto. — "Journal 
of  the  New  York  Microscopical  Society." — "Science." — "  Pro- 
ceedings of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Science  of  Philadelphia." — 
"  Le  Monde  de  la  Science."  —  "American  Monthly  Micro- 
scopical Journal."  — "The  Midland  Naturalist."— "Feuille  des 
Jeunes  Naturalistes."— "The  Naturalist."— "  Journal  of  the 
Quekett  Microscopical  Club."— "The  American  Naturalist." 
— &c.  &c. 

Communications  received  up  to  the  13TH  ult.  from: 
H.  C.— W.  A.  G.-F.  B.— J.  E.  L.-C.  P.— C.  J.  J.-C.  L.  L. 
— G.  S.  T.-C.  T.  M.— G.  E.  M.— P.  E.  D.-S.  H.  D.— 
W.  H.  R.— A.  C— J.  P.  G.-F.  H.— H.  D.-O.  R.-J.  P.— 
H.  A.  C— J.  M— F.  W.— W.  K.  M.— W.  C.  G.— W.  B.  C— 
H.  P.  D.— J.  H.— W.  F.  jun.— J.  H.  L.— T.  H.  B.— F.  F.— 
J.  P.  F.-H.  D.-W.  T.  C— J.  W.  VV.-J.  J.  A.— C.  C.  jun.— 
H.  E.— A.  H.-C.  C.-W.  S.— J.  T.-F.  H.  W.-E.  H.— 
C.  S.  S.— H.  L.  C— W.  M.  W  — R.  I.  W.— E.  R.  F.  -C.  H.  O. 
-E.-A.  M.  S.  W.— W.  W.— E.  J.  T.— P.  P.-G.  E.  M.— 
I.  H.  K.— W.  G.  W.— M.  H.  A. -A.  W.  S.— W.  I.  V.— 
T.  T.  P-— I-  A.  H.-C.  C.  S.— W.  M.— T.  D.  A.  C-R.  S.  W. 
_K.  c.— W.  S.  H.-I.  J.  T.-J.  J.  G.-G  E.  E.— W.  R.  S.— 
G.  S—  A.  H.  W.—  A.  R.  W.— H.  E.  F.  A.  B.— A.  P.— A.  J.  D. 
_W.  s.— T.  C.  H.-R.  M.— T.  F.— C.  W.— D.  E.  P.— W.  M. 
— T.  W.  S.— J.  R.     &c        &c.        &c. 





{Concluded from  p.  129.] 

URING  the  eigh- 
teenth century  no 
marked  improve- 
ment took  place  in 
strawberry  culture. 
Langley,  in  his 
"Pomona,"  pub- 
lished in  1729,  enu- 
merates only  three 
kinds  :  the  scarlet, 
the  hautbois,  and 
the  wood.  The 
scarlet  is  a  native 
of  Virginia,  and  has 
been  an  inhabitant 
of  our  gardens  for 
more  than  two  hun- 
dred years.  The 
introduction  and 
history  of  the  haut- 
bois strawberry  has 
never  been  well  ascertained,  though  it  is  generally 
believed  to  be  the  mountain  strawberry  of  Bohemia, 
and  to  have  been  first  improved  by  cultivation  in 
France.  The  name  of  this  variety  is  probably  derived 
from  the  circumstance  of  the  lengthy  scape  or  stem 
which  bears  the  fruit  standing  higher  than  the  long- 
stalked  leaves,  and  consequently  being  called  hautbois 
(high  wood).  It  is  not  improbable,  however,  that  its 
original  locality,  in  the  high  woods  of  Bohemia,  may 
have  suggested  the  name.  In  old  gardening  books 
it  is  written  "hautboy." 

About  1766  the  Alpin